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Z42000169 Zero Carbon Buildings

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Course Code: Z42000169
University: University Of The West Of England

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:

The term carbon footprint is referred to as the net amount of harmful greenhouse gases that are widely produced either directly or indirectly from different industrial activities. In order to measure the negative effects of the activities taking place in different industries such as energy industry, transportation, construction etc the carbon footprint is used as a standard.
It has been found that different studies are being documented and calculated by the researchers to estimate the rate of carbon footprints that may generate from  industrial activities like car driving, airplane riding,  building construction etc) whereas; this specific paper is focused on demonstrating various processes used for calculating carbon footprint generated from the construction industry. Though, these calculation processes are very limited.
Certain tools exist that calculate the rate of carbon footprints generating from the construction industries while constructing buildings. However, these tools are not considered professionally in the process of construction (like measuring properties of the materials, supplier’s location) and design buildings.
After considering the features (like choice of materials, size, location etc) of the construction project in Lebanon, for improving the accuracy to calculate the carbon footprints, this paper depicts a tool of estimation. This tool rather calculator that relies upon the data those have been gathered from the raw material suppliers to successfully cover up all the necessary phases of the construction project.
The associate research team has elaborated the usability of these tools for the identification of the related activities with a high rate of carbon emission after detail analysis of a case study.

Answer:

Introduction
As per the data represented in the statistics it has been found that, in the last year most of the building permits were widely granted for around 30 million cubic meters. Thus, it is very much necessary for the construction industry to design sustainable buildings because those have large ingestion of both electricity as well as raw materials over lifetime (Barcelo et al. 2014). This chapter depicts the details background of the study on “Carbon footprints in Lebanon from the construction of a building”. In order to successfully conduct this study the research aim, objectives, and a set of research questions are also being prepared and illustrated in this chapter.
The main purpose of this study is to identify the most appreciable carbon footprint calculation approach to measure the amount of Green House Gases emitted from the construction sites. It is recognized that most amount of the natural sources are consumed by the construction projects thus, it is necessary to make sure that the environment must not polluted from the excessive use of these materials (Dumay and Cai 2015). Other reason of development of the carbon footprints has become crucial because of 14-18 percent of total personified carbon footprint from the construction project. For supporting and describing the findings this theoretical background is introduced as well as demonstrated. Apart from this a legislative background that is used in Lebanon for measuring the total carbon footprint as well as life cycle of the construction are also elaborated in this paper. The total energy consumed by different industries is also statistically represented in this paper. Besides this, the complete structure of the study is also demonstrated here.
Background of the Study
In 21st century, the change in climate due to the human induction has perhaps been highlighted as one of the biggest environmental threat. This specific threat is related to the extreme enhanced depletion rates of different natural resources. As a result the consumption of raw materials is also increasing drastically all over the world for the processing of different industrial activities (Hofmann et al. 2016).  The construction industry is highly and specifically responsible for this high amount of consumption. It has been found that, the transportation sector, industrial sectors consumes less amount of energy than the commercial and residential building projects of Lebanon. Statistically around 40 percent of the net national demand is being consumed by the construction industry. In Lebanon and U.K gain approximately 40 percent of the environmental pollution rather burden is getting emitted from the building construction industry of Lebanon  (Lin and Liu 2015). Construction industry acts as one of the major sources of CO2 emission.
On the other hand, in United Kingdom (UK), approximately 50 percent of the total energy consumptions and CO2 emissions are taking pace due to the activities of the construction industries. From the world wide consumed raw stones, sand, gravels, 40 percent of these materials are utilized in the construction industries. In addition to this it also utilizes respectively 16 percent and 25 percent of the world wide consumed water and unprocessed woods. These statistical figures have encouraged the researchers to give serious attention on the ways through which the negative impact from the construction industries to the environment can be reduced (Wang et al. 2015). In order to stabilize the issues like Ozone layer holes, global warming most of the developed countries have started taking serious actions to reduce the emission rate of the Green House Gases (GHG). The governments have carried out commitments through different ways like G5, G8 summits, KyotoProtocol etc in order to address the negative impact of climate change all over the world. The Government of United Kingdom has given proactive commitment on implementing the KyotoProtocol for decreasing the rate of CO2 emission by minimum of 12.5 percent alike below in the 1990 (Lin and Liu 2015). It can be said that, in order to successfully accomplish these objectives and goals, accurate combat strategies against extreme carbon emission should be established throughout different industrial sectors also in the construction industry.
Research Aims and Objectives
This research work is aimed to establish the crucial necessity of using a carbon footprint calculator in the construction industry for reducing the rate of environmental pollution. The main focus of the research is related to low energy consumed building construction in Lebanon. During the development and execution of such construction projects, the utilization of green technologies have been found very helpful as it helps to decrease the rate of emission for the Green House Gases (CO2, CFC etc). With the successful conduction of the research work the importance of carbon footprint calculator specifically in the construction industry will become clearer. Though for the future study, a major gap that remains unchanged is the way through which the carbon footprint calculator can be used in the construction industries maintaining the standards and building codes of construction projects.  
In order to conduct the research work, the objectives those are to be maintained are as follows:

To define the important role of the carbon footprint calculator for reducing the rate of negative impact in the environment  from the construction industry
To identify the application of carbon footprint calculation approach in the construction projects for cost as well as feasibility study
To  recognize the major technologies that may help the construction project managers to obtain the best environmental impact

Research Questions
In context to the research topic that is Carbon footprints in Lebanon from the construction of a building, the research questions have been designed. In other words, these question are prepared to determine the rate of carbon footprints from a building construction project in Lebanon. The questions are elaborated in the below section:

What are the major roles played by the carbon footprint calculator in the field of construction industry?
Is there any significant impact of the carbon footprint calculator in the construction filed is being identified?
In the field of construction what are the different key technologies associated to the carbon footprint calculators that are helpful?

Problem Statement
The researchers and the participants associated to the construction research topic have not taken enough time to start the detail investigation on the carbon footprint calculation.  With the help of certain eco-friendly standards of design the process of sustainable design have been started. The design is comprises of Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREAM), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards. Though, the success for these specific standards in reducing the carbon footprint and harmful gas emission are not yet been proved. The negative impact of the carbon footprint from the construction industry can be proved with the help of certain tools n techniques. This particular issue can be addressed by the introduction of the carbon footprint calculator as the calculator is capable to estimate the net emitted amount of carbon in the construction project of Lebanon after considering different design features like size, location, raw materials for construction etc.
Purpose of the Study
In order to limit the Green House Gas emission, the carbon footprint calculation process is highly appreciated. For estimating the net emitted carbon amount different online estimation tools are also available. These tools can calculate the emitted gas rates even from the individual households. The main purpose of this study is to identify the negative environmental impact of carbon footprint or total emitted greenhouse gas from a building construction project in Lebanon. Other purpose of the study is to identify the role of carbon footprint calculator for measuring the harms. In the construction market, the tool that is widely used is Carbon Footprint Calculator in construction project (CFCCP) and it is able to estimate the emission rate considering the size, landscape and raw materials taken for the construction.  
Structure of the study
The entire structure of the study is divided in six different chapters. The first chapter is the introduction chapter which defines the details introduction of the research topic on “Carbon footprints in Lebanon from the construction of a building”including the aim, problem statement and goal of the research. Based on the identified issues the research questions are being prepared and the research objectives are relies upon the research question set.
The second chapter is the literature review chapter, as the project will be conducted based upon secondary research thus; a literature review on “Carbon footprints in Lebanon from the construction of a building” is being elaborated in this second chapter. It is important for the researchers to follow an accurate research methodology while conducting the research work (Alwan and Jones 2014). The third chapter is about research methodology which comprises of research philosophy, research approach, research design, data sources, data collection and ethical considerations to make sure that no unethical actions are being employed while conducting the research work.
The data gathered from chapter 2 literature review and chapter 3 research methodologies and data collection are analyzed in chapter 4 findings and analysis chapter of the study. The 5th chapter that is result and discussion chapter is designed based upon the data collected from the research work (Ibn-Mohammed et al. 2014). After complete analysis certain limitations and success are identified by the researchers and in chapter 6 those are being discussed.
Literature Review
This chapter focuses on the theories and concepts defined in previous studies to get an insight into the topic that has been chosen for this particular research. In this chapter, the discussions are carried out on the carbon emission related to construction from the different construction materials and sources of energy (Zuo et al. 2017). The construction industry is highly and specifically responsible for high amount of energy consumption which leads to carbon emission. It has been found that, the transportation sector, industrial sectors consumes less amount of energy than the commercial and residential building projects. Statistically around 40 percent of the net national demand is being consumed by the construction industry. Hence, this chapter is focused on demonstrating the data from previous studies that show the amount of carbon footprint being released due to construction.
Types along with Carbon Equivalence and Carbon Accounting for Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
Greenhouse gases including Methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, water vapor. However, these gases help in absorbing heat energy than other gases. The amount of greenhouse gases have been increasing in the atmosphere that has been creating issues for the environment. The solar heat has been increasing in daily basis. If these gases are not removed from the atmosphere, the amount of heat will be increased in the atmosphere. This might led to global warming in the earth’s surface (Rossi et al. 2016). Be that as it may, as indicated by Intergovernmental board on Climate Change (IPCC), different other nine carbon dioxide gases have been accounted for to be risky for the air. Different wellsprings of ozone harming substances has been launching gases at proceeds with rate. Different gadgets including coolers, enterprises smokestacks and different vehicles have been shooting gases. The accompanying table demonstrates that the worldwide dispersion of the carbon discharges from various areas and exercises and kinds of ozone harming substances produced by enterprises. Ozone depleting substances including Methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, water vapor. In any case, these gases help in retaining heat energy than different gases. The measures of ozone depleting substances have been expanding in the climate that has been making issues for nature (Jiang, Ye and Ma 2014). The sunlight based warmth has been expanding in consistent schedule. In the event that these gases are not expelled from the environment, the measure of warmth will be expanded in the air. This may prompted worldwide cautioning in the world’s surface. Nonetheless, as indicated by Intergovernmental board on Climate Change (IPCC), different other nine carbon dioxide gases have been accounted for to be risky for the air. Different sources of ozone depleting substances have been shooting gases at proceeds with rate (Kagawa et al. 2015). Different gadgets including coolers, ventures stacks and different vehicles have been shooting gases. The accompanying table demonstrates that the worldwide conveyance of the carbon discharges from various areas and exercises and sorts of ozone depleting substances produced by businesses.

Industry/Sector

End Uses/Activity

Gases

 

 

 

Transportation

Road 9.9%

Carbon

13.5%

 

Dioxide 77%

Air 1.6%

 

 

 

Rail, Ship, & Other Transport 2.3%

 

Electricity& Heat

Residential Buildings 9.9%

 

24.6%

 

 

Commercial Buildings 5.4%

 

 

 

 

Unallocated Fuel Combustion 3.5%

 

 

Iron & Steel 3.2%

 

 

Aluminum/Non-Ferrous Metals 1.4%

 

Other Fuel

Machinery 1.0%

 

Combustion

 

 

9.0%

 

 

 

 

 

Industry 10.4%

Pulp, Paper, & Printing 1.0%

 

 

 

 

Fugitive

Food & Tobacco 1.0%

 

Emissions 3.9%

Chemicals 4.8%

 

 

Cement 3.8%

 

 

Other Industry 5.0%

 

 

T&D Losses 1.9%

 

 

Coal/Mining 1.4%

 

 

Oil/Gas Extraction, Refining & Processing

 

 

6.3%

 

Industrial

Deforestation18.3%

 

Processes 3.4%

 

 

Land Use Change

Afforestation -1.5%

 

18.2%

Reforestation -0.5%

 

 

Harvest/Management 2.5%

 

 

Other -0.6%

 

Agricultural

Agricultural Energy Use  1.4%

 

13.5%

Agricultural Soils 6.0%

HFC, PFC,

 

 

SF6 1%

 

Livestock & Manure 5.1%

Methane 14%

 

Rice Cultivation 1.5%

 

Waste  3.6%

Landfills  2.0%

Nitrous Oxide

 

Wastewater, Other Waste 1.6%

8%

Table 1: World GHG Emissions Table
(Source: Liu et al.  2015)
IPCC carbon emission calculation has been based in an agreement with the protocol that methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide and hydro fluorocarbons have been damaging the atmosphere.  Carbon emissions can be measured by converting greenhouse gases into values of CO2 and equaling with Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (Lutzkendorf et al. 2015). However, GWP can be used as weighing factor for enabling comparisons between references has and global warming gases. The 100 year GWP of CH4, N2), VOCs and CO2 have been listed below:

 

 

 

GWP, 100

Common

Chemical

 

year time

name

formula

Other names

horizon

Butane

C4H10

NA

0

Carbon

 

 

 

dioxide

CO2

NA

1

Dimethyl ether

CH3OCH3

NA

1

Ethane

C2H6

NA

0.4

Ethylene

C2H4

NA

0.8

HCFC-123

CHCl2CF3

Dichlorotrifluoroethane

76

HCFC-124

CHClFCF3

Chlorotetrafluoroethane

599

HFC-125

CHF2CF3

Pentafluoroethane

3,450

HFC-134a

CH2FCF3

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

1,410

Nitrous oxide

N2O

NA

296

Propane

C3H8

NA

0.3

Propylene

C3H6

NA

0.9

Table 2: Table of GHGs and Their Global Warming Potentials
(Source: Wang et al. 2015)
The GWP estimation of 23 for methane in that 1 ton of methane has been equal to delivering warming impact of 23 tons of carbon dioxide. Be that as it may, 1 ton of nitrous oxide can create a comparable warming impact of 296 tons of carbon dioxide over a time of one century years. Along these lines, there has been an awesome increment in discharge of the carbon dioxide gases in the climate (Victoria and Perera 2018). There have been different reasons for the nursery impact in the environment including the emission of the greenhouse gases from various sources.
Deforestation has been major reason for increase in carbon emission in the atmosphere. Plants and trees used to recycle carbon dioxide form atmosphere that helps in purifying air in the environment.  Therefore, increase in deforestation in the society, the input of carbon dioxide has been increasing on a daily basis. This has been a great threat to the environment. Other elements in air including CFC has been increasing that is affecting ozone layer of the atmosphere (Ouyang and Lin 2015).  Therefore, the use of refrigerators and other electronic devices have been releasing harmful gases and rays that are damaging atmosphere.
Carbon Emission Modeling
Input-Output Economic Model (Top-Down)
The Input-Output Economic Model has been making yearly financial action for income including Gross Domestic item (GDP) information in a few industry areas. The measure of rate in every action has been deciding the measure of income created by them. The application of this model has been helping in calculating and analyzing carbon emission in the area (Panneerselvam 2014).  The use if the model can help in maintaining the GDP growth of the industry in order to maintain a keen development criteria in territory.  The construction industry has been facing a lot of problems in respect to waste materials and pollution. The income created from the I/O demonstrate has been advertise based strategy instrument named as carbon allow framework. In this manner, income produced from the carbon allow can be changed over into carbon equal (Vera and Fabian 2016). In any case, this cycle can be created by Green Institute for keeping up appropriate sum and yield results.
This model has been keeping up an appropriate expository way to deal with the measure of carbon emanation in the development business. There have been different focal points of Input-Output display in the business (Schandl et al. 2016). It is effectively gotten to for macroeconomic information as the greater part of the nations have legitimate insights division for monitoring the power and water utilization in the segment. There are some impediment that macroeconomic information requires huge number of suppositions that cannot be broken into part for information driven approach. The unrealistic factor of IO models have been keeping up process models in the market that have been making carbon emanations in the earth. Carbon emanation has been a noteworthy issue for the development business as it has been becoming hard to stop pollutants from smoke of the industry. (Sorvig and Thompson 2018). This model can be modulated in the industry generated smoke. Therefore, there can be emulation of the smoke generation in the chimneys of the industries and factories.  The use of the model van be evacuated in the calculation of carbon emission. The use of different criteria in the dependency of the carbon emission articles have been maintaining the pollution in the country.
The use of the model has been beneficial in the maintained of the carbon particle and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The input of the model can be emulated with the revenue generated with investment in the industries. Power lost as well as other factors have been overlooked in the Input-Output model (Roh, Tae and Shin 2014). The application of this model has been helping in calculating and analyzing carbon emission in the area.  The use of the model can help in maintaining the GDP growth of the industry in order to maintain a keen development criteria in territory.
Process Model (Bottom-Up)
The Process Model aides in computing carbon emanation that depends on the stream of energy utilized in fabricate and generation level. Along these lines, energy is expended in building development, upkeep, tasks and extraction. The material transportation devours half of the energy seed in other work (Onat, Kucukvar and Tatari 2014). This model is more precise than that of Input-Output model. It is estimated that the model is more effective than that of IO model in the construction industry. However, according to IPCC guidelines on greenhouse gases emissions, calculation of amount of gases ejected can be measured and controlled by the use of this model.  The use of the model can improve the modulation of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this method, various regions have been imported with proper construction materials in the industry. Various countries have been maintaining the process model in order to improvise quality of construction in the industry. The emission of gases can be controlled by this model.  The application of the model has been widely used in the construction industry in order to minimize the carbon emission in the atmosphere.  The introduction of model has been helping in providing a greater approach to the maintained of greenhouse process.  The direct emission of greenhouse gases has been creating an efficient factor in providing better approach to the maintenance of carbon emissions. This model aides in giving an unmistakable limit of procedures checked in the estimation of meaning of immediate and backhanded emanation of carbon particles. However, this method has been argued by various researchers in order to maintaining a proper approach to the emission of carbon particles from various screws in construction industry. The boundaries have been failing in maintaining proper approach in different countries and controversies. Thusly, energy is expended in building development, support, activities and extraction. The material transportation devours half of the energy seed in other work. This model is more exact than that of Input-Output display (Balaban and de Oliveira 2017). It is evaluated that the model is more viable than that of IO display in the development business. Notwithstanding, as indicated by IPCC rules on ozone harming substances emanations, count of measure of gases catapulted can be estimated and controlled by the utilization of this model. The utilization of the model can enhance the tweak of the ozone harming substances in the air. In this strategy, different locales have been foreign with appropriate development materials in the business. Different nations have been keeping up the procedure display to extemporize nature of development in the business. The emanation of gases can be controlled by this model. The utilization of the model has been generally utilized in the development business to limit the carbon outflow in the air. The presentation of model has been helping in giving a more noteworthy way to deal with the kept up of nursery process (Akbarnezhad and Xiao 2017). The immediate outflow of ozone harming substances has been making an effective factor in giving better way to deal with the upkeep of carbon discharges. This model aides in giving an unmistakable limit of procedures checked in the count of meaning of immediate and aberrant outflow of carbon particles. In any case, this technique has been contended by different specialists so as to keeping up an appropriate way to deal with the outflow of carbon particles from different tightens development industry. The limits have been flopping in keeping up legitimate approach in various nations and debates.
Hybrid Model
The Hybrid model has been the mixture of the Economic Input-Output Model and process display. This model concentrations in the fuel utilization and carbon discharge in Input-Output Economic model and carbon emanation factors in the process display. The use of other criteria has been maintaining the emission of the carbon particles in the maintenance if the construction industry. However, the carbon emission oracles depends in the quality of the construction materials used in the construction of the building. Therefore, the use of carbon emission factors can be helpful in understanding accuracy of information gathered in the maintenance of the construction of a building. The hybrid model has been a flexible method that helps in minimizing the disadvantages of either model (Onat, Kucukvar and Tatari 2014). Therefore, it contains both the errors in the other model. The use of this model have helped in minimizing the errors and limitation in the both of the model that has been discussed in earlier sections.  The construction industry has been facing a lot of problems in respect to waste materials and pollution. The revenue generated from the I/O model has been market-based policy instrument named as carbon permit system. However, several researcher have argued that the cost of implementing this model has been higher than other two of the models.  The assumptions factors of other two models have been maintained and removed by the applications of these model in the construction industry. Therefore, revenue generated from the carbon permit can be converted into carbon equivalent.
Deforestation has been significant purpose behind increment in carbon outflow in the air. Plants and trees used to reuse carbon dioxide frame air that aides in refining air in nature. In this way, increment in deforestation in the general public, the contribution of carbon dioxide has been expanding once a day (Kamali and Hewage 2016). This has been an extraordinary risk to the earth. Different components in air including CFC has been expanding that is influencing ozone layer of the environment. In this manner, the utilization of iceboxes and other electronic gadgets have been discharging destructive gases and beams that are harming environment. The measure of rate in every action has been deciding the measure of income created by them. The utilization of this model has been helping in ascertaining and examining carbon discharge in the territory. The utilization if the model can help in keeping up the GDP development of the business with a specific end goal to keep up a sharp advancement criteria in domain (Teng and Wu 2014). The development business has been confronting a great deal of issues in regard to squander materials and contamination. The income created from the I/O demonstrate has been showcase based arrangement instrument named as carbon allow framework. Subsequently, income produced from the carbon allow can be changed over into carbon equal. Be that as it may, this cycle can be created by Green Institute for keeping up appropriate sum and yield results.
This model has been keeping up an appropriate explanatory way to deal with the measure of carbon outflow in the development business. There have been different focal points of Input-Output demonstrate in the business (Nasir et al. 2017). It is effectively gotten to for macroeconomic information as the vast majority of the nations have legitimate measurements office for monitoring the power and water utilization in the area. There are some weakness that macroeconomic information requires huge number of suspicions that cannot be broken into part for information driven approach. The doubtfulness factor of IO models have been keeping up process models in the market that have been making carbon outflows in the earth. Carbon emanation has been a noteworthy issue for the development business as it has been ending up hard to prevent poisons from smoke of the business. This model can be adjusted in the business created smoke. Thusly, there can be copying of the smoke age in the smokestacks of the businesses and processing plants. The utilization of the model van be emptied in the estimation of carbon outflow. The utilization of various criteria in the reliance of the carbon emanation s have been keeping up the contamination in the nation.
The utilization of the model has been helpful in the kept up of the carbon molecule and ozone harming substances in the environment. The contribution of the model can be imitated with the income produced with interest in the ventures. Power lost and different elements have been disregarded in the Input-Output show (Wolfram et al. 2016). The utilization of this model has been helping in computing and dissecting carbon emanation in the region. The utilization of the model can help in keeping up the GDP development of the business with a specific end goal to keep up a sharp improvement criteria in region.
Direct and Indirect Carbon Emissions
According to Barcelo et al. (2014) the process model, input output (I/O model) and the hybrid model need accurate justification for the activities which are required to be counted within the process model. It is determined that, the carbon related justifications are all related upon the boundary of indirect and indirect carbon emission (Hofmann et al. 2016). It is not mandatory that, the carbon will be emitted in similar patterns rather the carbon that will be emitted directly from the process is referred to as the direct emission. Whereas, in the construction the carbon that is emitted from the supplementary processes are known as the indirect carbon emission. It is found that every time the supplementary process either directly or indirectly supports the main process (Hong et al. 2016). For cooling any store or building different types of cooling systems are used. The amount of energy consumed by any of the cooling system is defined in a form of direct carbon emission. Though, this type of energy is referred to as a direct consumption of energy from the consumer’s end. Upon the established boundary of any specific raw material or product the definition of the carbon is party depends (Kagawa et al. 2015). The simplified plasterboard manufacturing process has the ability to highlight the carbon emission classification method. The aggregate sum of carbon transmitted inside the limit is the immediate carbon discharge then again the carbon radiated outside the limit is the aberrant carbon emanation. As per Liu et al. (2015), toward the finish of the plasterboard procedure the waste materials will either go to the land or will be reuses rather reused for the successful usage of other purposes. In the construction sites the process of reusability of the materials are known as cradle to cradle (Ouyang and Lin 2015). On the other hand, when the materials are not reused rather go to the landfill then that specific process is called as cradle to grave process.  It is not possible that every time the used materials can be further used thus based on the specific requirements only regarding the construction project the materials can be reutilized by the constructors (Peng 2016). The decision regarding the reusability of the materials are decided by the construction project manager and the senior supervisors. Apart from this, the personified energy of each of the materials related to construction will be considered while calculating the total carbon emissions rate.
The amount of total carbon that is emitted from the plasterboard is comprises of different components such as plaster mill, gypsum mining, plasterboard production, useful life, cradle to cradle and cradle to grave (Meng et al. 2016).
The total process if bounded within an emission boundary and this specific process starts from gypsum mining. The through gypsum transports the process transfer to plaster mill. Then from plasterboard production the process proceed towards distribution (Wu et al. 2015). Based upon the usefulness of the materials the decision makers associated to the construction projects decided whether the materials are to be reused or considered as wastage.
Carbon Emissions for Raw Materials
Not only from different construction based processes but also from different constriction raw materials also carbon emission is possible. The factors related to carbon emission are used in this specific research work of construction in Lebanon. Generally in terms of CO2e the carbon footprint is widely expressed (Peng 2016). From the calculation the amount of CO2e can be measured which is the summation of fossil based emission. This rate can be calculated from the IPPC weight factors. If in available data sources the components of CO2e (CO2 fossil, NO2 and CH4) are found then those can also be calculated accordingly from formulae. Kagawa et al. (2015) stated that, if all valid sources are used by the researchers then research work will surely produce a successful result. The associate research team will collect all required information from the secondary data sources. The total number which comes from the United Kingdom was higher than other countries because of the fact which implies that coal was utilized for generating power in United Kingdom the most.  Hu, and Liu (2016) stated that, because of the different methodologies followed by the different agencies the value may vary accordingly. Different research level data collected from different articles, blogs, journals etc implies that the total carbon emission factor is lower in EPA. The reason of lower emission factor was due to the presence of the nuclear power plant.
Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE)
This examination work uses a tremendous measure of data from stock of carbon and energy also. This particular stock was most generally utilized particularly to estimate the measure of carbon discharge. This stock gives the greater part of the exemplified carbon discharge of the diverse development materials, for example, copper, protection, mud, power, solid, glass, blocks and so on. These materials have legitimate wellsprings of exemplified carbon outflow as far as carbon emanation breakdown like power, oil, and petroleum gas. The required or necessary sources of data are provided by the composers of the inventory.  According to Huisingh et al. (2015) as much data the researchers will collect that much the flexibility of the process of carbon emission calculation will increase. In order to get rough estimation on the amount of carbon emission it has been found that, the information can only be used as reference or estimating the amount of carbon emitted from each activity that are contributed by the construction industry of Lebanon.  Barcelo et al. (2014) opined that, with a specific end goal to get a more exact number the confined information are to be utilized in the carbon outflow figuring process. This process has been discussed at the earlier stage and the factors are based on carbon emission factors from electricity etc.  Due to lack of database the current data may not be stored and utilized accordingly. Kagawa et al. (2015) stated that, the sources of data are mostly provided by the specific composers of the inventories. Chou and Yeh (2015) opined from the details structure of the  data it can be found that whether the data have been collected from all over the world or not. From the collected secondary data the total percentage of embodied energy from the energy sources and carbon from the sources can also be measured by the researchers. The below tale shows the details of these measurements:

Sources of energy

% of energy embodied energy from the energy sources

% of carbon from the sources

Coal

3.5%

5.1%

LPG

0.0%

0.0%

Oil

0.7%

0.9%

Natural gas

8.8%

8.5%

Electricity

87.0%

84.5%

Others

0.0%

0.0%

Net value

100%

100%

Table 3: Measurement of Carbon and Energy
(Source: Wolfram et al. 2016)
The net value or percentage will be 100% and for each of the different section nominate. The methodology that is followed for measuring the percentages includes three phases in terms of material measurement, mass analysis and ECO2 analysis. A distinct group of these major elements are properly organized and also utilized for the successful implementation of the research work (Rockstrom et al. 2017).  There is no specific time which is identified as the time when the carbon will be emitted. In the construction industry, for different activities the carbon emission may take place. In order to avoid the rate of carbon emission different strategies are required to be adopted by the project heads and the head of the construction project. All the necessary components and values are to be considered accordingly for the successful accomplishment of the quantitative secondary research work. All the necessary major materials and equipment are properly divided in sections. In addition to this, these components are organized in a form of a tree. The possible entities will be divided but the entities which cannot be further split will remain the same. As much environment friendly materials will be used in the construction industry that much chances of carbon emission will be reduced accordingly.
Localized Data and the Difficulties in Obtaining Data
According to Hofmann et al. (2016) the Green House Protocol (GHP) implemented in the year of 2012, pointed that there are many cities in the Lebanon that conducted Green House Inventory management approaches as well as set reduction targets simultaneously. However, for the all the city level inventory management no such consistent professional guidance approach is available. On the other hand, for determining the common approaches related to the factors of carbon emission are also not available. It can also highly prevent the researcher to make comparison between the cities.  Onat, Kucukvar and Tatari (2014) stated that due to varied research methodology the different governmental agencies come up along with different factors associated carbon emission. In case of power generation a significant change may took place in case of carbon emission. On the other hand, there are certain cases such as Lebanon PUB which fails to illustrate their methodology utilization approach which they have used for measuring the carbon emission factors both for NEWATER and water. The research team will not be able to identify the processes that are considered for measuring the numbers and the total months taken to identify the proper number. So as to make a reasonable correlation between the urban areas and the development approaches it is obligatory to characterize a typical approach for all. Rockstrom et al. (2017) stated that with the help of this common approach a difference between the materials will be easily measured by the researchers.
According to Liu et al. (2015),  ICE also provides a detail emission level conclusion but it fails to imply that whether the transportation  related emission are also being added to the calculation or not. Apart from this, according to (Kibert 2016) EPA has calculated that around 28% of the total carbon emitted (Green House Gas) in the environment is due to the transportation. Not only this but also, around 10% of the total carbon (Green House Gas) that is emitted from the environment is from the construction industry. Peng et al. (2016) implies that the net amount is too less to be ignored. From a current survey it has been addressed that, it is the responsibility of the environmental security proposal to propose proper solution so that the rate of carbon emission can be reduced accordingly. In addition to this, the state government is responsible to report, account and propose accurate solution so that the carbon emission rate can be reduced. For Lebanon, the spotless Energy and security Act foundations the future the energy standard subtle elements. The standard of the inexhaustible power, energy outflow, carbon emission can be establishes with the help of the established standard of cap and trade. With the help of these measurements the total possible investment which should be done is also measured accordingly. The standard of several critical energy and investment is needed to be done based on the developed strategies.
According to Huisingh et al. (2015), climate change, other energy security and proper technologies are to be applied for reducing the rate of carbon emission. Kagawa et al. (2015) stated that, one of the major components if billing is the cap as well as trade legislation. This requires proper private firms as well as public agencies for self-reporting and reducing the rate of carbon emission greenhouse gases. Besides the construction industry many other large size corporation are there that generated from the other sources. The rate of energy used for reducing the rate of carbon emission is also the other factors definitely to be considered by the owners (Wu et al. 2016). The total energy and the corporation  is referred to as a total energy generated from the energy inputs as well as carbon emission from fuel, power, materials, human resources etc.
Needs for Carbon Emissions Reduction and Carbon Trading
Carbon floods from wide size affiliation are produced using: (1) the noteworthiness use to run and work the association’s favorable circumstances (like structures, vehicles, fixing and so forth.); (2) the energy and materials used to pass on or make resources and things for the affiliation; (3) the materials used to work, keep up and repair the purposes of intrigue and things; and (4) the materials utilized by resources and furthermore its occupants (Akbarnezhad, Ong and Chandra 2014). There are two differing ways to deal with see energy utilize and carbon discharge: Direct and Embodied. Significance utilized and carbon transmissions made by the change, task, upkeep, repairing and running of the focal points, and to pass on and make resources and things for the association is seen as fast centrality utilize and carbon outpourings. Exemplified centrality and carbon is depicted as the entire of significance data sources and carbon spreads (fortifies/control, materials, HR and so on.) that was utilized in the work to make anything, from the explanation behind extraction and refining materials, offering it accessible to be bought to the all-inclusive community, and trade/re-purposing of it. An affiliation gobbling up a thing and not capable to make it is utilizing exemplified importance and carbon. An affiliation has more control over its provoke essentialness and carbon and arranged to execute plans to reduce them. Then again, an endeavor has lesser control over its encapsulated hugeness and carbon and could just influence its exemplified centrality and carbon transmissions with their securing choices.
Specialists find that energy and carbon impression of structures are productive procedures to screen structures noteworthiness utilize ability and the general centrality practicality of the entire business and economy. Essentialness can be changed over into carbon dioxide accomplices and the aggregate may then be investigated between comparable structures and the entire business.
The improvement business and the task and upkeep of structures exhaust over 40% of all imperativeness ate up in the Lebanon close by U.K and created over 35% of all carbon spreads. The transportation part took after enduringly eating up 20% of energy and making more than 27% of all carbon discharges. Carbon dioxide is a sort of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) that traps warm from the earth. An over the best proportion of GHG in nature will make the climate warm up because of the scrambling of warmth that is gotten in the GHG. This will actuate changes on the planet’s atmosphere (Moran, Petersone and Verones 2016). Lessening GHG is thusly fundamental as it will help the effect on nature. Additionally, making excitement at energy has pushed costs of fills to new highs and challenged people generally speaking economies and national security. Importance assurance has turned out to could without a lot of a stretch stand out from in the past as national security has ruled the need for essentially cash theory holds.
Carbon and centrality estimation is an essential technique for picking the significance utilize and carbon impression of structures and vehicles. Particular examinations recommend that the aggregate centrality utilization of structures has expanded year over year despite the manner in which that the criticalness utilize per square foot has greatly diminished (Akbarnezhad, Ong and Chandra 2014). This endorses centrality utilize has gone outside the ability to control of building tenants. Lighting and space cooling are the best clients of power while space warming uses most of vaporous oil in the Lebanon.
Building Operation and Construction Energy
Structures (private or non-private) utilize a huge amount of energy as power, gas, or different kinds of oil based ware amidst development. An examination showed that hugeness use in structures was responsible for 7.85 Giga ton of carbon dioxide outpourings in 2002, which was 33% of the general aggregate centrality related discharges in that year. Power use in structures for warming and cooling, water warming, office hardware, lighting, ventilation, refrigeration, and cooking will be united into the estimations (Wolfram et al. 2016). Energy use amidst building assignment is supported to take after Lebanon Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 measures. The principles offer suggestion on building envelope, warming and cooling frameworks, advantage water warming, lighting, gear and centrality cost methodologies, and it contains significance use checks, and approaches to manage chop down power uses and carbon discharges.
In like manner, a huge amount of energy is depended upon to develop a building. An examination in Japan displayed that some place in the extent of 6.5 and 13 GJ/m2 (a normal of 8.95 GJ/m2) is depended upon to develop each 1 m2 of floor a region. The criticalness of such transmission renders it indispensable to combine the centrality utilize (thusly carbon outpourings) amidst change, for example, gas use on machines, transportation, materials, and power use amidst establishment process. Oil, coal and oil gas are the three most steady fuel sources to control structures, regardless of the way that a broadening number of structures are starting to utilize reasonable power source (Akbarnezhad, Ong and Chandra 2014). These wellsprings of fuel transmit carbon and along these lines ought to be checked towards the structures lifecycle centrality and carbon impressions.
Carbon appearing and carbon discharge oblige protect pass on carbon factors for every material or fuel amidst the change and the development of structures. Everything considered, carbon factors need to connect with the general data of structures recollecting a definitive target to process the carbon outpourings or spare stores. General data is the affirmation and the data of the clients of structures including number of tenants, number of guests, sort of water spouts, number of toilets, number of electric mechanical congregations, number of PCs, and kind of materials of the structure. Amidst the headway of a building, the carbon outpourings are an immediate consequence of the gathering procedure of change materials, the fuel utilization for machines and vehicles, and power supply for electric contraptions. The carbon discharges at this time of the building lifecycle are the epitomized carbon floods of a growing in light of the way that the carbon spreads begin from the harsh materials, headway process, and establishment.
Water Consumption
Water utilize is additionally combined into all the Green Building request criteria and it adds to carbon radiations. Water supply is a boss among the most huge roaming supporters of significance utilize and carbon outpourings. Private water contributes nearly as much carbon impression as change materials as indicated by Lebanon Green Building Council. Essentialness is depended upon to clean and redirect water recollecting a definitive goal to make it consumable in a water treatment plant. Subordinate upon the quality at the source, the centrality use to treat water can be wonderful (Moran, Petersone and Verones 2016). For instance, water from lakes, conductors, and supplies utilizes respectably less energy than water treated through a desalination plant (ocean water or reused water). Likewise, transportation of water from the source to the treatment plant and to its end clients require a lot of centrality by virtue of water pulls in utilized the water stream framework.
Two or three nations, for example, Lebanon recovered wastewater through turn osmosis. Wastewater and water that are overseen utilizing the modify osmosis process eats up on a very basic level more prominent energy and in this manner it establishes a more noteworthy carbon connection. The sanitation methodology for tap water requires water pumps, blender engines, which gobble up power, and fuel. From an examination in the United Kingdom, the carbon discharges factor for water is 0.276 kg CO2 for each m3 of water (Teng and Wu 2014). In Lebanon, the carbon spreads for consumable water are 0.0005 kgCO2e per liter and the carbon discharges for water that experiences switch osmosis are 0.0008 kgCO2e per liter. Thusly, water utilize should be considered for carbon overflowing check models for green structures.
The table underneath features the carbon impression obligation of water and water for scene. The figure beneath consolidates the game plan for water and wastewater treatment carbon overflowing computation for structures. Water utilize, including course, supply and treatment, contributes 1.2% of the aggregate carbon spreads in the Lebanon. The figure shows that other than water treatment for consumable water, transportation of water and wastewater treatment ought to in like way be considered since these methods contribute carbon discharges and centrality use moreover.

Categories

Percentage (%)

Building Systems

35.0

Transportation

2.0

Landscape

0.2

Domestic Water

1.0

Materials

63.0

Solid Waste

0.8

Total

100.0

Table 4: Lebanon Carbon Footprint Breakdown
(Source: Simas et al. 2017, pp-320)
Indirect energy sparing criteria is united into Green Building estimation, for example, transportation of materials. In LEED Material and Resources Credit, it urges architects to utilize local materials for their structures. It can chop down the gas use on transportation. Moreover, extraordinary circuitous components may affect the energy ampleness of structures (Teng and Wu 2014). As demonstrated by an examination in Lebanon, private structures in coastal regions can spare close half on centrality while private structures in the colossal country can spare over 90% hugeness on warming and cooling with better ventilation and protection. A pilot meander in Stockholm had a sparkle trade structure introduced in the ventilation course of action of a metro station and it conveyed 15-30% each period of warming of a 13-story building 100 yards away by the body warmth of 250,000 workers in the link auto station every day (Zarfl et al. 2015). The examination comparably demonstrated that the more individuals including a building, the more prominent hugeness is required for cooling and air ventilation. Along these lines, properties (i.e. its utilization, sorts of occupants, purposes, thickness and so on) can pick the level of carbon floods of each building. The attributes must be considered in carbon flood figuring amidst the assertion for rating criteria of each green building.
Building Materials Lifecycle
Change materials are the foundation of the structure of the front line society. For instance, bond, which is a hero among the most routinely utilized materials in structures, addresses around 70-80% of the hugeness use in non-metallic minerals creation, and it addresses fitting around one-fourth of the aggregate direct CO2 transmissions in the change business. The examination of the association life of headway materials is a technique with require since the business gets a handle on new materials and new composite materials (Russell-Smith and Lepech 2015). Despite the manner in which that longing for association is basic, advantage life figure is up to this point precarious by virtue of the unpredicted standard occasions. Likewise, life figure is nonappearance of the learning of association conditions, distortions and flaws in materials, corruption parts, and the energy of degradation. The nearness check of non-composite materials, for example, solid, metal, and coatings are especially recorded and typical wants like steel crumbling. Solid disappointment can be unequivocally imitated by PC. In any case, composite materials, for example, fiber-fortified solid, crushed wood, and fiberglass, are not yet considered and it is difficult to foresee the association life in light of the multifaceted idea of the mix of properties.
An examination by Balaban and de Oliveira (2017) in the UK demonstrates that headway material encapsulated centrality in a common house is around 10% of the aggregate over its life. The number has every one of the reserves of being practically nothing; regardless, the headway material exemplified significance is around 30 to 40 % of the aggregate over its life for a low centrality house. In a way, progression material exemplified energy can be noteworthy for houses that utilization green highlights or green acknowledged. Typified energy examination, Lifecycle Analysis (LCA), and transportation centrality examination on all the change materials might be considered for carbon discharge checks amidst green building accreditation since they contribute critical of carbon transmissions (Balaban and de Oliveira 2017). The plan of lifecycle examination should meld the systems from foul material extraction to reuse and reuse of the materials if LCA is gotten. The underneath table demonstrates the standard change materials and their life length.

Part/equipment

Life (years)

Roof

Bituminous membrane waterproofing

25

Polyvinyl membrane waterproofing

15

Protecting tile

30

Exterior gloss paint

20

Outer wall

 

20

Floor finishing

 

20

Substation

Circuit breaker

20

Disconnecting switch

20

Vinyl tile flooring

Transformer

20

Capacitor

15

Battery

Lead storage battery

15

Alkaline battery

15

Battery charger

20

Electric cable

RN, BN

20

CV 6.613.3 kV

20

CV 600 V

20

VV 600 V

20

Bus duct

1.5

Lighting system

Fluorescent lamp

15

Incandescent lamp

1.5

Mercury lamp

20

Other electric systems

Amplifier/speaker

20

Electric clock

20

Interphone

20

Sanitary pump

Drain pump

10

Drain pump (submerged)

25

Water supply pump

30

Fire pump

20

Motor

20

Pipes

Hot dip galvanized steel pipe (supply)

20

Hot dip galvanized steel pipe (drain)

20

Valve

8

Hot water supply equipment

Storage type water heater (gas fired)

7

Instantaneous water heater (gas fired)

20

Chiller

Centrifugal refrigerating machine (open type)

20

Centrifugal refrigerating machine (closed type)

20

Accessories

20

Absorption type chiller

20

Cooling tower

Fan

15

Motor

15

Casing

15

Table 5: Lifecycle for Common Construction Materials
(Source: Zhang, Cheng and Lo 2014)
Figure 2: Construction Materials Lifecycle
(Source: Peng 2016, pp-456)
Summary
In the construction business, feasibility ought to have merged the lifecycle of each harsh material and how the materials may have affected the earth locally and at their sources all through the association life. Amidst the errand of a building, clients, and proprietors may have foreseen that would consider the power and water utilization of a building and the proportion of carbon impression they contributed when they were having a building. Researchers find that essentialness and carbon impression of structures are convincing systems to screen structures imperativeness use capability and the general essentialness viability of the whole business and economy (Zhang, Cheng and Lo 2014). Importance can be changed over into carbon dioxide reciprocals and the aggregate may then be looked indistinguishable structures and the entire business. Carbon and significance figuring is a pivotal strategy for picking the energy utilize and carbon impression of structures and vehicles. Unmistakable examinations recommend that the aggregate centrality utilization of structures has expanded year over year despite the manner in which that the importance utilize per square foot has to a great degree diminished (Onat, Kucukvar and Tatari 2014). This recommends centrality utilize has gone outside the ability to control of building tenants. Lighting and space cooling are the best buyers of force while space warming gobbles up the greater bit of oil gas in the U.K.
Methodology
It is important to understand the research methodological tools so that effective methodology can be developed in order conduct the study in right way. The current chapter explains selection of the methodological tools for the research along with justification of selecting the particular methodology as well as the cause of rejecting the other approach are also discussed in this section.  There are various concepts associated with the research is described in the present study. The chapter also discusses selection of research philosophy, research approach as well as purpose of the research. In addition, the researcher sheds light on the various methodological tools, which are utilized for carrying out the research. In addition, the procedure of selection of the research tools that are used in the research has been discussed in this chapter. It is important to define that the research issue at first. After this process, it is required to design the procedure of the research.  
This chapter deals with the processing of data management with the help of different tools that are implemented for conduction of the research successfully. This is the reason that proper implementation if the data management method helps in gaining the desired result. This is one of the major reason that will increase the potentiality of a better success rate. Formulation of a specific research helps in increasing accuracy of the generated data. This leads to the fact that the data management that is done in this processing is conducted with proper methodologies. This report contains the usage of philosophical tools for better understanding of the business process.  
Method outline
The research outline consists of descriptive research design, deductive approach as well as positivism research philosophy. On the other hand, the researcher has tried to analyze the data with the help of qualitative data analysis technique.  The researcher has collected data from various books, journals as well as websites. In the preset research, data gathered from case studies will be analyzed.

Chosen methodology

Method Head

Descriptive

Research Design

Positivism

Research Philosophy

Deductive

Research Approach

Simple random probability sampling

Sampling process

Secondary data from books, journals, articles, publications and websites

Data Collection process

Quantitative analysis

Data Analysis process

Table 5: Method Outline
(Source: Nasir et al. 2017)
Research philosophy
Positivism, realism as well as post-positivism philosophy are utilized in academic research. The concept of positivism philosophy has shaded light on the opportunities of using scientific research approach in order to analyze the information (Dumay and Cai 2015). It also makes sure that validity as well as accuracy of the data will be maintained. In addition, it has been taken as the methods where the data associated to the issue will be collected, analyzed and used in the research. On the other hand, the knowledge might be appeared for performing and require involvement of the process of creating knowledge for covering the research questions as well as answers.
Research philosophy is basically dependent on the processing of the development of the data management. This leads to the fact that the processing of the methodology will increase the focus on the data collection and the data management. This leads to the fact that the efficiency of the business management process increases. This is one of the basic reason that the data management deals with a very vast topic and the data. This leads to the fact that the data management is performed with utmost proficiency. This is one of the major portion of the methodology, leading to the fact that the completion of the project is highly dependent on the processing of this methodology. This is one of the major reason that performance of this stage is very decisive in nature. This report will include the fact that the data collection method will be both primary as well as secondary in nature. In case of using the primary method, the process of data collection with the help of literary sources are taken into consideration and in case of using the secondary process, the data that are collected are from descriptive survey analysis as well as the in person interviews.
The fact that that both types of data collection methods are used in the completion of the project, the major issue is that the data that are collected are accurate in nature. Conceptual growth in the subject is achieved in case of performing the secondary data collection method. Positivism and optimism is a part of the project completion on using this methodology. Positivism methodology helps in revealing the truth that is related to the focus point of the report. This ensures the fact that the data management will be provided in the termination if the processing of the entire project. Positivism also deals with the processing of handling the human resources that are related to the processing of the data management. This is one of the major reason that the data management increases the proficiency of the project. This is the sole reason that the tools that are used for procurement are required for completion of the project efficiently.    
Justification of the chosen philosophy
 In the current research, positivism philosophy has been chosen for analyzing the importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. There is an important difference between the researches focusing on the facts with the analysis of the research topic. Hence, selection between positivism as well as interpretivism philosophies have distinctive methods such as qualitative or quantitative approach. On the other hand, practicing the specific study would increase the selection for pragmatism as well as realism philosophy in the research.
On the other hand, the philosophical approach has been selected for observing the process in positivism philosophy as the researcher has been used on the observable social entity.  There are several research methodologies that ensure the fact that the data management can be processed with proper data processing and the solution for the networking of the data management is made. This report will include security issues that are present in the data management of the project.  
Research approach
A research approach is important as there is proper format needed for conducting the research in effective way (Lushey and Munro 2015). An effective research topic is selected for the particular study as it is significant as well as important for formation as well as conduction of the research in the right way (Choy 2014). There are usually two types of research approaches used in the research such as inductive approach as well as deductive approach. Inductive approach deals with the development of models as well as theories related to importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. However, deductive approach explains the existing theories as well as models for the research.
Research methodologies can be diversified in 2 parts, namely inductive research and deductive research methodology. In this case the methodology that is being processed includes the fact that the data management can be performed with the help of the assumption of the data management, leading to the fact that the management that is present in the course of the project is not derived and in case of performing the deductive project research methodology, each and every data that is present in the completion of the project is competed after derivation and the accuracy of the data are much higher in case of the deductive data collection process.
Justification of the chosen research approach:
 The use of deductive approach has chosen in the research as the research allowed to refer the already existing theories and concepts of importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. It results the researcher is able to relate the outcomes of the data with the existing information. The use of deductive approach has been properly justified for the research as selection of the philosophy would allow the researcher to refer to the existing theories and approaches as the key factor of importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. Thus, selection of the approach is justified as it has helped to analyze importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. Descriptive design has been chosen in the present research for having tremendous measure of data effectively give related the exploration. It is useful to comprehend the ideas of brought together danger administration answer for giving security to network or framework. Furthermore, it is required to introduce reasonable materials of the included dangers and relieving strategies.
Design of this research
Research design is important as it helpful to complete the research design and have the tendency for producing an important as well as proper conclusions. In the case, the researcher has utilized descriptive research design (Bauer 2014). The research strategy is helpful to present the strategy for the methods as well as give answer of the research questions. The research strategy used in the research has been secondary data collection method while analyzing the importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. Hence, descriptive research design has been selected in the research.
Research design is basically classified in the projection of the data management in the processing of the project. Exploratory as well as Conclusive research designs are used in the process of completion of the project. In case of the exploratory research design the main fundament is that the analysis includes the data projection and the data that is present in the termination of the project will include the business management. In case of explorative design, details that are present in the data analysis is very important. Again in case of concussive design the data that are collected are all derived and the final result is the main concern.  The method of descriptive analysis is taken into consideration due to the fact that the amount of data that is present in the processing of the data is very high and this is the main reason that the data that is present in the research helps in the processing of the data which includes the risk analysis of the data along with the data collection.
Justification of the chosen research design
The use of descriptive design has been justified as the design for the research allows the researcher to identify the issues related to carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. In addition, the use of descriptive research design would be helpful for the present case.
Data collection process
Primary data collection and secondary data collection are the techniques used in the research (Panneerselvam 2014). As the data collection process allows the researcher to analyze the raw data in terms of evaluating the significance of carbon impression estimation in the field of development to diminish the effect on condition as research. In the flow look into, information will be gathered from optional sources, for example, books, articles, distributions and in addition sites. There are by and large two kinds of information gathering techniques utilized in the examination, for example, essential information accumulation strategy and additionally optional information accumulation strategies. Essential information accumulation strategy manages gathering of information from introduce sources like meeting and study. Then again, optional information gathering strategy manages accumulation of information from late articles, daily papers and diaries. In the present research, optional information gathering process is chosen.
There are different points of interest and additionally constraints of essential and optional information accumulation technique. One of the primary points of interest is sparing time to lead the exploration. Optional information gathering devours less time than essential research for approaching of exact information through web crawler that diminishes time in conduction of the exploration. The other preferred standpoint of auxiliary information is having less moral issues contrasted with essential information gathering technique. On the other hand, primary data is directly reflect the opinions of people. On contrary, data in secondary data collection is collected as well as published in several media. There are also few risks that are related to the accessibility issues. In addition, there is lack of control as well as chances to make improper information of the collected data. However, as the research is directly linked with the issues faced by the users over network and getting advantages for using unified threat management system in the firewall system, primary data have been collected in the present research.
Data analysis techniques
Qualitative data analysis technique has been used in order to analyze the data. It adds better description of the research topic, i.e., importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. Qualitative data would assist to analyze the secondary data gathered from the sources.
Data analysis is a back to back procedure of cleaning, investigating and demonstrating with the objective information to design some imperative information for supporting the procedure of basic leadership. Furthermore, subjective research approach is one of the methods for accomplishing the procedure of accumulation from various sources that incorporate science and innovation in regards to the issue. It is additionally vital to widen the philosophy approach that includes different research strategies. Moreover, point of the subjective research strategy is shifted with disciplinary foundation. In the present research, essential information are gathered. Quantitative research strategy requires understanding marvel of particular circumstance. The approach of grounded hypothesis begins with influencing quantitative to approach. It is essential to make contrast in making adaptability of the examination approaches. In quantitative research approach, members and analyst is extremely formal. On opposite, subjective research approach follows the historical backdrop of advancement in the specific field. Different diaries having subjective research approach follows the historical backdrop of improvement in the specific field that are exhibited in the writing survey area of the examination. On the other hand, various journals with qualitative focuses on recent journals and articles. There are mainly three types of data analysis process techniques used in research. The techniques are quantitative, qualitative as well as mixed approach. In the present research quantitative data analysis has been used.
Sampling technique
There are different types of research sampling used in academic research such as probability as well as non-probability sampling technique (Vera and Fabian 2016). In the research, simple random probability sampling technique has been utilized for selecting the samples for the research. Deployment of the random probability sampling technique is justified in the research. It allows the researchers to enable equal scopes for the research.
Accessibility issues
While considering the research, some issues have been faced that may have an effect on evaluating the importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. As the research has been conducted in the particular industry, the research cannot be used as secondary sources for every industry sectors.
Validity
It is related to the extent of the process that measures the appropriate elements required for measurement. It is also referred as the process of measuring the instruments as it is intended for the procedure management.  Internal as well as external validity refers to the result of the research outcomes and the external validity refers to the results of the research replicated to several environments.
Ethical Consideration and Limitation of the study
There are rules created to the data collection and data evaluation. This leads to the fact that the data management is done with the help of the legal attires. In this case the data management is governed with the Data Collection Act 1998.  
The major problem that is faced is that the time that was that the time that was allotted for the completion if the project was not enough, leading to the fact that the efficiency of the data management was not very high. Allotted amount was also insufficient in the processing of the data management.
Summary
In the current chapter, the use of research methodological tools are justified as it allowed the researcher to analyze the importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction for reducing the impact on environment. It is justified by applying the scientific approach as well as discussion of the factors along with the issues related to importance of carbon footprint calculation in the field of construction to reduce the impact on environment. The right development of the methodology would assist to conduct the research in proper way and get expected result. Appropriate determination and utilization of methodological instruments has helped for fulfillment of the exploration effectively. It is imperative to create proper approach for fruitful finishing of the exploration that is accomplished in the present section of the examination. Furthermore, approaches, outlines and reasoning have been appropriately utilized in the exploration. Henceforth, foreseen consequences of the exploration can be acquired effortlessly. 
Findings and Analysis
This particular chapter focuses on the findings that are being gathered from the secondary sources. A carbon footprint calculator is being approached for measuring the rate of total emitted harmful green House Gases from the construction of a building in Lebanon. In order to carry out this research work secondary data sources are used in terms of literature review. Different tools are available those are widely applied for getting the result successfully. In order to calculate the rate of carbon from individual raw materials is possible through these formulae. The result generated from the multiplication among quantity of the raw material, is density, embodied carbon in that particular material will help to calculate the total amount of emitted carbon from that material. In addition to this, there is another formulae that is used for the calculation is case based reasoning retrieval. All these related information are collected from the secondary research and the gathered data are analysed in this chapter.
Findings from the study
The examination develops a total structure of carbon surge showing that consolidates the showing of imperativeness use, water usage, essentialness capable advancement, material age, transportation, and the complete of-life examination of improvement materials. The extensive structure of carbon release showing will set up the genuinely essential framework that the business needs to absolutely and constantly measure carbon outpourings all through a building lifecycle (Akbarnezhad, Ong and Chandra 2014). The individual showing strategies used offer a method for carbon surges estimation that can be associated with building parts and materials that are not anchored by this examination. The carbon release for the improvement of a building has been assessed using Carbon Footprint analyst from the materials and transport in the midst of the advancement.
The below table presents the total amount of carbon emission from the materials being used for the construction of a building in Lebanon along with the carbon emissions from transportation:

Sub-totals

tonnes CO2

%

Quarried Material

565.5

54%

Timber

4.6

0%

Concrete, Mortars & Cement

148.6

14%

Metals

304.7

29%

Plastics

24.1

2%

Miscellaneous

0.0

0%

Plant emissions

0.0

0%

Waste Removal

0.0

0%

Portable site accommodation

0.0

0%

Material transport

0.3

0%

Personnel travel

0.0

0%

 

Significant materials (figures include transport to site)

 

 

Asphalt

389.250

tonnes CO2

Steel: Stainless (UK typical)

172.200

tonnes CO2

Cement: unknown type

123.200

tonnes CO2

Stone gravel/chippings

93.500

tonnes CO2

Stone: general

80.360

tonnes CO2

Steel: General

79.650

tonnes CO2

Aluminium: General

49.450

tonnes CO2

PVC: general

24.109

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:3 cement:sand mix)

12.081

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:½:4½ cement:lime:sand mix)

10.396

tonnes CO2

Plywood

4.060

tonnes CO2

Steel: Bar & Rod

3.425

tonnes CO2

Sand

2.380

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:2:9 cement:lime:sand mix)

1.783

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:4 cement:sand mix)

1.427

tonnes CO2

Particle Board

0.511

tonnes CO2

Medium diesel car, 1.7 to 2.0 litres (gCO2e/km)

0.006

tonnes CO2

SUV: diesel (gCO2e/km)

0.004

tonnes CO2

Large petrol hybrid car (gCO2e/km)

0.003

tonnes CO2

Bus

0.001

tonnes CO2

The total carbon footprint that has been calculated for the construction of a building is 1048 tonnes fossil CO2. The carbon emission related to the personal travel is presented as below:

Private transport CO2

0.0124335

Public transport CO2

0.001242

Total travel CO2 (t)

0.0136755

 
The below table presents the total amount of carbon emission from the materials being used for the construction of a building in UK along with the carbon emissions from transportation:

Sub-totals

tonnes CO2

%

Quarried Material

596.1

49%

Timber

12.5

1%

Concrete, Mortars & Cement

159.0

13%

Metals

380.4

31%

Plastics

54.1

4%

Miscellaneous

8.2

1%

Plant emissions

0.0

0%

Waste Removal

0.0

0%

Portable site accommodation

0.0

0%

Material transport

0.5

0%

Personnel travel

0.0

0%

 

Significant materials (figures include transport to site)

 

 

Asphalt

427.500

tonnes CO2

Steel: Stainless (UK typical)

184.500

tonnes CO2

Cement: unknown type

132.000

tonnes CO2

Stone gravel/chippings

80.886

tonnes CO2

Stone: general

85.120

tonnes CO2

Steel: General

88.500

tonnes CO2

Aluminium: General

98.918

tonnes CO2

PVC: general

24.109

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:3 cement:sand mix)

12.491

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:½:4½ cement:lime:sand mix)

11.365

tonnes CO2

Plywood

5.693

tonnes CO2

Steel: Bar & Rod

8.567

tonnes CO2

Sand

2.625

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:2:9 cement:lime:sand mix)

1.954

tonnes CO2

Mortar (1:4 cement:sand mix)

1.592

tonnes CO2

Particle Board

2.557

tonnes CO2

Medium diesel car, 1.7 to 2.0 litres (gCO2e/km)

0.010

tonnes CO2

SUV: diesel (gCO2e/km)

0.015

tonnes CO2

Large petrol hybrid car (gCO2e/km)

0.008

tonnes CO2

Bus

0.004

tonnes CO2

Natural rubber

8.159

tonnes CO2

The total carbon footprint that has been calculated for the construction of a building is 1211 tonnes fossil CO2. The carbon emission related to the personal travel is presented as below:

Private transport CO2

0.03353

Public transport CO2

0.00624705

Total travel CO2 (t)

0.03977705

Analysis
The development business contributes more than 40% of carbon spreads and makes essential proportion of headway and pounding garbage which is secured into landfills. While a touch of the flotsam and jetsam can be reused, reused, and utilized as biomass fuel for centrality. Building errands eat up huge proportions of energy, at any rate there are just a couple of complete examinations that check carbon spreads considering the entire building lifecycle. Immense amounts of these examinations are driven in free carbon stages, which may miss spreads that a conclusion to-end survey would get. The reason behind this examination is to make systems to study and assess the carbon floods and the trademark affect all through the change of a working in Lebanon. This examination organizes earlier models and techniques, recollecting a definitive goal to create wide models and frameworks that would all the more precisely evaluate, track and survey carbon and characteristic related highlights, parts and components. This examination utilizes data and information that range four activities extending from current green building plans, approaches to manage pick the carbon spreads and carbon overflowing decrease of green highlights in green structures, to the carbon improvements of trade materials.
Transportation strategies of change materials, energy and water gobble up a lot of centrality. The divisions of which materials are dispatched from their stand-out sources to be familiar adjoining contrasts and the proportion of significance foreseen that would transport them. The green building insistence process in the U.K., systems for transportation is one of the segments that green structures can get additional credits for. For instance, bicycle racks and changing room establishment and pleasing access to open transportation could get to 7 focuses. LEED in the U.K. in addition yields focuses to structures that utilization close-by materials for chopping down fuel use on transport.
From the findings it can be inferred that, evaluating the negative effect of building development materials are particularly essential in light of the fact that most level of the characteristic assets are being devoured by the development ventures. Overall it expends more than 40 percent of crude materials and furthermore 4 to 8 percent of aggregate devoured energy that are identified with the development parts, for example, material assembling for the development ventures, redesign, obliteration, transportation, choking and so on. It is discovered that, the clients are should have been sufficient comfortable with the procedure of carbon impression estimation including the gauges, articulations, wordings and so forth as this approach is very unpredictable from the clients points of view. As the way toward building development are ending up particularly complex step by step hence, the necessity to comprehend and cut the energy utilizations rate identified with them are additionally winding up especially basic. The worldwide framework for building appraisals that is utilized for advancing the development manageability inside the building area are likewise shown in this investigation. Keeping in mind the end goal to give effective affirmation for the rating framework the carbon impression and LCA computation are resolved as significant parts. Distinctive techniques for count are being exhibited in this examination for ascertaining the carbon impression from the development building venture. For this examination the contextual analysis that is picked is a Lebanon based building development undertaking and its size, area and the materials utilized for this development. Aside from this, alternate segments that are generally considered for this undertaking incorporate carbon data director, accessible arrangement carbon impression estimation, Green House Gas outflow based information. However, the point of the investigation is to distinguish the critical pretend of carbon impression estimation to gauge the rate of radiated CO2 and other Green House Gases from the building site of a working in Lebanon yet at the same time the examination ought not be restricted to the real advances and their application rather for future extension the examination should concentrate more on the courses through which the rate of the emanation of the Green House Gases can be lessened to keep the earth less contaminated and destructive.
Summary
After analyzing the details of the study it has been found that, 40 percent of the total consumptions of energy are occurring due to the excessive emission of the carbon footprint or harmful Green House Gases. The carbon footprints are generating from the different activities of the construction industry. Different prior models and methods are also applied including carbon footprint calculation method to measure the total amount of emission of the harmful gases. From the analysis and the findings chapter it is defined that maximum rate of emission are happening in the construction business. Similarly, the construction project for development of a building in Lebanon is also responsible to emit the most amount of carbon footprint. In order to reduce the rate of this emission different modern building development strategies are required to be adopted by the construction owners and the construction project head.  
Results
From the findings and analysis the generated results are all discussed in this chapter. In the field of building construction in Lebanon different raw materials from the natural resources are used. During the construction period of the building from individual raw materials carbon footprint generates. Among different types of carbon footprint calculators the most suitable calculator and its application and business efficiency in the construction field are discussed in this chapter. Moreover, it can be said that the main focus of this chapter is to calculate the total emission from the entire building construction project of Lebanon. The calculator is professionally applied and the details are discussed accordingly in order to accomplish the research work. For this research topic the research method that is used is the secondary result. From the detail discussion upon the result the future scope and other limitation that may interrupt the success of the project are also demonstrated in this chapter.
Discussion
This model has been maintaining an appropriate systematic way to deal with the measure of carbon outflow in the development business. There have been different preferences of Input-Output show in the business. It is effortlessly gotten to for macroeconomic information as the vast majority of the nations have appropriate measurements division for monitoring the power and water utilization in the part. There are some detriment that macroeconomic information requires enormous number of suppositions that cannot be broken into part for information driven approach. The unrealistic factor of IO models have been keeping up process models in the market that have been making carbon discharges in the earth. Carbon emanation has been a noteworthy issue for the development business as it has been becoming hard to stop pollutants from smoke of the industry. This model can be modulated in the industry generated smoke. Therefore, there can be emulation of the smoke generation in the chimneys of the industries and factories.  The use of the model van be evacuated in the calculation of carbon emission. The use of different criteria in the dependency of the carbon emission articles have been maintaining the pollution in the country.
In the midst of the advancement of a building, the carbon discharges are a consequence of the social affair procedure of change materials, the fuel use for machines and vehicles, and power supply for electric mechanical gatherings. The carbon discharges at this time of the building lifecycle are the exemplified carbon transmissions of an extending in light of the way that the carbon floods begin from the grungy materials, change process, and establishment. Green Building Certification is a superior than normal begin for the change business to benchmark the typical effect of their things. In any case, the present Green Building Certification around the globe removes the carbon impression count for guaranteed structures. The positive energy of green building outlines may not be mulled over the fixations and rating in the authentication. It is difficult to get a handle on the basic effect through center interests. In 2008, the New Building Institute completed an examination on energy execution on LEED affirmed new change structures. It demonstrated that the figuring no doubt would not have been correct because of the fluctuation of lifecycle cost assessment. A comparative report demonstrated that LEED guaranteed structures are 29% less centrality great. It is hard to have close outcomes utilizing different frameworks, and it featured the flaw of the present rating structures. This examination displays that carbon discharges, a famous factor, can be considered on and identified with the building structures in future change around there utilizing the demonstrating strategies said in this organization. The proposed models ought to be utilized as rules to enroll the carbon spreads, including the epitomized carbon discharges, for structures all through the building lifecycle. The proposed demonstrating frameworks ought to be reached the spaces that are not requested in this hypothesis, for example, electronic gadgets and mechanical congregations, on region supportable power sources (wind, sun arranged, and geothermal), blower, evaporator, and condenser in the HVAC structure, and outside lighting. For future research, information and models require be changed according to fit the necessities particularly nations because of geographic, political, innovative and way of life contrasts and a bound city-based technique ought to be produced.
Summary
From the result and discussion chapter it is determined that, based on the specific requirements of the countries (in terms of geographical, political, imaginative etc) proper city based construction methodology should be adopted by the constructors. The Lebanon energy Information administration is responsible to motivate the associates during the execution of the building construction project. The advantages and the disadvantages of the input output model of the projects are also illustrated in this chapter. Before finalizing the construction project always a blueprint of the project should be prepared and also approved by the project head also government support is required for the successful application of the building construction project. The main aim of the study is also identified in terms of reducing the rate of carbon footprint emission through discussion upon the gathered results.
Conclusion
From the overall discussion it can be concluded that, assessing the negative impact of building construction materials are very much crucial because most percentage of the natural resources are being consumed by the construction projects. Worldwide it consumes over 40 percent of raw materials and also 4 to 8 percent of total consumed energy that are related to the construction components such as material manufacturing for the construction projects, renovation, demolition, transportation, constriction etc. It is found that, the users are needed to be enough familiar with the process of carbon footprint measurement including the standards, expressions, terminologies etc as this approach is quite complex from the users perspectives. As the process of building construction are becoming very much complex day by day therefore, the requirement to understand and cut the energy consumptions rate related to them are also  becoming very much essential. The international system for building ratings that is used for promoting the construction sustainability within the building sector are also demonstrated in this study. In order to give successful certification for the rating system the carbon footprint and LCA calculation are determined as crucial parts. Different methods of calculation are being demonstrated in this study for calculating the carbon footprint from the construction building project. For this study the case study that is chosen is a Lebanon based building construction project and its size, location and the materials used for this construction. Apart from this, the other components that are widely considered for this project include carbon information manager, available policy carbon footprint calculation, Green House Gas emission based data. Though, the study is focused on identifying the important role played by carbon footprint calculation to measure the rate of emitted CO2 and other Green House Gases from the construction site of a building in Lebanon but still the study should not be limited to the major technologies and their application rather for future scope the study should focus more on the ways through which the rate of the emission of the Green House Gases can be reduced to keep the environment less polluted and harmful.
Recommendations
With the conclusion from the entire study it is defined that no specific persona and industry is there that is responsible for the harmful Green House Gas (GHG) emission. On the other hand no particular person is responsible for managing and monitoring the carbon footprint emission from the construction building in Lebanon. The main reason behind the harm is that there is no such carbon and environmental policies are being followed by the construction industries. In addition to this, no such form of carbon emission assessment is followed by the building constructors. In order to manage the rate of carbon emission in Lebanon building construction some recommendations are given below:
Development of carbon management department: During the development of any large construction project, the project executive should design a carbon management team along with an information manager for individual components. It will be responsibility of the information manager to develop their own direction to gathering energy related data and they can also do this with either manual process or automated computerized or digitized systems.
Carbon management strategies: Proper carbon management strategies are to be designed by the construction project manager at the project initiation phase considering the size, raw materials and location of the construction site. The manager must also make sure that the strategies are commercial profitable for the construction project.
Proper communication: Proper communication across the project team members should be approached to deliver proper awareness among the project team members regarding carbon emission and its harm. The impact of the emission on environment due to changing climate can also be discussed among the team members if proper communication and target is set.
General awareness program creation: General awareness among the construction project manager and the other stakeholders of the construction should be spread to make sure that, carbon emission based issues are minimized accordingly.
Training program: Proper on job training and development programs should be arranged by the construction project manager to make sure that the carbon footprint calculation is running accurately without any error. With accurate measurement the environmental issue management strategies will become much easier from the building constriction project’s executives.
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