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Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

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Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The intention of this research is to conduct an investigation into the medical risks in adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Available literature shows that Sub-Saharan Africa experiences higher rates of medical complications and maternal deaths, resulting from adolescent pregnancies (Farber, 2009). Various studies that explore this challenge are united on the fact that cultural factors, poor access to prenatal medical services and peer pressure are the leading factors that contribute to the medical challenges and prenatal deaths of adolescents (East & Felice, 1996). Available statistics show that the age of marriage is relatively lower in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other parts of the world.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

This is mainly because of the fact that girls in Sub-Saharan Africa tend to be forced into marriages below the age of 18. Some of the factors that contribute to early pregnancies are that young girls come under heavy societal pressure to engage in sexual activities with relatively older men. Despite the inclusion of sex education into the schools’ curriculum, studies have found out that a significant percentage of young girls are still vulnerable to early pregnancies (East & Felice, 1996).




Lack of efficient systems to enforce community sensitization has been cited to be among the main reasons, which contribute to early pregnancies in schools. Statistics show that nearly 70,000 adolescents die of pregnancy related complications in the developing world. This study will focus on the medical risks that are associated with adolescent pregnancies every year. The study will also seek to expose the factors that are central to these risk factors with a goal of establishing the most suitable remedial actions that could be adopted. The study will also seek to expose weaknesses in the current approaches that have attempted to address the question of teenage pregnancies.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Various studies that have explored the matter of adolescent pregnancies tend to focus on the medical and psychosocial perspectives of the problem. Other studies have tended to focus on the factors that contribute to adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Neinstein, 2007). Research of particular cases in the region has indicated that pregnant adolescents do not readily access prenatal care. One of the reasons behind this challenge is that the stigma, associated with adolescent pregnancy, makes it difficult for the girls to seek or receive support from their parents or elders (Arai, 2009). These girls do not have stable incomes and have to rely on dependants to cater for their medical needs during pregnancies.

The high poverty index in Sub-Saharan region means that the dependants, on whom these girls rely, lack the means to take care of their prenatal medical needs (Cherry, 2001). Another reason that shields the girls from quality healthcare services during pregnancies is that the gender disparity in Sub-Saharan Africa makes it difficult for the girls to access medical care in their homes. Usually, girls do not access means of self-sustenance as boys do. Usually, the challenge lies in the fact that girls tend to seek support from elderly dependants, which makes them vulnerable to different systems of abuse within the domestic circles. At the age of 18 and below, most girls in Sub-Saharan Africa are still at low levels of education (Schneider, 2010). They lack the knowledge and skills to take care of themselves, when they become pregnant. As a result, many of them become vulnerable to medical complications that accompany pregnancies.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Research has shown that adolescents are more likely to suffer from premature births than mature women are. The period of pregnancy exerts some form of psychological imbalances in the adolescent, which makes them develop certain medical complications that cause premature death. Naturally, the state of mind is important in determining the capacity of the adolescent to hold the pregnancy. Comparatively, mature women are more mentally stable than adolescents, who have to fight with the stigma that comes from the family and members of the society. The adolescents tend to adopt a siege mentality. They acknowledge the fact that the immediate society does not endorse their state of pregnancy.

Studies have shown that many adolescents contemplate both suicide and abortion at some point (Males, 2010). Many others attempt unsuccessfully to procure abortion. Both practices tend to affect the health of the babies and the young mothers. A combination of these two factors often leads to abortion. The state of pregnancy involves heavy psychological and physical challenges to the adolescents (Males, 2010). Some of the young mothers have not developed sufficiently to enable them handle the challenges that come with pregnancy (Linsley, Kane & Owen, 2011). The biological strain that accompanies pregnancy often leads some of the adolescents to experience increased physical strains that could develop into adverse consequences such as premature births and miscarriages (Males, 2010).

Research has indicated that adolescent pregnancy is also associated with poor access to contraceptives (Males, 2010). The outlying areas outside the African metropolis have poor access to contraceptives because governments and donors cannot easily access these regions. Lack of contraceptives places significant challenges on sexuality and reproductive health matters for adolescents. The levels of vulnerability to teenage pregnancy are usually linked to the vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases. The frequencies of adolescent pregnancies have also been correlated with the amount of exposure and the levels of permissiveness for the African societies in the Sub-Saharan parts of the continent.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The problematic transition of girls into the state of womanhood is also quoted to be among the key factors that influence adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cultural factors that determine the transition of girls into women lack sufficient structures to cater the health needs of the girl child (Dean, Ducey & Malik, 1998). These deficiencies ultimately expose the young women to health challenges, when they become pregnancy before the age of 18. The major implications of the health challenges that relate to adolescent pregnancy are that they affect adversely on the state of health of the expected newborn babies. Research, conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, has related the high incidences of infant mortality rate to the adolescent pregnancies (Dean, Ducey & Malik, 1998). Children, born of adolescent mothers, are more susceptible to health complications than those, born of mature women are.

One of the prevalent health challenges in adolescent pregnancies is low birth weight. Research literature shows that children born of adolescent mothers are more likely to exhibit the problem of low birth rate than those, born of relatively mature mothers (Dean, Ducey & Malik, 1998). The health practices and lifestyles of girls who fall pregnant during adolescence usually expose them to certain health risks that affect the development stages of the baby. In an effort to conceal the outward symptoms of pregnancy, girls will tend to adopt certain nutrition practices in order to maintain smaller shapes of their bodies. For instance, some of them will tend to avoid meals or turn to junk food in the hope of maintaining their pre-pregnancy bodies. Some of these practices have been blamed for the low birth weight of their babies.

There is often the tendency among pregnant adolescents to seek medical attention during the third trimester of their pregnancies. Various social and psychological reasons account for this. The lengthy periods that are taken before the adolescents seek prenatal medical care have been cited among factors that complicate the maternal health of expectant adolescents (Leik, 2007). Biological development of adolescents varies across individuals. Despite the fact that scientific research has proved that girls are reproductively mature by the age of 13, other findings show that this age is associated with higher levels of vulnerability in the cases of pregnancies (White & Truax, 2007). The indication that biological factors of adolescents influence their general growth is explained by the fact that more adolescents are more susceptible to fistula and other complications that relate to childbirth. Past statistics have also indicated that the maternal mortality rates are likely to be higher among adolescents than in mature women.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Numerous studies have been tasked with the responsibility of explaining the biological impacts of early pregnancies on adolescents, few studies have attempted to explore the kind of association that exists between the psychological and biological factors. Researches conducted on adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa have indicated that the mental development of the adolescents has a significant impact on the health status of the adolescents during pregnancies (Seidman, 2008). Sub-Saharan Africa is largely patriarchal in terms of its socio-cultural organizations. This part of the continent is regarded as a place for the systematic subjugation of the rights of women. Sociological studies have offered the explanation that the patriarchal edifice regards the women’s body as a terrain for conquest. It is because of this reason that young women below the age of 18 are brought under the influence of the domineering power of patriarchy.

Sociologically, the high incident of adolescent pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa is culturally perceived as the outward manifestation of triumphant patriarchy. The patriarchal edifice considers free women as agents inimical of its power. Adolescent pregnancies have been considered variously as a device for the patriarchal world order to place the resurgent feminism within controls. Notably, societies that exhibit higher levels of matriarchal influence are less likely to show high incidences of adolescent pregnancies. The manifestation of these powers hints at a latent struggle for control of cultural and social power across the gender divide. Similarly, societies that invest more in the education of the girl child are less likely to suffer from the phenomena of early pregnancies as compared to societies that block the movement of women into positions of power.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The use of sex as an instrument of patriarchal control has also been quoted as one of the factors that influence teenage pregnancy. The struggle for the domination of the patriarchal mindset has often included the desire to possess and subdue a woman’s body. It is within this context of understanding that the health challenges, facing pregnant adolescents, have been contextualized within the cultural milieu of the Sub-Saharan setting. Some studies have attempted to explore the cultural links that determine the state of reproductive health of the African girls (Seidman, 2008). This cultural link and social matters must be understood together with some of the cultural practices that include female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation (FGM) remains a rampant practice in many communities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Generally, FGM is based on the need to control the sexuality of the African girl child in order to keep her place and profile in the society (Dean, Ducey & Malik, 1998).

Pregnant adolescents comprise a vulnerable segment to HIV and AIDS pandemic. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions that are adversely affected by HIV and AIDS pandemic (Dean, Ducey & Malik, 1998). The high levels of vulnerability and prevalence have been linked to socio-cultural factors and poor access to resourceful information. Generally, the continent is challenged in terms of the budgetary allocations necessary to contain the spread of diseases. The naivety of the adolescents exposes them to the disease as they lack sufficient information on matters of sexuality. The high incident of teenage pregnancy illustrates the fact about the shortage of contraceptives and inaccessibility of knowledge and information. Up to this level, it might be argued that the health challenges, facing pregnant adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, result from a multiplicity of factors that range from medical, educational, cultural, and socio-economic.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Evidence-Based Practices

In the course of time, various steps have been taken into place with the objective of arresting the high incidence of adolescent pregnancies. Generally, two approaches have been used in an effort to increase the knowledge levels of adolescents and shield them from the adverse effects of early pregnancies. The first approach has been the development of a knowledge–based system of managing the prenatal needs of the underage mothers. These needs are divided into the health needs and the psychosocial needs. The pregnant adolescents are regarded as a vulnerable section of the society who cannot manage their situation in a manner that allows them to integrate sufficiently with the larger society.

The prenatal care offered to the adolescent mothers is aimed at assisting them carry on with the pregnancies in ways that are not injurious to their reproductive health. The programs are designed to take care of the health needs of the pregnant adolescents and the unborn babies. This part of the program is meant to fill into the gaps, created by the socio-economic deficiencies and social stigma, which prevent the pregnant adolescents from seeking or accessing prenatal care. The need to balance the emotional, psychological, and physical needs of the adolescents forms the integral part of this intervention strategies. Past studies have also argued for the need for the adolescents to be equipped in terms of the basic knowledge about childcare to prepare them for the task of motherhood.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Research on adolescent pregnancies has shown that the young mothers are faced with daunting psychological challenges during the early parts of motherhood. According to these studies, the pregnant adolescents find themselves in an intricate situation, concerning self-identity. On the one hand, the adolescents have lost their identity as children. The pregnancy and the coming of the baby mean that they have transcended into the process of motherhood. On the other hand, the adolescents have not matured psychologically into the role of motherhood. This lack of a clearly identified role imparts on them challenges that require tender psychological counseling.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Another remedial approach that has been directed towards pregnant mothers involves preventive care. This involves the systematic sensitization of the young girls about the possible dangers of unprotected sex. This kind of response should take place both in formal and informal levels. Informally, the vulnerable groups are to be introduced into a comprehensive body of knowledge that prepares them for the possible impacts of adolescent pregnancies. This information section is created out of the awareness that those school curriculums are not sufficiently structured to cover the expansive field of reproductive health. Past studies that have explored the apparent mismatch between curriculum designs and reproductive health have cited time limit as one of the challenges that cause inefficiency in the dissemination of the information.




One of the strengths of this study is that it attempted to situate the problem of teenage pregnancy within a multiplicity of perspectives. Particularly, the inclusion of the cultural perspective into the study was resourceful in the sense that it would provide deeper insights for the health care workers into the problem of adolescence pregnancy. The occurrence of adolescence pregnancy is understood as a social problem with diverse connections and linkages with different forces. Another important strength of this research is that it incorporates combined strategies that aim at preventing adolescence pregnancies and providing antenatal care for pregnant adolescents. This dual approach enables the study to combine the various factors that are integral to the remedial strategies, regarding adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The only flaw of this study is that it limits its methods towards the Sub-Saharan situation. The challenge of adolescent pregnancies is complicated and relative to cultural factors. It would mean that the applicability of the methods, adopted for this study, is only limited to the Sub-Saharan Africa situation. Implicitly, the study cannot be generalized to apply to other situations such as the United States of Africa and parts of Europe that continue to experience high incidents of adolescent pregnancies. However, this study would prove resourceful in addressing the topic of adolescent pregnancies in areas and regions that have a string cultural element to the problem.

Summary and Future Directions

Lessons, Learnt in the Study

In this study, I have learnt about the various factors that determine the high incidence of adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. I have also learnt about the various causative factors together with the possible remedies that might be embraced by social workers to address the challenge. From the literature, I also learnt about the various health and psychological impacts of adolescent pregnancies on the vulnerable groups. The study showed that the high prevalence of adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by environmental and cultural factors that are peculiar to the African region. The study also revealed that there is a dominant factor of socio-economic challenges, which determine the nature of adolescent pregnancies.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The different studies showed that poverty, low levels of education, and weak approaches to curriculum on reproductive health appeared as some of the determining factors of adolescent pregnancies. The literature explored also revealed that the incidents of adolescent pregnancies are linked to the degree of permissiveness of the society. It could be argued that adolescent pregnancies are a factor of various societal and individual factors that work together to determine the degrees of vulnerability of the teenagers. A comprehensive understanding of these factors would provide health practitioners with the best possible approaches of tacking the challenge. The study was based on a general approach that seeks to find a solution through the manipulation of the different structures that determine the nature and occurrence of adolescent pregnancies.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Specific Interventions for Health Workers

The intervention of health workers should be based on a comprehensive approach that combines cultural, medical, and psychological remedies for the challenge of adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health workers must appreciate the fact that adolescent pregnancies are vulnerable and require close healthcare observation. Preventive measures such as increasing of awareness should be adopted for the purposes of increasing the knowledge and skills for the vulnerable groups. This could be done by conducting outreach missions to sensitize populations on the need to adopt safer practices.

Health workers should emphasize more on the sensitization of the vulnerable groups on the aspects of reproductive health with specific emphasis on adolescent pregnancies. Health workers should adopt approaches that seek to prevent teenage girls from the possibility of early pregnancies. Some of the approaches could include outreach programs that are directed towards sensitization and creation of awareness for the vulnerable, regarding the matter of teenage pregnancies. The creation of awareness must relate to the nature of associations between the various causative factors and the possible remedies to the challenge of adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The second level of intervention should include psychosocial and prenatal therapies for victims of early pregnancies. Health workers should be cognizant of the cultural element in Sub-Saharan Africa so that they treat the girls in their totality as individuals, whose lives are largely determined by cultural factors. The identification of the negative influences and the promotion of positive attributes should dominate the strategies to be adopted by the health workers. Ultimately, the merit of this study lies in its recognition of the diverse and complex nature of human beings. The awareness of the complex interplay of factors that determine the occurrence and prevalence of adolescent pregnancies in Africa is fundamental to the general process of remedying the situation. The cultural, socio-economic, psychological, and medical approaches to the challenge of adolescent pregnancies are fundamental to resolving the challenge of adolescent pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Out of sight, out of mind” seems to be the philosophy of most schools when the topic of sex is brought up. Teen pregnancy is becoming more and more common across the United States. In Andrew Cherry’s book, Teenage Pregnancy a Global View, he states “the United States has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy”. I believe it could help be prevented by revising the sexual education classes taught in late elementary school, middle school, and high school, if taught anything at all. As I recall throughout my years of schooling all I had been taught was how my body worked and what could happen if I had “sex”, a term so foreign to me I honestly didn’t know what it meant. I was not educated about what it is, what occurs when it happens, or what stipulations could come along with the action. Nowadays, some schools aren’t even allowed to speak of the subject. This is where the problem begins.
Teen pregnancy is an issue sweeping across the United States. Having one of the highest birth rates among teens, it has become a great ordeal. Teenage Pregnancy sends a person from childhood to adulthood in a matter of months. It is common that most people who have a child while in their teens will most likely not complete their schooling. It is also very common that these new teen parents will find themselves living in poverty after having their first child, which just so happens to be one of the leading causes of teen pregnancy therefore creating a path for the cycle to repeat itself. This matter isn’t only a problem for the teenager, but for the baby as well. Cherry states that “There are a number of serious medical and social problems associated with adolescent childbirth in the United States Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teenage pregnancy is one of the most worrying topics among other social problems. Here, we are going to speak about several main issues, which people can face. I am using such a general word `people`, as when we are speaking about the teen pregnancy, we are speaking not just about a girl, who got pregnant, but also about her parents, about the boy, who got her pregnant and of course about the unborn child. Teen pregnancy is very complex and need to be understood from a lot of different aspects. While I was getting ready to write argumentative essay on teenage pregnancy I had to study statistical data, even though it`s not always accurate. We can refer to National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unwanted Pregnancy, which provides annual data on the U.S. pregnancy rate among girls between 15 and 19. Also, we can check a huge amount of teen pregnancy essays, as people are concerned about this topic, they are willing to write about it and even sell their essays online later. Thus, the amount of information and sources is enough to get general knowledge on this topic.

Every year, approximately 16 million females aged 15–19 years and about one million females younger than 15 years old give birth worldwide (WHO 2014). Although most of these births occur in low- and middle-income countries, adolescent pregnancy remains a critical public health concern in developed countries (UNICEF 2013). From a public health perspective, adolescent pregnancy has a high-risk profile as the impact of multiple factors, including medical complications, lower educational level and long-term socio-economic consequences that confer increased risk of lifespan vulnerabilities to both mother and child. In addition, the perception of early childbearing as socially undesirable (McCarthy et al. 2014) contributes to the perception of adolescent pregnancy as a negative phenomenon (Pinzon and Jones 2012). However, there is a lack of understanding of how adolescents themselves understand adolescent pregnancy. Understanding the adolescent perspective on pregnancy could generate new insights into how policy makers as well as health and social care providers respond to the challenges of adolescent pregnancy.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

There are different reasons for adolescents to become pregnant. Evidence suggests that the majority of teenage pregnancies are unplanned and undesired (e.g., Clear et al. 2012). Consequently, most studies focus on developing strategies for preventing teenage pregnancy. However, not all adolescents view their pregnancies as unintended. Recent research has begun to distinguish between different teenage pregnancy intentions profiles—in particular dividing along dimensions of intent, e.g., intended or planned, unintended, and ambiguous (Jaccard et al. 2003; Speizer et al. 2004).Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Planned (as distinct from unplanned) pregnancy in youth has been given relatively little attention in previous publications (Cater and Coleman 2006). Indeed, estimates of the degree of pregnancy intendedness among adolescents differ across samples. In a sample of USA females aged 14–17 years (Bartz et al. 2007), almost 6 % of participants reported that they were currently trying to get pregnant, whereas in another sample of urban USA females approximately 12 % of 15 to 19-year-olds declared plans to conceive at the time of the study (Kavanaugh and Schwarz 2009). In the United Kingdom, Teenage Pregnancy Strategy Evaluation (British Market Research Bureau International 2005) estimated that up to 10 % of teenage pregnancies had been planned.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Although a substantial body of research examines adult perceptions of teenage pregnancy, relatively few studies have explored adolescents’ perspectives (Herrman 2008). A number of quantitative studies examined pregnancy attitudes and intentions among young people, identifying common characteristics associated with positive attitudes toward early childbearing (e.g., Lau et al. 2014). Most of the published evidence in this group of adolescents concerns attitudes toward termination (Cater and Coleman 2006). Two narrative literature reviews have examined qualitative studies of teenage pregnancy in general, and identified evidence of positive perceptions of childbearing and a degree of planning among adolescent mothers. A meta-synthesis of studies investigating experiences of teenage mothers of children aged 3 months–3 years by Clemmens (2003) identified five themes including an observation that young motherhood, despite bringing hardship, provides a stabilizing influence and can positively transform an adolescent’s life. In a descriptive review of teenage pregnancy and motherhood, Spear and Lock (2003) reported that some adolescents recollect their pregnancies as being planned. As it has been suggested that pregnancy attitudes and intendedness may influence occurrence and outcomes of adolescent pregnancies (Phipps and Nunes 2012), gaining insight into young people’s attitudes toward it may improve understanding of the phenomena related to early childbearing. Consequently, the literature suggests that there is a lack of clarity over what is unique to adolescents perceptions and experiences of pregnancy, both in comparison to adult pregnancies, and in how we contextualize adolescent intended pregnancy in relation to adolescence development as a whole.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The above narrative reviews notwithstanding, there are no systematic literature reviews of how young people conceptualize intentional adolescent pregnancy. In particular, there is a paucity of qualitative examination of pregnancy perceptions (Rosengard et al. 2006). This is unfortunate, as examinations of qualitative research methods are acceptable approaches for investigating adolescents lifestyles and behaviors (Rich and Ginsburg 1999) and can be “especially appropriate for exploring issues about which little is known or written” (Burns 1999, p. 495).

Understanding young people’s perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of young parenthood is crucial for supporting adolescents in making better-informed decisions regarding their reproduction and leading them to safer and healthier futures (Rosengard et al. 2006). Improved understanding of pregnancy intent may also aid in designing more effective, appropriate and acceptable strategies for public health interventions. Cater and Coleman (2006, p. 6) argue that there is “a need for new materials/resources for professionals in order that they can work effectively with young people who have planned their pregnancy”. In this respect, a qualitative approach highlighting the subjective impression of adolescents provides an important stakeholder perspective in identifying the individual needs of this group.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teenage pregnancy emerged as a social issue within the United States in the 1970s, and somewhat later in South Africa. In this article I review South African research and literature concerning the consequences of teenage pregnancy, because it is on this level that teenage pregnancy is formulated as a problem. The literature is reviewed against the backdrop of some international research in order to provide a basis for comparison. Research on the disruption of schooling, socio-economic disadvantage, obstetric outcomes, inadequate mothering, neglect and abuse, relationship difficulties and demographic concerns is reviewed. Various gaps in the South African literature are identified. These include an inadequate theoretical grounding, a lack of gender and historical analyses, and no exploration of the power relations within which teenage pregnancy occurs.

Do you have the facts about teen pregnancy? Do you know the common early signs of pregnancy? How to have a healthy pregnancy at a young age? Here’s information that will help you understand teenage pregnancy.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teen pregnancy: The facts
The teen pregnancy rate (which includes pregnancies that end in a live birth and those that end in termination or miscarriage) has declined by 51 percent since 1991 – from 116.9 to 57.4 pregnancies per 1,000 teenage girls ages 15 to 19. Abstinence and the use of birth control are factors in the decrease, according to the Department of Health and Human Services.

U.S. teen birth rates have also declined. In 2015, a total of 229,715 babies were born to women ages 15 to 19, for a birth rate of 22.3 per 1,000 women in this age group, an 8-percent drop from 2014.

Still, the teen birth rate in the U.S. remains significantly higher than in other developed countries, according to the CDC.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teen pregnancy: The signs
Missing one or more menstrual periods is the classic sign of pregnancy. But this can be tricky for teenage girls, whose periods aren’t yet regular. It can also be tricky for girls whose cycles are off as a result of excessive dieting or exercise, low body fat from sports, or anorexia.

The rate of teen pregnancy goes higher and higher every year, especially in developing countries. The reason is that developing countries have lower level of life, more narrow access to information, lower level of medicine and obviously less opportunities for teenagers to fulfill their needs. On the other side, in developed countries, teenagers can have much more possibilities to bring their ideas to life: take part in certain areas of social life, have wide access to information and of course higher level of education, which make them more enthusiastic about life and learning process and the last one is higher level of medicine.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

1. Medical problems

Here it goes, the first main problem of teenage pregnancy is, of course, medical reasons. Teen parents have very high medical risks and should be very careful. Prenatal care is very important and should be delivered regularly and adequately. Not getting sufficient prenatal care can lead to premature birth, high blood pressure, low-birth-weight baby. Also, it`s very important to take all sorts of appropriate vitamins for teenage mother, as they may differ from the ones that adult mother needs. Folic acid is critically important for the future mother, ideally it should be taken before pregnancy, that will help a child to develop supposedly well and will help to prevent possible defects. Of course if the pregnancy wasn`t planned, as it often happens in the case of teen pregnancy, folic acid must be taken during the pregnancy.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

2. Financial problems

The second and not less important is financial security. Teenage family may face financial problems connected with medical care, living conditions, employment issues and so on. Financial support of medical care is on the top, as it refers to two people, a mother and a child. Mother should be provided with sufficient amount of appropriate food, vitamins, medical treatment if needed and, of course, regular check-ups in order to prevent probable difficulties. Health insurance might help here in order to be always protected and safe from any risks. Undoubtedly, medical insurance is impossible without money. After giving a birth, child should be provided with comfortable, warm and safe living conditions with extremely high level of hygiene. As we know environment has an influence on us since our birth and we carry this memory during our life. Thus, it`s very important to provide a child with essential living conditions, which apparently needs to be bought and paid for. To provide for his family, teen father needs to find a job. It`s perfect, if there are parents willing to help and they don`t need to be asked for help. In most cases, parents of teenage family don`t want to take any part in supporting their young kids who are suffering from financial problems. They are behaving this way in order to give them, a life lesson, but they rarely understand that their kids don`t need life lessons from their parents, the best teacher is life itself. The only thing they need is support and understanding, no matter what. This is the only way, kids can grow up healthily both physically and psychologically.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

3. Psychological problems

Let`s move to the third problem, that teenage family might face. Giving a birth in the age of 15 or 16 is very hard, because parents are still children themselves and they need support and a big push from their own parents to move on. Thus, It`s very important to have comfortable psychological conditions. What does it include? Comfortable psychological conditions include support from their parents, in case you don`t have any, it might get you in a problematic psychological state, which is inadmissible during pregnancy. Feeling of abandonment and loneliness can have an influence as on the mother of the child so on the unborn. Mother`s psychological state is extremely important as it is closely connected with the child`s future. Scientifically proved that children have memory in mother`s womb, thus it`s very important to provide mother with the most comfortable conditions. Memories that children had in a womb, will follow them during their lives: consciously or unconsciously.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

4. High level of abortion

The last problem which I would put on the top of importance is high level of abortion. When a 15-year old girl gets pregnant, the first feeling is fear. She is afraid of everything: if her parents will support her, if her boyfriend will accept a child, if she is able to give a birth to a new person and, what it more important, if she wants to be a mother at such young age. She is looking for answers inside her, but of course her fear tells her `No! `. Then she starts searching for possible ways to get rid of the child, this way she is going to get rid of all the fears at once. She is visiting the hospital, where there is a high chance some doctor will be found, who will agree to complete abortion for such a young girl. Abortion is very controversial topic, and I am not going to rise it up here, in teen pregnancy essay, as abortion is a topic for another essay. It should be just noted, that people were divided into two groups: who support a right for abortion and who are completely against it. In this essay on teenage pregnancy I would like to look at abortion from the medical side. The harm from the abortion can be unbearable for young organism. Obviously, there are high chances, that this young lady might not be able to have kids in the future, which happen way more often than we could imagine.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Thus, one of the most workable things that can prevent a teen mother to have all these problems at once is support. Support from her parents first of all and perfectly, support from the father of the child. Parents should understand, life is unpredictable, there are different situations that we should deal with. Common mistake is that parents can`t forgive, thinking that their kids should be perfect and the best. No, it`s not, they should be the way they are, genuine, with their own disadvantages and life troubles. Parents should provide decent upbringing on the first stage but then, they should learn how to let their kids go into the world, practically, let them go.

If you like teenage pregnancy essay you can order it online at our site While getting ready to write pregnancy essay, you should investigate statistical data for the past years. To be precise, statistic on teen pregnancy isn`t taken every year, so you can find just the latest data. Pregnancy essay should be based on facts, rather than assumption. As there a lot of different views on this subject, your essay should be argumentative enough. You can also check how to write argumentative essay at our site. If your teenage pregnancy argumentative essay comply with the given tips – it is condemned to success.

There were four main problems that teen mother can face. There is a solution to every problem, but here, there is only one real solution, as the teenagers aren`t responsible and financially stable yet, the only way to overcome current situation is to provide teenage family with the support. They need both psychological and financial support at the beginning of their lives. No doubts, children will respond with the same kind attitude to their parents in the future.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper


Being a parent at a very young age may really affect and destroy your future. According to a social worker at the Family Life Centre, Mushi Kolobe, “Young children who fall pregnant have serious challenges and they end up not being able to enjoy life like their peers.” She says because the life of a teen who is pregnant changes, things can never be the same any more. “You find that it disturbs you through your studies because you cannot just leave the baby alone once it is born,” she says.

“You have to make sure that the baby comes first and your education, which could be your key to a brighter future, comes second. You just cannot prioritise your time like you used to. Most importantly, your life will be affected in a negative way.” Mushi says that depression may hit hard on young parents. “They start to be depressed and some think it is the end for their lives. Some do very silly things and may feel like an abortion is the only way they can avoid complicated lives, without considering that even an abortion can complicate their lives too,” says Mushi.

Negative feedback from friends, family and society may leave a teenager who is pregnant feeling like a failure in life and lead to anxiety and stress. Some teenagers feel miserable because they weren’t expecting to be pregnant so soon and become disappointed in themselves. Relationship problems also surface around this time and the romantic relationship that the teens might have enjoyed changes into misery. All of this is unexpected and adds another layer of trauma.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper


According to Mushi who also started a Single Mothers Support Group, most teenagers get pregnant because of unemployment. “They often get pregnant because no one will support them financially so they say government will provide for them when they get pregnant, not knowing that this is when life becomes difficult,” she says, adding that poverty worsens the teen’s situation.

“Peer pressure pushes you to have a boyfriend that you think might provide for you and your child, which is not always a good thing to do,” Mushi warns. “The situation may at times be so bad that the teen may decide to hide the pregnancy due to the embarrassment they feel. Some get pregnant because they want to make their relationship strong, which is something that always ends up in bigger problems.”Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Most girls have time to make a decision whether to continue to be pregnant or not. This can be a very difficult choice to make for someone with little life experience and no capacity to make lifechanging decisions. “Some of these girls come to our organisation for help because they know that motherhood is a very difficult thing to do. We always do our best to assist them but being a young mother can never be easy. There are no easy ways or short cuts around it,” Mushi says.


It is also important to bear in mind that this is not something that only affects young girls; the young boys who are suddenly fathers also get affected. “Both the girl and boy face difficult challenges even though the girl may be affected to a greater extent than the boy. Usually the girl can’t further her studies because she is supposed to look after her child,” she says. “Education will be put on hold when you are pregnant; some pregnant teens even decide to quit high school.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Others who already planned to attend college in the future may put off those plans after becoming pregnant. They may decide to focus on the baby or getting married rather than pursuing their education.” Mushi says a boy can be able to continue with school but the biggest challenge for him is to now know how to compromise. “If he has been brought up well and is responsible, he will stick around and assist where he can. Sadly most boys choose to completely forget that they are fathers,” she says.


Once the baby is born, teenagers often neglect their babies leaving their parents, older siblings or relatives to take care of the child. “These teen girls are often afraid of parenthood and would rather be with their friends and boyfriends,” she says. “A teen may not be a suitable mother because she is overwhelmed by the constant needs of the baby. She may grow annoyed by the fact that she lacks freedom to interact with other people her age.”Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper


Is it advisable for teens to take contraceptives without their parents consent? It depends on the family. Pharmacies allow teens to come and buy contraceptives without any parental consent. This is not against the law. Mushi says teens should rather try to discuss sexual matters with an adult they trust or their parents or older siblings so that they can get good advice before they start engaging in sex.

How can teenage pregnancy be prevented?
This is when a person decides not to have sex until they are married.

Some think this is old-fashioned, others think it is morally the best thing to do. Don’t worry what other’s think – what do you think?Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Delaying Sex
Many people feel that they don’t want to wait until marriage before having sex.

At the same time they don’t want to rush into it and make costly mistakes. So they decide to delay having sex until they are older, more responsible, in a stable relationship with one partner, have a job, or have become independent of their parents.

Does this sound reasonable to you?
If you choose either abstinence or delaying sex, there are some further steps that will help to protect you:

Choose you friends carefully. Friends should want what is best for you, and they should respect your decision not to have sex. Beware of friends who try and pressure you into having sex.
Beware of situations, like a group of friends drinking or taking drugs that could lead to unsafe sex.
Beware of partners who claim ‘You must sleep with me to prove you love me.’
Listen and learn from those who have gone through teenage pregnancy. They know the mistakes and disadvantages, and can help you to avoid making the same mistakes.
Listen and learn from your parents about their life experiences. If they put restrictions on you, it is not necessarily because they want to make you suffer. Usually, it is because they want the best for you, so they do it to help and protect you.
If you decide that abstinence and delay sex are not the best decisions for you, and you’d rather not wait before having sex, then you should take time and effort to learn about the best means of protection:Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Contraception simply means using a method (mechanical or chemical) to prevent pregnancy. There are various contraceptives that work in different ways, but they are all designed to prevent pregnancy. Even if you wish to practice abstinence of delay sex, it’s important to learn as much as you can about contraception – knowledge is power.

Oral Contraception…… “the pill”
Injectable contraception…..”the injection”
Male and female condoms
Dual protection
Emergency contraception (should be used within 5 days of unprotected sex, or condom breakage)- Toll free no: 0800246432
Male and female sterilisation
For more information visit your nearest clinic

Know your HIV status
What can I do if I’m pregnant?
Take someone you trust with you and visit the Clinic to start antenatal care at 8 weeks (2 months) of pregnancy [rather – “miss one period and go to your nearest clinic and check if you are pregnant or not” and start ANC] Why is this necessary?Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Benefits of starting Antenatal care early
Receive knowledge about pregnancy and HIV
Voluntary counseling and HIV testing
Health care worker will assist in developing a plan that is suitable for you and your baby during antenatal, delivery and postnatal and you have to put this plan into practice as soon a you can.
Prevention mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) is available for all HIV positive pregnant women.
Eat healthy nutritious food, exercise, and get plenty of sleep.
Avoid drugs and alcohol
Prevent further sexually transmitted infections (STI’S, HIV) during Pregnancy
Practice safe sex, use a condom
Infant feeding counselling

Teenagers have a lot of changes in their body and psychology. Teenagers want to be adults although their body develops imperfectly. At this age, they are often curious about the other gender. As a result, teenagers have sex activities for a try. One of the consequences they have to bear is pregnancy due to a lack of birth control methods. Teenage sex has become a serious problem, even though sex actually has consequences, both emotionally and physically. Unfortunately, most teenagers often do not think about sex seriously. As a matter of fact, teen pregnancy has recently increased in the United States because of early puberty, lack of the parents’ care, and impact of drugs, sex movies and internet.Early puberty is often a difficult time for both boys and girls. Unlike other poor nations, food and nutrition in the United States are available to most of the people. Nutrition is an important element to contribute to early puberty in teens. When teenagers reach puberty, their secondary sex changes occur; this period of life is marked by the onset of menses in females and sperm production in males. Besides, boys and/or girls often get their minds distracted or become clumsy in actions. Because of the changes, teenagers think they have become adults already. Therefore, they determine to show off their being adult by looking for the other half of theirs. Unfortunately, many parents don’t realize that their children are changing. Instead, the parents sometimes yell at their children, which makes the children embarassed. Unintentionally, parents block the way for interaction and leave their children alone. In a lonely world, teenagers don’t have anyone to confide in, except for their friends. Because of the same age, teenagers share the same view of life. While embarrassed, teenagers might think out slanted. Here is the time that teenagers are most likely to fall in love with their boy friend or girl friend. As soon as love comes up, sex also follows. As a result, a lot of teenagers become pregnant, even for the first time they have sex. For those who become pregnant for the first time they have sex, sex actually is a problem of seriousness, and sex has horrible consequences.If teen pregnancy is attributed to the mistake of teenagers themselves, the parents also bear a part of the responsibility because they do not supervise their children strictly. In the United States, time is money, and Americans don’t spend time with each other. Moreover, most families are facing a lot of challenges in daily life.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teenage pregnancy is the occurrence wherein adolescents undergo pre-marital sex and thus begin to bear offspring at their age. According to NARAL Pro-Choice America’s statistics, America is currently facing an adolescent reproductive health crisis in which one out of three teenagers is revealed to be pregnant before the borderline adult age. Teenagers, because of their innate curiosity and incomplete development in terms of cognitive, mental, psychosocial, and emotional capabilities, often forget the consequences of being pregnant at their tender state. While teenage pregnancy rates persist to increase even in countries like the Philippines, concrete preventive measures must be undertaken so as to protect the adolescents of today. Therefore, with the intention of preventing further teenage pregnancies in the Philippines, both teenagers and parents alike must work together to instil proper education, right guidance and appropriate programs for the betterment of all the Philippine youth.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The first solution is to implement the proper education at the right time. Children nowadays are exposed to plenty of sexual innuendoes that tinker with their powerful curiosities, not knowing that these are actually strongly inappropriate for their age. Maria Kaitesi (2013) states that if sex education is taught properly in schools, the youth will be informed about the concepts behind sex, about the rapid changes their bodies go through and how to suitably address them, thus helping them undergo a safe adolescent period away from sexual temptations. Additionally, Douglas Kirby (2007) claims that comprehensive sex education programs do in fact work. Plenty of experts agree as well, saying that sex education is actually the remedy to the current teenage pregnancy trend (Kaitesi, 2013). This is for the reason that education is the primary and most effective weapon children have against the issues or phenomena surrounding them. Once a child is properly equipped with a strong and rich knowledge behind the concepts and dangers of sex, he/she will now be able to know how to combat against it on his own, and resist it upon self-initiative.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The next solution is to practice better parenting. In a study conducted by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy last 2008, teenagers themselves expressed that their parents are the most influential people to them when it came to issues and decisions about sex. Thus, acknowledging the powerful impact that parents have on their children’s sexual problems/queries, it must be emphasized that the teenagers are not alone when it comes to issues about sex; parents have their fair share of contributions as well. Parents must establish more effective parenting methods geared towards safe relationships through occasional explaining of sexual values to their children, knowing their acquaintances, proposing curfew, discouraging frequent and early dating, and many, many others. The behaviour of teenagers depend on how their parents rear them and raise them, so more effective prevention of teenage pregnancy actually springs from them.

The last solution would be to implement extra-curricular tasks for teenagers, so as to keep them occupied, and also to help develop their sense of independence and responsibility. Such extra-curricular activities may range from sports to simple community service. Extra-curricular activities or after-school programs reduce risky behaviour by providing teens with safe settings and positive models (NARAL Pro-Choice America, 2014). Supporting this is a statement from Jennifer Manlove and associates (2004), which states that the probability of teenagers having sex increases with the amount of their unsupervised hours. These after-school programs will reduce the number of such unsupervised hours while at the same time inculcate good decision-making patterns and skills, encourage friendly bonds, and foster independence, dignity and responsibility which will all help in deviating a teenager from disadvantageous vices such as pre-marital sex. Lastly, it was also said that teenage girls who were occupied with miscellaneous activities were more likely to delay sexual intercourse, less probable to become pregnant, and have fewer partners.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper




People say that educating children at a very early age actually develops their curiosity towards the idea of sexual intercourse instead of actually reducing it, because of the presence of mischievous and inquisitive characteristics of most children nowadays. Well, this might be true, but if they are not educated at the earliest and most practical ways possible, then they will continue on not knowing that sex is actually a bad thing for people their age. It would become more dangerous in the following stages of their lives if it is not controlled in the state wherein it is most vulnerable to change. Another refutation against the proposed solutions was that if stricter surveillance/parenting were to be established, teenagers were more likely to rebel and disobey their parents (BBC Science, UK, nd). Well, this is exactly what better parenting aims to prevent, not through suffocating parenting methods but through rational parenting methods that benefit not only the child but also the parents. Better parenting does not simply refer to stricter rules and grounds but more open-minded decisions and balanced advantages.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

The teenage stage happens to be the most hectic stage of a person’s life wherein a lot of decisions are forced to be made and a lot of temptations are demanded to be fulfilled, such as pre-marital sex (among many others). The fight against teenage pregnancy brought by pre-marital sex starts inside the home, school and the community. Unplanned teenage pregnancies may be stopped at the right time, with the right actions, if it is only given the necessary remedies. Early preventive procedures must therefore be established in schools through proper sex education, in homes through better parenting, and in communities with miscellaneous programs/activities, to achieve an effective and timely countermeasure for rising teenage pregnancy rates.

The teenage pregnancy rate for 1997 rose all the way up to 62.7 percent, this was the highest it has been in years! When I first saw this fact I knew something would have to be done about it. This high pregnancy rate in teenagers is in fact a major problem, because teenagers are not responsible enough to raise a baby. There are many possible solutions to prevent teenage pregnancy like discouraging early dating, abstinence, and using birth control and condoms. Although there are all these possible solutions the pregnancy rate is still very high. So we need to evaluate the possible solutions and pick the best one to grow on to help lower the teenage pregnancy rate.

What has caused the teenage pregnancy rate to get so high? One reason for such a high rate is the solutions people suggest that teenagers use to prevent getting pregnant. Society tells teenagers over and over these solutions that are simply unacceptable to most teenagers.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Solution Finding Stimulus-Behave as-if your solution is happening.
Solution Finding Stimulus-Behave as-if your soluti…
Final weeks of pregnancy
Final weeks of pregnancy
Men and hetairai in sexual intercourse.
Men and hetairai in sexual intercourse.
Also the lack of information on pregnancy also causes this higher rate, because teenage girls are not informed enough about how hard being pregnant really is. Most teenagers are smart enough to know that if they engage in having sexual intercourse they have the chance of getting pregnant. They do not realize how big of a life altering change having a baby is though.

Possible solutions to help prevent pregnancy are discouraging early dating, abstinence, and using birth control and condoms. Although there are all these solutions not all of them are really reasonable to teenagers. Such as discouraging early dating, the reason this solution does not work is because if a parent tells their teenagers they cannot date they will still do it behind their back. And the reason that abstinence is really not a good  Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teenage pregnancies and teenage motherhood are a cause for concern worldwide. From a historical point of view, teenage pregnancies are nothing new. For much of human history, it was absolutely common that girls married during their late adolescence and experienced first birth during their second decade of life. This kind of reproductive behavior was socially desired and considered as normal. Nowadays, however, the prevention of teenage pregnancies and teenage motherhood is a priority for public health in nearly all developed and increasingly in developing countries. For a long time, teenage pregnancies were associated with severe medical problems; however, most of data supporting this viewpoint have been collected some decades ago and reflect mainly the situation of per se socially disadvantaged teenage mothers. According to more recent studies, teenage pregnancies are not per se risky ones. A clear risk group are extremely young teenage mothers (younger than 15 years) who are confronted with various medical risks, such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and small for gestational age newborns but also marked social disadvantage, such as poverty, unemployment, low educational level, and single parenting. In the present study, the prevalence and outcome of teenage pregnancies in Austria are focused on. In this study, the impact of social support on the course of pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among 51 pregnant Austrian girls aging between 13 and 18 years (x = 16.3 years; ±1.3) who decided to give birth was tested [65]. All girls were interviewed based on a structured questionnaire; furthermore, data from the mother-child passport were included in the analysis. Complications during pregnancy and birth were seldom and no adverse birth outcome was observed. The majority of participants received optimal medical treatment and sufficient social support mainly from the parents, grandparents, and to a less degree by school. Institutional support was available for the vast majority of girls. The majority of girls got information and help from the gynecologist, health centers for teenagers, such as first love outpatient department, public social institutions, private social institutions, Internet services, and public information center. More than 90% of the girls reported that they had no problems to get sufficient information and institutional support. The majority of girls was satisfied with the social support and information provided by governmental and private institutions. These results support the idea that teenage pregnancies are mainly a social and not a medical problem, because adequate social support helps to reduce medical complicationsThe teenage pregnancy rate for 1997 rose all the way up to 62.7 percent; this was the highest it has been in years! When I first saw this fact, I knew something would have to be done about it. This high pregnancy rate in teenagers is, in fact, a major problem because teenagers are not responsible enough to raise a baby. There are many possible solutions to prevent teenage pregnancy like discouraging early dating, abstinence, and using birth control and condoms. Although there are all these possible solutions, the pregnancy rate is still very high. So we need to evaluate the possible solutions and pick the best one to grow on to help lower the teenage pregnancy rate.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper
What has caused the teenage pregnancy rate to get so high? One reason for such a high rate is the solutions people suggest that teenagers use to prevent getting pregnant. Society tells teenagers over and over these solutions that are simply unacceptable to most teenagers. Also, the lack of information on pregnancy also causes this higher rate, because teenage girls are not informed enough about how hard being pregnant is. Most teenagers are smart enough to know that if they engage in having sexual intercourse they have the chance of getting pregnant. They do not realize how big of a life-altering change having a baby is though.
Possible solutions to help prevent pregnancy are discouraging early dating, abstinence, and using birth control and condoms. Although there are all these solutions not all of them are reasonable to teenagers. Such as discouraging early dating, the reason this solution does not work is that if a parent tells their teenagers, they cannot date they will still do it behind their back. And the reason that abstinence is not a good solution is that sometime or another a teenager is going to try having sex no matter what their parents tell them. Abstinence is like telling a little kid not to try candy. Teenagers undergo too much peer pressure to avoidTeenage pregnancy is a public health concern in both developed and developing countries. It is defined as any pregnancy that ends before the age of 20 years. About 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old give birth each year, which is about 11% of all births worldwide [1], and this does not include births among girls aged under 15 years.  The highest teenage pregnancy rates, which are often associated with early marriage, are in sub-Saharan Africa, where one in every four girls has given birth by the age of 18 years [2]. In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, half of all girls are married before the age of 15 years. Many are engaged even younger and sent to live with their future husband’s family [3].  If current levels of global child marriages hold, 14.2 million girls annually will marry too young, and many will be aged under 15 years [4].Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

South Sudan is among the top ten countries with highest prevalence of teenage pregnancy, the others being Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Bangladesh [4].  A third of South Sudanese girls start childbearing at ages 15-19 years, and 3 percent have had a live birth before the age of 15 years [5].            The South Sudan constitution, that defines a child as anybody below 18 years, prohibits forced marriage but does not specify a minimum age for marriage [6]. South Sudan’s child marriage rites may be based on ancient traditions, but their practice today can be blamed on the country’s contradictory laws and their weak enforcement. In South Sudan, teenage girls are more likely to be married than in school

How common is teenage pregnancy?
Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in a woman 19 years of age or younger. A woman can get pregnant if she has vaginal sex with a man at any age after she’s begun having regular monthly periods.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, in 2017, around 194,000 babies were born to American girls between the ages of 15 to 19.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

While the number of teenage pregnancies in the United States has been in decline, it still remains higher than in other industrialized countries.

What are the signs of pregnancy?
You’ll probably first realize you’re pregnant when you skip a regular period. But if you get a very light period around the time you expect it, don’t assume you’re not pregnant. It’s possible to have very light bleeding in the first few weeks of pregnancy.

Signs of pregnancy include:

missed or very light period
breast tenderness
nausea, often in the morning
feeling lightheaded
weight gain
feeling tired
swelling abdomen
How does teenage pregnancy affect teen mothers?
Teens are at a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and its complications than average age mothers. Risks for the baby include premature birth and low birth weight. Preeclampsia can also harm the kidneys or even be fatal for mother or baby.

Pregnant teens also have a higher chance of becoming anemic. Anemia is a reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBCs). This can make you feel weak and tired and can affect your baby’s development.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Giving birth in the United States is safer than ever, but it’s still more dangerous for a teen than for a woman 20 or older. According to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source, complications during pregnancy or childbirth are the leading cause of death globally for girls ages 15 to 19.

If you get pregnant as a teen, you might feel frightened and worried about telling your family and friends. Not talking to someone and not getting the help and support you need, can make you feel more isolated and depressed. This can lead to problems in home and at school.

Many pregnant teens drop out of school, and some never complete their education. That means a lot of mothers who get pregnant as teenagers live in poverty.

Women who first got pregnant as teens are more likely to have more than one child. About one in fiveTrusted Source births to a teen mother is a repeat birth. A woman with little education and multiple children to care for will find it very difficult to earn a living.

How does teenage pregnancy affect babies?
A healthy pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. A baby that’s delivered before 37 weeks of pregnancy is

premature. Teen mothers are more likelyTrusted Source to give birth to premature babies.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Sometimes, these babies lack complete development in their bodies and brains. Depending on how premature the baby is, this can lead to lifelong difficulties with health and development.

Premature babies also tend to be underweight. Underweight babies might have trouble breathing and feeding as infants. As adults, underweight babies are more susceptible to diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

Low birth weight also affects brain development. Children who were born underweight have been observed to have learning difficulties.

In addition to having an increased risk of being underweight, infants born to teenage mothers are also at a higher risk of infant mortality.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

How does teenage pregnancy affect teen fathers?
Fathering a child as a teenager can be a frightening and life-changing event. Teen fathers don’t have to worry about the health implications of pregnancy and childbirth, but they could face similar difficulties staying in school and earning a living.

State laws vary on the legal age for people to have sexual intercourse.

Arrest or legal action against teens who are sexually active can have devastating effects. A young man may be required to register as a sex offender if he has reached the legal age (age 18 in some states) and his partner has not (age 17 or under).

How is pregnancy diagnosed?
Most supermarkets and drugstores sell home pregnancy tests. These tests are designed to detect pregnancy hormones in your urine. They’re most accurate if you use them more than a week after your missed period.

If a home pregnancy test indicates you’re not pregnant, wait a week, and take another test to make sure.

If a home test shows you’re pregnant, you need to make an appointment with your doctor. They’ll confirm your pregnancy with a blood test and maybe a physical exam.

What are the options for teenagers who are pregnant?
Teens who become pregnant may be afraid to see a doctor, but it’s extremely important for the safety of the mother and the unborn child.

Your doctor should discuss all options with you regarding your pregnancy, including:

abortion, or ending the pregnancy medically
adoption, or giving birth and legally permitting someone else to raise your child
giving birth and raising the child yourself
Ideally, the future father and family members of both mother and father will be involved in making the best decisions. However, this isn’t always possible.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Birth control clinics and public health offices can provide counseling information to help you make the right choices for you and your baby.

Is it possible for a teenager to have a healthy baby?
Teen moms can have healthy babies. Make sure you see your doctor as soon as you know you’re pregnant, and attend all your scheduled appointments.

Proper obstetrical care throughout your pregnancy is so important to the health and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Eat well, exercise, and confide in supportive friends and family members.

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been shown to lower birth weight and cause babies to be born prematurely. You shouldn’t smoke during pregnancy.

Drugs and alcohol can have very damaging effects on a mother and her unborn child. Don’t drink alcohol or use illicit drugs during pregnancy. If you think you might be addicted to drugs or alcohol, ask your doctor about counseling and treatment programs to help you quit.

Only take the medicines your doctor prescribes. Make sure your doctor knows about any over-the-counter (OTC) medicines you are taking.

It’s important for all pregnant women to get proper medical care regardless of how old they are. But because teens’ bodies are still developing, seeing a doctor regularly is especially important for teen mothers.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

What should you expect during prenatal visits?
You’ll see a lot of your doctor during your pregnancy.

During the first six months, you’ll probably have an appointment at least once every month. In the last months of your pregnancy, you may see your doctor every other week, ending with weekly visits in your final month. These visits are to make sure you and your baby are healthy.

At the doctor’s office, you’ll be weighed, your blood pressure will be taken, and your stomach will be measured. As your baby develops, the doctor will feel its position and listen for its heartbeat.

Your doctor will ask how you’re feeling and if you have any questions. They’ll usually then explain what you can expect during the upcoming weeks of your pregnancy.

It’s a good idea to write down any questions or concerns you have so that you can remember to ask them during your appointment. Make sure you talk to your doctor about your health, the baby’s health, and any emotional or family concerns you have.

See your doctor right away if you have:

any vaginal bleeding
severe or continuous headache
dimness or blurring of vision
abdominal pain
persistent vomiting
chills or fever
pain or burning during urination
leaking of fluid from your vagina
swelling or pain in your legs
Get Answers from a Doctor in Minutes, Anytime
Have medical questions? Connect with a board-certified, experienced doctor online or by phone. Pediatricians and other specialists available 24/7.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

How can teenage pregnancy be prevented?
The only way to be sure you won’t get pregnant is to not have sexual intercourse. However, there are many methods to reduce your chances of becoming pregnant if you’re sexually active.

According to a study published in the journal PLoS One, an abstinence-only sex education was positively correlated with an increase in teen pregnancies.

Many communities offer counseling and support programs that help prevent teen pregnancy.

These groups can provide information on birth control and help teens understand their own sexual limits so they don’t get into situations where they might have unprotected sex and get pregnant.

Some programs offer peer counseling, since it might feel more comfortable talking to someone your own age. Contact your health department for information on programs in your area.

What prescription birth control methods are available?
Prescription birth control is available through your doctor or a women’s health clinic.

Intrauterine device (IUD)
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a device a doctor implants in your uterus. The procedure is well tolerated, and hospitalization isn’t required. The IUD prevents pregnancy by various mechanisms. It has a 99 percent rate of effectiveness, according to Planned Parenthood.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

IUDs are sold under the following brand names:

Birth control implant
Several birth control methods affect hormone levels in your body, so you’re less likely to get pregnant. The most effective is a birth control implant, also called Nexplanon.

This is a very small plastic stick that’s inserted under the skin of your arm. Implants stay in place for up to three years. They have a 99 percent rate of effectiveness.

Other methods
Birth control pills, shots, and patches also affect your hormone levels. They have an effectiveness rate of 91 to 94 percent. Examples of available brands include:

Alesse, Apri, Enpresse, Loestrin, Ortho-Novum, Yasmin, and many more (pills)
Depo-Provera (shot)
Ortho Evra (patch)
The diaphragm and cervical cap (FemCap) are devices you place in your vagina when you’re going to have sex. They block sperm from entering your uterus. The effectiveness of these devices is 71 to 88 percent.

What over-the-counter birth control methods are available?
You can also buy over-the-counter (OTC) birth control at a drugstore and some supermarkets. These methods are not as effective as prescription birth control, but they do reduce your chance of getting pregnant.

Teen pregnancy rates have been dropping in the United States for at least 25 years. Experts think this is because more sexually active teens use condoms.

Proper use of a condom can keep you from getting pregnant. When used correctly, condoms also protect you from many sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The effectiveness of condoms is 85 percent.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Birth control sponge
Sponges treated with spermicide also block sperm from entering your uterus. Used properly, these methods prevent pregnancy with an effectiveness of 76 to 88 percent. The brand of sponge sold in the United States is called the Today Sponge.

Morning-after pill
Available from the brands Plan B One-Step, Ella, and Next Choice, this medicine contains hormones that prevent your body from releasing eggs into your uterus and cause the lining of the uterus to shed, inhibiting implantation.

Eggs have to come into contact with sperm for you to get pregnant and need to implant in order to start developing properly.

The morning-after pill might be a good choice for you if you think your regular birth control didn’t work or you weren’t using birth control. Women 17 and older do not need a prescription for the morning-after pill.

The effectiveness of the morning-after pills such as Plan B One-Step and Next Choice is 75 to 89 percent if taken within three days of having unprotected sex, according to Planned Parenthood. The effectiveness of the Ella morning-after pill is 85 percent if you take it within five days of having unprotected sex.

What’s the takeaway for people affected by teenage pregnancy?
Although teens can often safely deliver healthy babies, there are possible health concerns for both mother and child. If you become pregnant, you should see your doctor as soon as possible to discuss your pregnancy.

There are many methods available to help prevent pregnancy, including IUDs, birth control pills, and condoms.

Additionally, many groups, such as SHIFT NC in North Carolina and Planned Parenthood, offer support or counseling programs for teens. You should also be sure to look for regional groups in your state or city.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Since the 1950s, teenage pregnancy has attracted a great deal of concern and attention from religious leaders, the general public, policymakers, and social scientists, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. The continuing apprehension about teenage pregnancy is based on the profound impact that teenage pregnancy can have on the lives of the girls and their children. Demographic studies continue to report that in developed countries such as the United States, teenage pregnancy results in lower educational attainment, increased rates of poverty, and worse “life outcomes” for children of teenage mothers compared to children of young adult women. Teenage pregnancy is defined as occurring between thirteen and nineteen years of age. There are, however, girls as young as ten who are sexually active and occasionally become pregnant and give birth. The vast majority of teenage births in the United States occurs among girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age. When being inclusive of all girls who can become pregnant and give birth, the term used is adolescent pregnancy, which describes the emotional and biological developmental stage called adolescence. The concern over the age at which a young woman should give birth has existed throughout human history. In general, however, there are two divergent views used to explain teenage pregnancy. Some authors and researchers argue that labeling teen pregnancy as a public health problem has little to do with public health and more to do with it being socially, culturally, and economically unacceptable. The bibliographic citations selected for this article will be extensive. The objective is to cover the major issues related to teenage pregnancy and childbearing, and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Childbirth to teenage mothers in the United States peaked in the mid-1950s at approximately 100 births per 1,000 teenage girls. In 2010, the rate of live births to teenage mothers in the United States dropped to a low of 34 births per 1,000. This was the lowest rate of teenage births in the United States since 1946. In 2012, the live births to teenage mothers continued to decline to 29.4 per 1,000. This was a drop of 13.5 percent from 2010. In 2012, some 305,388 babies were born to girls between fifteen and nineteen years of age. Among girls fourteen and younger the rate of pregnancy is about 7 per 1,000. About half of these pregnancies (3 per 1,000) resulted in live births. In spite of this decline in teenage pregnancy over the years, approximately 820,000 (34 percent) of teenage girls in the United States become pregnant each year. What’s more, some 85 percent of these pregnancies are unintended. These pregnancies and births suggest that the story of teenage pregnancy is not in the numbers of teen pregnancies and births but in the story of what causes the increase and decrease in the numbers. With the objective in mind to better understand teenage pregnancy, a general overview is provided as a broad background on teenage pregnancy. Citations are grouped under related topics that explicate the complexity of critical forces affecting teenage pregnancy. Topics that provide a global view of the variations in perception of and response to teenage pregnancy will also be covered in this article.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Adolescent pregnancy is a complex issue with many reasons for concern. Teenage pregnancy is a natural human occurrence that is a poor fit with modern society. In many ways it has become a proxy in what could be called the cultural wars. On one philosophical side of the debate, political and religious leaders use cultural and moral norms to shape public opinion and promote public policy with the stated purpose of preventing teen pregnancy. To begin, Martin, et al. 2012 provides national vital statistics on teen pregnancy. Leishman and Moir 2007 provides a good overview of these broader issues. Demographic studies by organizations like the Alan Guttmacher Institute (Alan Guttmacher Institute 2010) give a statistical description of teenage pregnancy in the United States. The number of teen pregnancies and the pregnancy outcomes are often used to support claims that teenage pregnancy is a serious social problem. The other side of this debate presented in publications by groups like the World Health Organization (World Health Organization 2004) reflects the medical professionals, public health professionals, and academicians who make a case for viewing teenage sexuality and pregnancy in terms of human development, health, and psychological needs. These two divergent views of teen pregnancy are represented in the United States by groups such as Children’s Aid Society; Healthy Teen Network; Center for Population Options; Advocates for Youth; National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy; National Organization on Adolescent Pregnancy, Parenting, and Prevention; state-level adolescent pregnancy prevention organizations; and other organizations that include teen pregnancy within their scope of interest and services. Mollborn, et al. 2011 delineates other important aspects of teenage pregnancy (race, poverty, and religious influences) that help explain why teenage pregnancy is considered a problem in some circles. The association between teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage, however, is not just found in the United States. Harden, et al. 2009 reports on the impact of poverty on teenage pregnancy rates in the United Kingdom. This phenomenon is not isolated to the United States and Great Britain; it is global. Holgate, et al. 2006 and the authors of Cherry and Dillon 2014 provide a comprehensive overview of global teenage pregnancy. To round out this general overview, the article Jiang, et al. 2011 is a description of a pragmatic national effort to improve the sexual and reproductive health of all adolescents and young adults. The best sources for research are professional journals and monographs from national and international health and development organizations focused on specific countries, regions, and global teenage pregnancy variations and trends.Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

Teen pregnancy is a topic which is often looked down upon, as teengers are very young to have a responsiblity of a newborn.Many scholars, as well as scholars rather choose to ignore the fact that teen pregnancy is an existing problem rather than finding ways to reduce it. It is very important to understand the roots of teen pregnancy.Let’s first discuss what is teenage pregnancy?Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy experienced by females between the ages of 13-20. There is an epidemic growing where teen birth rate is becoming a common problem.We need to consider solutions to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy through better sex education;parents having sex-talk with teens and why teen pregnancy is detrimental.

According to Cherry,writer of the book Teenage pregnancy:A global view,his research indicates that the highest recorded teen birth rate year has been dropping since 1991 . Many other countries throughout the world are experiencing issue with teenage pregnancies. Even though, many countries give permission to their children to get married at young ages; which as a result increases the incidence of teenage pregnancy. According to Andrew L. Cherry, the teenage birthrate throughout continents varies “In North America, the teen birth rate is 60 per 1,000 teenage girls. The birthrate in South America varies between a low of 56 per 1,000 to 101 per 1,000.….teen birth rates vary between a low of 29 per 1,000 in Europe, and 58 per 1,000 in Asia, to a high of 130 per 1,000 in Africa. In Australia, the teen birth rate is 17 per 1,000.” (Cherry, 2001).  Teenage Pregnancy a Global View Essay Paper

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