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SURV 1010 Construction Surveying

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SURV 1010 Construction Surveying

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Course Code: SURV1010
University: Southern Alberta Institute Of Technology

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Country: Canada

Question
Write a presentation on Drone technology in surveying and positioning systems and explain it .
Answer 
Introduction

Drones have been largely perceived gadgets that are sent to skies for shooting various aerial photographs and high definition videos. The first drone had been made in 1918 named as Kettering Bug. It was built for defense in World War I. In 1946, B-17 Flying Fortresses were transformed into drones for collecting radioactivity data during nuclear tests. Decoy drones, such as the ADM-20 Quail, were developed during the Cold War to help manned planes fly safely into defended airspace. During the inter-war period the development and testing of unmanned aircraft continued. In 1935 the British produced a number of radio-controlled aircraft to be used as targets for training purposes. It’s thought the term ‘drone’ started to be used at this time, inspired by the name of one of these models. Radio-controlled drones were also manufactured in the United States and used for target practice and training. Drones now have many functions, ranging from monitoring climate change to carrying out search operations after natural disasters, photography, filming, and delivering goods. But their most well-known and controversial use is by the military for reconnaissance, surveillance and targeted attacks. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States in particular has significantly increased its use of drones.
 
There are four main types of aerial drones: 

Multi Rotor Drones.
Fixed Wing Drones.
Single Rotor Helicopter.
Fixed Wing Hybrid VTOL.

                                              
Application of drones in Construction
Drone for Surveying
Drones are used in construction site for surveying overall site from air and creating various digital sketches. Use of drones help in eliminating extra time required by getting information quicker as per human interaction. Most building surveys require visibility of the building’s roof to identify its condition and assess any defects.
In most instances getting access to a roof can be tricky and often involves the erection of a scaffold, use of a cherry picker or ladders. Which are both time consuming and costly. Using a small drone to perform the survey can save time, money and reduce health and safety risks involved with surveying a roof and accessing tricky or hard to reach areas.
Improve safety
The leading cause of private sector worker fatalities on the construction site is falls, representing nearly 39% of all deaths. Drones can be used to keep workers’ feet planted firmly on the ground when they might otherwise have to climb to take manual measurements or engage in other activities that can be replaced with a drone. Carrying out site inspections on a busy construction site can dangerous and complicated at times.
The ability for a drone to carry out a visual inspection of high-risk areas can save time and reduce H&S risks. Drone footage can be recorded from the safety of the site cabin and then sent to project stakeholders in HD quickly and effectively. Site inspections can be undertaken more regularly and cover larger areas more efficiently.
Improve collaboration
Drones helps in improving collaboration with work at construction site. It helps in collecting data and distributing to other platform including BIM 360. Drones can provide a quicker and easier way of carrying out the inspections, feeding back HD real-time footage to the engineer or surveyor from the ground at all times reducing cost but most importantly risk.
Mitigating Risk
Contractors carry significant risk on every project. From being overbilled on one side, to being underpaid on the other, to mistakes, rework, missed deadlines, and legal challenges, few industries provide as many opportunities to lose money. Site inductions can often be a tedious and again a time consuming exercise. Often involving a premeditated talk in the site cabin or a pre-recorded induction videos. Using a drone to fly over a site can show new site operatives H&S risks in real-time. Enabling site managers to demonstrate moving vehicles, moving cranes, or active excavation areas etc. Each induction would be site specific outlining the risk that are relevant to that site and in return reduce the risk of accident or injury on each site.
 
                                                   
 
                                                             
Drones in surveying and mapping
Interior surveying consists of providing a large number of measurements in order to produce a geometric representation of a building at any point. There are many applications: industrial buildings, public buildings (sports halls, exhibition hall), historic buildings (museums, castles, churches), archaeological sites, etc.Modeling buildings enables the production of plans, models and thermal balances which help in monitoring and documenting the evolution of a structure. This is a key issue for better management of buildings. Good knowledge of the structure allows for implementation of evacuation or contingency plans. Drones mean a quantum leap for surveying. They provide eyes that can reach and hover above specific sites. Their height and cameras can be adjusted remotely. And, equipped with sensors, they can measure, transmit and store data. Global positioning has created greater interest in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). According to Drone Analyst, GIS professionals provide a wide variety of land-related services like identifying property boundaries, subdividing land, and surveying construction sites for placement of buildings. They also produce topographic and hydrographic maps, volumetric calculations for stockpiles, and flood insurance maps, among other services.
Fueling this growth, the leader in geographic information systems (GIS), Esri, released an application called Drone2Map (D2M) for ArcGIS that’s shaking up the civil engineering industry long dependent on manpower. D2M streamlines the creation of professional imagery products from drone-captured still imagery for visualization and analysis in ArcGIS. Data processed by Drone2Map can also be rendered in Esri’s ArcGIS online web service and integrated into ArcGIS for further processing. 
 
                    
 
Terrestrial survey is a technique that provides accurate and important details. This is the ideal solution for missions such as facade surveys, industrial inspection, interior surveys, volume or cubature calculation, civil engineering surveys, etc. Drone technology allows for safe mapping of terrains and property, producing high-quality surveying results that equal or surpass traditional methods, and is a cost-efficient way to complete more projects in less time. Whether you are a land developer, construction engineer, or a full-service A&E firm, utilizing a drone surveying service can decrease project time, reduce overall costs, and provide planning and development resources with additional ground images and aerial views of urban landscapes.
According to a recent online Fortune article, construction losses can amount to over $160 billion in wasted material, time, and effort – and construction companies are looking to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) services to supply a significant return on investment. From the initial land surveying to the final completed project documentation, drones are finding a prominent position in the construction industry.This technique allows for precision measurements in a restricted area. It can be used for 3D modeling of objects, walls, corridors, ceilings, arches, etc. It can also be used to complement a terrestrial or aerial mission.
 
          
Conclusion

Builders use drones to collect real-time data about projects and understand what’s happening on site. Aerial insights improve progress tracking and help catch problems early??before they become costly or add weeks to a project’s timeline.
 
          
 
But progress tracking is far from the only way construction companies use drones. By spending less than an hour each week mapping a job site, contractors gain access to an unprecedented amount of knowledge about nearly every aspect of their project. With this data in hand, DroneDeploy’s software makes it easy to plan, communicate, and keep projects on schedule. Drone photo and video capabilities are widely applied in the media, entertainment and both public and private security sectors; yet applications are much broader when sensor-equipped drones are combined with data & analytics and machine learning to make use of the vast amounts of information drones can provide. This combination opens up drone use to industries like power generation, utilities, logistics and agriculture, allowing data to be captured and analysed in ways that were previously difficult or impossible. Drone technology has largely surpassed human intervention for faster, easier and cheaper data collection.
References
Wang, G., Hollar, D., Sayger, S., Zhu, Z., Buckeridge, J., Li, J., … & Hu, W. (2016). Risk considerations in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the construction industry.
Entrop, A. G., & Vasenev, A. (2017). Infrared drones in the construction industry: designing a protocol for building thermography procedures. Energy procedia, 132, 63-68.
Quezada, G., Bratanova, A., Boughen, N., & Hajkowicz, S. (2016). Farsight for construction: Exploratory scenarios for Queensland’s construction industry to 2036.
Tatum, M. C., & Liu, J. (2017). Unmanned aerial vehicles in the construction industry. In Proc., 53rd ASC Annual Int. Conf., Associated Schools of Construction, Fort Collins, CO.

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