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RSK4802 Governance Risk And Compliance Management

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RSK4802 Governance Risk And Compliance Management

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RSK4802 Governance Risk And Compliance Management

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Course Code: RSK4802
University: University Of South Africa

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Country: South Africa

Question:

The research objectives of this study are:

To understand the approach to BRT project management and consultation.
To analyze the impacts that budgetary adjustments and stakeholder input have on the BRT projects.
To establish the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects
To recommend a more cost-effective approach to consultation on BRT development projects.

Research Questions
The research questions aligned to the objectives of the research are:
What are the strategies engaged in BRT project management and consultation processes?
What are the impacts of budgetary adjustments and stakeholder input on BRT projects?
What is the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects?
The dissertation is subdivided into five chapters.
Chapter One: Introduction
An introduction will be given which will provide a background leading to the study being undertaken and the study objectives.
Chapter Two: Literature Review
The literature review will provide a theoretical framework of the subject matter in this study. It will provide some of the problems that this research aims to study.
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
Discussion of chosen methods.
Chapter Four: Results, Discussion, and interpretation of Findings
A conclusion will be provided on the finding in the literature and qualitative study. Recommendations will be made.

Answer:

Introduction
Public transport is critical to the well-being, growth, and development of any nation. The benefits of a well-planned and appropriately managed transport system extend far beyond the transport industry since it is critical in facilitating the growth of other industries through the mobility and communication it facilitates. According to Vilakazi and Govender, the South African (SA) minibus taxi industry holds 70% of the market share, public buses hold about 20%, while rail take 14% (301). In the case of Johannesburg, 39.6% of the commuters use minibus taxis, 27.1% use private cars, 24.1% use buses, and 9.2% use railway (Vilakazi and Govender, 2004).
In this light, there is a need to improve public bus transport to make it competitive and effective in service delivery to all people in South Africa. The city of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (COJ) engaged various private consultations and provincial government structures such as the Gauteng Department of Roads and Transport and the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements, with the aim of improving mobility in the region. Similar efforts have been replicated in other regions as Municipalities in various cities seek to improve public transportation. These efforts seek to overcome the challenges faced in SA in the planning of urban areas, racial segregation, and unregulated public transport.
Addressing these challenges has brought about various overlapping initiatives like the construction of the ‘Corridors of Freedom’ in Johannesburg, which will restructure the city’s landscape and facilitate mixed-income Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). These developments are coupled with the implementation of the first regulated Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, the Rea Vaya along these corridors. The developments in the region are based on the 25-year Integrated Transport Masterplan (ITMP25), which is a wider development framework. The BRT presents an alternative for enhanced mass transit in urban areas to supplement and support that transformations made in Johannesburg and other cities in the country.
Various initiatives across the globe show that the BRT system has been successful in developing cities. Experiences from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America prove that the BRT is a sustainable and effective approach to enhancing public transportation. The ideology behind the implementation of these programs is to emulate the performance and amenity features that are offered by a rail-based transit system. Nevertheless, the BRT has fewer financial implications compared to the rail transit systems, which makes it favourable for deployment in SA cities. The advantages of the BRT include increasing average ridership, reducing transportation fuel, and minimizing emissions of greenhouse gases and pollution. Insights from Munoz-Raskin and Scorcia (2017) show that the initial phases in the development of the BRT system in the country were centered on the Latin American system that has had significant improvements in the Latin countries.
The SA project was established with the development of a traditional BRT track and feeder roads like those set in the Latin American system. The initiative established the Rea Vaya BRT system in Johannesburg that covers a distance of 43.5 km. Rea Vaya began operating in 2016, with the aim of offering a better and cost-effective public transport system. These features facilitate economic and social growth by connecting people to their daily responsibilities, improving the quality of life, and their general productivity (Lindau, Hidalgo and de Almeida Lobo, 2014).
Analysis gathered from various BRT systems from different regions in the world show that the success of these projects is fostered by engaging in a consumer-based perspective in the development phases. A study by Munoz-Raskin and Scorcia (2017) in SA established that operating cost recovery from the BRT did not achieve even a quarter of the initial estimates. In this light, project success was not achieved, and this led to the realization that the urban design and transportation demand patterns for cities and people of SA are substantially different from the Latin American systems where the idea was borrowed from. With these insights, the government, backed up with help from the World Bank embarked on processes that would examine the differences in the system and gain an understanding of how the cities in the country can interpret and restructure their BRT systems to offer efficiency in transit operations, improve service, and finances. This consideration in the BRT project management has increased the number of stakeholders and partners engaged in the developments. Consequently, reports show an increase in the cost and delays experienced in the development of BRT systems in the country. Drawing from these insights, this study sets out to examine and determine the cost implications that are experienced in a wide consultative process involved in the development and implementation of BRT systems in South Africa.
Background to the Study
Transportation is one of the most critical and indispensable aspects of human societies and civilization. Ranging from the traditional systems of transportation that include animals and wheels to the modern means facilitated by aircrafts, trains, ships, and motor vehicles, the value of transportation remains high and imperative to all social and economic activities. The development of transportation projects requires effectiveness and cooperation among all stakeholders which include project management teams, interested groups, government, and the end users. Various innovations in the transportation sector have been witnessed over the years, and some have been successfully implemented in SA. Since 1994, when SA gained its independence, the government has engaged in various programs to improve public transportation in the highly populated and economically productive urban areas. One of these initiatives in the recent past has been the development of BRT systems that are focused on improving public transport and handling the challenges experienced in urban planning, as well as social issues emerging as a result of racial segregation.
The importance and focus of developing public transport in SA premise on legal provisions such as the National Land Transport Act (Act 5 of 2009). In line with other provisions, the act alludes that public transport services should be affordable, safe, reliable and should address the customer needs. Additionally, the public transportation systems should be designed to integrate various modes of transport. In this light, the key features that should be taken into account in the project development include cost efficiency, realizing the required service quality, optimal use of the available resources, provision of the utmost cost-effective approaches, adding value to the end-users, facilitate safety, and be environmentally friendly. Despite these legal requirements, the BRT projects that have been implemented in the country (Johannesburg- Rea Vaya, Tshwane – Areyeng and Cape Town- My City), have been a cause for concern for shareholders and stakeholders, as they not only took long to implement, they are not attracting the envisaged passenger numbers. Although, these projects have been seen as noble in the vision and strategic approach to achieving a reliable and cost-effective public transport system, their development has experienced delays and budget overruns, which have raised many questions on the designs of these buses and stations (Mabena, 2017).
Further delays experienced in the projects are due to budget cuts from the government, which has made it necessary for municipalities to engage in the restructuring of the plans to identify areas they can reduce costs. Additionally, the project management teams are presented with new challenges that entail redesigning certain infrastructure and limiting the costs incurred in various undertakings such as the ticketing vendor machines.
Still, on legal issues, the Municipal Systems Act (No.32 of 2000) alludes that all projects that are funded by the public should be undertaken through a consultative and inclusive process for all stakeholders in the various undertakings of the project. The approach is critical in ensuring that the projects are relevant to the community, promoting ownership and participation that results in the advent of development and prosperity by consensus. Although these aspects have been met to a certain extent, the imperative issues faced in the BRT projects that include delays, cost overruns, and sub-optimal project structuring and execution lead to substantial cost implications, social and political consequences. These sentiments are amplified by various reviews showing that project cost overruns and schedule delays are the key challenges faced in infrastructure projects across the globe and are influenced by time, project size, and type (Flyvbjerg, Holm, and Buhl, 2003; Flyvbjerg, 2005). Additionally, transport projects carried out in the past 70 years show that cost overrun have not declined. The delays of infrastructure projects can be attributed to complications experienced in the technologies and materials, design challenges, the impact caused by the weather, the budget contains, material cost overruns, stakeholder pushback, and lack of effective project management. The BRT projects at the implementation phase are in Polokwane and Rustenburg. One of the key features in the project management process in the increased consultation of various stakeholders and partners. The high number of consultations has made it difficult for the project managers to contain the cost of the consultative processes and also address other challenges such as delays.
Problem Statement
These projects have experienced an array of challenges with the main ones being delays and cost overruns. Consequently, project success is not achieved by all stakeholders as the BRT systems are not yet fully operational in the cities that have begun operating. The consultative process is attributed to legal provisions such as the Municipal Systems Act (No.32 of 2000) and the experiences gained in the initial BRT project in Johannesburg that was a replication of the successful Latin American system. The widespread consultation with direct and indirect stakeholders has come with the disadvantage of increased costs because it is fundamental in project structuring and implementation. The issue of widespread consultation has been addressed with positivity in various studies as the result of the increased participation of all stakeholders and research to facilitate effective implementation. Nevertheless, these studies have not addressed the challenge of the widespread consultation present in the project concerning the costs. In this light, it is critical that issues surrounding the effective execution of the BRT and the overall benefits realized from the successful utilization of these projects to be studied and recommendations offered. Establishing the cost of stakeholder and partner consultation processes and how best the process can be enhanced is critical in determining if there is effectiveness on the consultation, justifying its impact in delaying and increasing the cost of projects.
Furthermore, the consultation that is practised under set parameters has been found to help in reducing the costs and accelerating the implementation of projects. The project managers need to gain insights on how to better design the consultative initiatives to ensure that there is effective management of costs. At the same time, there is a need to improve the public transport system to benefit businesses and people by supporting the economic growth and reducing the challenges experienced in urban mobility.
Addressing the major challenges leading to delays and increased costs of the BRT is essential because failure to do so compromises the development agenda and contributes to the increased challenges in transportation despite investment by the government. Rather, addressing these issues will ensure the investments and resources are not wasted. Subsequently, this study acknowledges the urgency to address the issues faced in the BRT projects as soon as they emerge to facilitate their expansion and ensure that all stakeholders enjoy the project success that comes with timely delivery, quality, and at the right cost (Shenhar & Holzmann, 2017).
Aim of the Study
The aim of the study is to investigate the Cost of a wide consultative process approach to Bus Rapid Transport development in Rustenburg and Polokwane.
Objectives of the Study 
The research objectives of this study are:

To understand the approach to BRT project management and consultation.
To analyze the impacts that budgetary adjustments and stakeholder input have on the BRT projects.
To establish the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects
To recommend a more cost-effective approach to consultation on BRT development projects.

Research Questions
The research questions aligned to the objectives of the research are:

What are the strategies engaged in BRT project management and consultation processes?
What are the impacts of budgetary adjustments and stakeholder input on BRT projects?
What is the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects?

Significance of the Study 
The significance of the research lies in providing insights about why BRT projects are delayed, the impact of the delays and costs associated with widespread consultative processes, including the approach used in the successful and timeous completion and implementation. The findings of this research can be instrumental in improving the strategies employed in project structuring, management, and consultative process approaches.                                                       
The section offers an overview of the international and national development of the transport Industry with a focus on the shortcomings experienced in project management of BRT systems in SA. The introduction paints the general picture of BRT systems across the world and in SA, while the background highlights the historical developments in BRT projects, including the legal provisions that influence their success. The problem statement identifies the focus of the study and what draws the aims and objectives addressed by the research. The section also identifies the importance of this study in the country and project management
The literature review comprises of various components starting with a broad understanding of BRT from its origins, rationale and overall objectives, and the need to implement the BRT systems in the South African context.  It also gathers information to develop an understanding and analysis of the consultative approach employed by municipalities and the identification and mapping of the various stakeholders involved directly or indirectly.  The consultative process currently employed is then analyzed and cross-examined against Stakeholder consultation best practices and models.
The focus of the literature review narrows down to the key pertinent issues emanating from the various stakeholders and the significance and impact of these issues.
The review also addresses the strategies, roles, and responsibilities of the municipalities as the project owners in resolving these issues. The analysis of the approach to issue resolution and the success, failure or inability thereof is being used to quantify the overall cost of the BRT projects.
BRT Defined
The BRT alludes to a rubber-tired system that facilitates rapid transition with high levels of flexibility. It integrates mass transportation of people using high capacity buses that facilitate mass movement of people from one station to another (Deng and Nelson, 2011). The BRT system has facilitated convenient, comfortable, and cost-effective mobility within urban areas since 1957 in various places across the world (Hidalgo, 2013).
History of BRT
The increase in the level of congestion in urban areas led to the development of BRT as an innovative approach to facilitate efficiency in movement within cities (Paget-Seekins, 2015).  The concept of BRT became popular in Latin America afterward the successful upgrade of busways in Curitiba, Brazil, to full-featured BRT in 1982. The low cost, high performance, and rapid implementation of this system, and its adaptations to Quito, Bogotá, Beijing, Mexico City, Jakarta, Los Angeles, Beijing, Istanbul, and Guangzhou enhanced its popularity (Wright and Hook, 2007).
In SA, the BRT is a national transport initiative that is focused on meeting the recommendations made by the National Department of Transport (NDoT) through the Public Transport Strategy and Action Plan (PTSA). The developments through the PTSA are focused on facilitating the Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network (IRPTN). These undertakings are focused on ensuring the country’s public transport sector is safe, secure, caters for all and offers a high – quality experience for the users.  
Various reviews on BRT projects show that they are undertaken systematically through activities that include, planning, and evaluation of demands, benefits, costs, and impacts (Lindau, Hidalgo and Facchini, 2010).  The planning, design, and implementation of these IRPTNs are funded through dedicated grants; Public Transport Infrastructure (PTI) and Public Transport Network Operations (PTNO) Grants. The allocation of these grants is reviewed annually by National Treasury and the National Department of Transport (NDoT) according to the performance of each city in meeting the goals of the 2007 Public Transport Strategy and Action Plan as outlined for in the National Land Transport Act, (Act 5 of 2009.)
The ultimate goal of the projects is to achieve coordination of activities that facilitate reliable BRT networks, offer reserve capacity for future developments, and ensure that there are strategies to meet the demands of various stakeholders that include motorists.
The project objectives are integrated into the long-term development plans of the country. Proactive participation of the people is required to achieve community support due to the impact they have on the implementation of BRT as highlighted by the National Association of City Transport Officials (2003). A qualitative approach of BRT projects as indicated by Wright, (2010) are undertaken through a systematic approach based on best practices that include the following key stages:
Stage 1: Feasibility studies
Emperial research by Currie and Delbosc (2011) indicate that studies are carried out to identify the demand for transportation needs now and in future. They also establish the transport demands that are not met by the existing infrastructure (Hensher and Li, 2012). At this stage, government approves the estimated costs through the National Treasury. In August 2007, the steering committee, which constituted of the eighteen affected organizations went on another study tour to Bogota and Pereira in Columbia.
Stage 2: System Design
At this stage the actual system design is concluded, including the business model that captures the needs of other transportation models such as to the taxi industry. The initiatives at this stage involve wide spread consultation with various stakeholders, partners, leaders and special interest groups. According to Cervero (2013), the involvement of these stakeholders reduces resistance to change and supports cooperation to facilitate success. In 2008 after the feasibility trip, involved parties which included PUTCO (a representative of the public transport sector) and Johannesburg City signed a Memorandum of Understanding. The MoU provided a timeline for the design, planning, and implementation of the BRT project (Heather 2013). Though the strategies were costly regarding time and capital, they were useful. Rustenburg and Polokwane Municipalities signed their MoA’s in January 2014 and April 2015.
At this stage, the system design is perceived to be the most optimal and cost-effective and all stakeholders are on board. According to Wrght (2003), this stage entails the critical undertakings in enrolling the project, and it is subject to factors emerging from resistance to change. At this stage of development, it is critical to ensure that consultants, contractors, and other professionals have the capacity and expertise to facilitate success in the project.
The three stages highlight the critical undertakings that determine the realization or failure of the project. Project management is a critical aspect that upholds the appropriate principles to ensure that project success is achieved. In this context, the systematic approach ensures that the initiative is a well-thought undertaking. Fundamentally, it is the granular aspects that emerge within the stages that premise this study with the notion that BRT projects are delayed and often result in cost overruns.
The insights established in the progress of BRT projects show that the parties involved should engage in in-depth analysis of the engagement of various stakeholders in the initiatives in SA. Notably, consultation with the stakeholders is a critical aspect of the system design phase of the initiative. Mapping of the contribution made by each stakeholder in the consultation process offers substantial insights that are quantified to offer a reasonable theoretical judgment about the overall upsurge in the cost of the BRT projects.
Stakeholders
Reviews by Sinclair (2010) show that stakeholders include persons, groups, and organizations that might be affected by the planned change from a constructive or negative perspective. Subsequently, these stakeholders can also have an impact on the outcome of the proposed change. Engaging stakeholders requires an effective approach to communication and consultations, by mapping them based on their influence or relevance of the project. Subsequently, mapping out stakeholders offers insights on the significance of each stakeholder in the project. The information gathered allows an analysis of the specific approaches and strategies to effectively engage each of the stakeholders. The BRT projects are subject to the influence of various groups of stakeholders that might be demanding, discretionary, dormant, dependent, dominant, dangerous, and definitive (Aapoaja and Haapasalo, 2014).
The Batho Pele (“People First”) principles are aligned to the Constitution – know the service you’re entitled to. Government officials must follow the “Batho Pele” principles which require public servants to be polite, open and transparent and to deliver good service to the public.
There are four levels of institutions involved in managing stakeholders in the transport industry in South Africa. There are institutions at the National level, Regional or Provincial level, City or Metropolitan area and Local or District levels. At the federal level, the Ministry of Transport comes up with policies and legislation which manages the various stakeholders in the transport industry (Heather 2013). All these are tasked with one job only, developing BRT and subsequently decongesting traffic.
BRT Stakeholder Consultation Perspective
Stakeholder buy -in and willingness to support public transport requires extensive and effective public participation in the decision-making process to facilitate BRT implementation. It is therefore key to understand the very nature and approaches to consultation; and public participation interrogates the real concerns that each stakeholder group may have.  From a stakeholder point of view, the benefits question will always arise, “how will this affect me?” Government wants RoI, which means there must be bums on seats, that means commuters must be willing to use the BRT’s, motorists must also abjure the use of their private vehicles, taxi  and bus owners must also support this new system. The messages for each stakeholder must be clear and relevant to them.
Stakeholder Consultation Definition 
Insights from Musitha (2013) shows that the Constitution together with the Municipal Systems Act compels Municipalities to communicate development plans to the citizens in a particular manner. Whether, it’s about discussing the Integrated Development Plan (IDP), Economic Development or Informing citizens about service delivery and reporting back on the achievements of the municipality.
It is from this sterling foundation that the Stakeholder Engagement and Participation are situated. While making stakeholders happy is a worthy goal, achieving stakeholder happiness is extremely illusory and unlikely given the broad range of stakeholder interests that often generate conflict. Credibility differs from satisfaction in that it stems from mutual understanding and respect between the municipality and its stakeholders.
The involvement of the communities and engaging with Municipalities at whatever level is vital, not only to fostering social cohesion, loosening up resources and developing partnerships for change but also as a tool in securing and deepening democracy. The ability to get local communities to buy into municipal projects is an important aspect of public participation. It, therefore, follows that community participation should be built throughout all projects as a long-term support system for sustainable behavioural change and not used merely as another channel for information dissemination or as another “strategic” approach. Community buy-in plays an integral part of the successful implementation of the BRT.
Resultantly, stakeholder engagement and participation is an imperative matter supported by legal provisions. These undertakings ensure that the project meets stakeholder expectation. Fundamentally, the realization of the BRT projects lies in the acceptance by the people and delivery that meets the goals of the initiative in quality, cost, and time. These factors are also subject to the government internal process as well as political support. The engagement of various stakeholders is achieved through the process presented in Figure 2.1 below.
The spectrum of public participation captures the role of the public in planning and decision making process. This means the goals and objectives of the project need to be understood by all stakeholders.
Inform 
This means the stakeholders are provided with information that helps them understand why the municipalities have taken this decision, how the project will impact them, the expected changes as well as the resulted end goal.  At this stage, stakeholders are not given the opportunity to influence decision making but instead informing them of the project. The information provided should be clear and sufficient for stakeholders to understand the project so that they can reach their own conclusion of the decision made (Stuart and →, 2018). The promise to the public is to keep them informed.
Consult 
This is considered to be an engagement as it provides two-way communication. It involves obtaining feedback on plans, issues and options, which essentially means listening and acknowledging.  It is, however, critical to be clear on what is not negotiable (e.g. though businesses may be disrupted, construction will not be terminated as the project stands to benefit the broader community, however, where possible, mitigation strategies/plans can be considered).  The purpose of this stage is to issues/ risks that need to be considered for the next stage of planning, which will be more collaborative.  For example, the extent to which construction within the CBD affects business, property owners and commuters.
Involve 
This stage is more involved than consultation, stakeholder inputs are considered (for example the taxi and bus industries would need a more interactive engagement regarding routes and stations). “The goal is to work with the public throughout the process: it is not a one-off. While the promise implies that issues raised should be taken into account, decisions at this level are generally made by the organisation or department rather than the public. It is important to be clear about what is negotiable and that the decision-making will not be made by the community. The higher level of participation required by the public, means this level can be appropriate when people have some investment in an issue, but it is not very controversial nor has major implications for other people” (Iap2.org, 2018).
Collaborate 
This stage involves partnering and working together with stakeholders in each aspect of the decision including the development of alternatives and the identification of the preferred solution (e.g. business owners on contraction plans, taxi and bus industries on compensation). The Collaborate level requires continuous engagement and promises that recommendations and advice will be considered to the maximum extent possible. While decision-making still lies with the project sponsor, there is much greater input from the stakeholders. “Creating the trust needed and ensuring there is genuine engagement can be costly and time-consuming” (Stuart and →, 2018).
The levels of participation are high at this stage, there is equally a high level of risk involved (e.g. if stakeholders cannot agree on a way forward; like the taxi industry with proposed compensation), relationships can be damaged if trust is perceived to be broken by any stakeholder.
Empower 
 “Within a group or community, empowerment can be taken to involve building trust, co-operation and communication between members, and a prerequisite for this is that there are appropriate structures, protocols and procedures in place, with effective sanctions against those who default or abuse the system. There must be opportunities for people to meet and exchange views and opinions, and ways of recording what is agreed and done; and there must be scope for having fun and celebrating achievement” (Powerfulinformation.org, 2018).
“Building relationships between citizens and administrators is vital to empowering citizens in the context of government-organised public participation. The development of relationships, however, does not connote just one party moving over into the camp of the other. Rather, it was manifest most strongly as administrators and citizens met somewhere in the middle in terms of adapting to each other, with citizens coming to appreciate certain bureaucratic realities and administrators buying into the citizen review process, balancing their expertise with a willingness to consider outside points of view. The more rooted those interactions go, both in terms of exposure and creating shared goals, the stronger will be the ensuing relationship” (Buckwalter, 2018). Although the public/ external stakeholders are not necessarily the final decision makers, the “Batho Pele” principles make the administrators accountable for money spent.
BRT Development Approaches 
Insights gained in the initial BRT project in Johannesburg exemplifies how the BRT projects engage stakeholders in SA. The city engages in negotiations with the incumbent stakeholders of the transport industry. In this case, two of the largest taxi organizations and sixteen other groups representing taxi operators, which was facilitated by an independent team sponsored by the city. The results of the engagement were the establishment of a taxi steering committee that had the role to negotiate and find possible solutions to the issues emerging in the project within the city. The committee was led by a technical expert who was paid by the city council to support productive discussions (Heather, 2013). A MoU signed in 2008 by the City and PUTCO who represented the private transport sector, and Metrobus as the representative of the public transport sector set the bases on how the negotiations would be conducted. The taxi organizations had an obligation to negotiate the BRT contracts, which eliminated the aspect of competition in the industry (Heather, 2013)
The Rea Vaya project was characterized by low levels of trust between the stakeholders in the transport industry and the city representatives. Notably, the influence of the taxi industry could easily lead to a boycott of the project. Nevertheless, the use of the Ambiguity-conflict model facilitated the execution of the BRT project due to the significant intensity of conflict between the stakeholders, which meant that the project was influenced through power relations that emerged among the concerned groups. Developing a business model for the project was a cause of conflict between the government and other parties in the transport sector, which made it difficult in the development of the BRT. The Ambiguity-conflict model made it necessary for the project to focus on implementation, policies, goals of the strategy, and the degree to which the stakeholder views differed.
To achieve the goals of the NTLAS, four cities in SA have engaged in BRT projects. The initiatives were initiated by conducting demand and passenger surveys to establish the feasibility of the BRT systems. Nevertheless, there were delays in implementation due to various aspects that included pushback by some stakeholders such as the taxi industry, inadequate infrastructure, and budget cuts by Treasury. The key stakeholders cost implications in the development of BRT in the county include:
The taxi industry. The involvement of these stakeholders; includes mediators that come at a great cost to facilitate a common ground for the developments to be carried out. The business model, including the taxi sector and the negotiations carried out, are costly and take time. Additionally, the business model developed is not best structured to meet the objectives of the BRT.
Commuters. The cost associated with this group includes income loss as the projects take longer to be completed and the outcome of the projects does not offer the best alternative to meet their needs (for example BRT proposed running times).
The General community. The lack of consensus in the community about the projects leads to high and detrimental social costs. Also, the different interests among the people leads to increased public scrutiny as well as compromising the project handlers so that different interests that were not planned for can be incorporated.
Leaders. The different interests presented by leaders in politics and communities increase tensions and delays in the project. Also, politicians use the projects as a means to gain publicity.
Business Owners. The business community triggers legal costs due in cases where the projects might not meet their interests, which adds to the delays and costs incurred by the project. Also, changes in design to incorporate their interests can increase the expenses.
Special Interest Groups and Civic organizations. Incorporating their demands such as acceptable minimum standards can lead to increased costs of the projects.
Media. In cases where the media amplifies and communicates issues that are out of context creates a negative perception of the project. Regaining the people’s trust can be costly.
Allied Government and Municipal Departments. The lack of support and cooperation between governments and agencies leads to lengthy internal processes that delay and increase costs.
Contractors and service providers. If projects are undertaken by individuals who lack experience in the development, the costs are likely to increase, and the outcome is below standards. Also, delayed payments and delivery increase the cost of the project.
National Treasury. Budget cuts lead to delays and subsequent increase in the cost of completing the projects.
Custodian Municipalities. Sub-optimal decisions that are influenced by politics and lack of consistency in the project results in increased costs.
In this study, the cost of BRT development and implementation in SA is analyzed based on the strategies employed in the country. The total project cost alludes to the cumulative costs incurred directly and indirectly from start to completion of the project (Smith, 2014). In this context, the direct costs are the expenses incurred in procuring the materials, planning, designing, feasibility studies, and professional services. The indirect costs allude to those that are not directly attributed to the actual activities to progress the project but are experienced due to the project such as costs due to environmental impact, the opportunity cost of the initiative, economic disruption in the development, and the social and political consequences following the development.
The costs incurred in the project determine the project management success and the project success (Javidan et al., 2016). Project cost overrun is detrimental to the effectiveness of project management and the outcome of the undertaking. Cost overrun alludes to the expenses that exceed the planned budget due to unexpected expenses incurred in the development (Subramani, 2014). From this perspective, the project management team, as well as the project owners, should ensure that there is increased efficiency in the use of finances, risk management, timelines and other aspects that result in extra expenses. The effectiveness of risk management and engaging in best practices are instrumental in mitigating cost overruns. Notably, the experience and research carried out before undertaking a project contribute to how finances are managed. Project cost estimation is valuable in predicting the total cost and the possibility for the overrun, which lead to delays in project completion and compromises the satisfaction of the stakeholders involved, as well as the end users (Doloi, 2011).
The BRT projects in SA are characterized by unique challenges that stem from the various stakeholders involved. These groups present varied and diverse interests that contribute to the success or failure of the projects. For this study, the focus is on the unwarranted increase in costs that is as a result of the engagement of the myriad of stakeholders outside the normal and prescribed best practices of the project. Subsequently, the analysis identifies their contribution to the escalation of cost due to the widespread nature of consultation needs of the projects.
The literature review offers the critical aspects that compromise the success of BRT projects. The insights gathered draw upon the significance of stakeholder engagement and the subsequent consequences, which are the cost overruns. The review identifies the key stakeholders and how they contribute to the challenges in the project management addressed by the study. The literature review sets the premise for addressing the research questions and objectives of the study.
This chapter looks at the research design, philosophy, strategies that were used for the study. The target population was defined, and the sampling and analysis techniques that were used were discussed. Restrictions of the study were discussed as well as the ethical considerations that were taken into account.
Definition of methodology
A methodology is a process of following the steps, procedures and strategies for gathering and analysing data in a research investigation. These methods express in detail how the study was conducted. The first step when deciding on the research methodology to use is to look at the purpose of the research being undertaken and formulating the research design,  sample, methodological limitations, data-collection and analysis techniques for the study. This is the know-how of the scientific methods and techniques employed to obtain justifiable knowledge.
Research Design
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data (Libguides.usc.edu, 2018).
The present study is an exploratory and contextual qualitative study that seeks to gain an insight on the cost of a wide consultative process approach to Bus Rapid Transport development in South Africa.  The following are different types of research design that can be chosen:
Exploratory Studies
This type of study is usually undertaken where there’s uncertainty or when an understanding of a particular subject is required. There is flexibility and adaptability in this type of research. It is a means to find out what is happening and trying to gain more insight into a particular phenomenon. Direction can also change from these new insights. The focus of this type of research narrows as research progresses. Principles to follow in this type of research include:

Searching for literature.
Interviewing experts.
Conducting group interviews.

Descriptive studies
This type of research tries to portray an accurate and valid representation of persons and situations. It can be an extension of exploratory research. A clear understanding of phenomena is required to collect the right type of data.
Explanatory Studies
This study looks to identify causal links and relationships between variables. It is usually analytical and quantitative; however, a qualitative study could also provide data that could determine causal relationships. (Saunders et al., 2009:139-141). This research can be conducted to assess the impacts of specific changes in existing norms, various processes et al.
The advantages of this study:

It plays a contributory role in identifying reasons behind a wide range of processes, as well as, assessing the impacts of changes in existing norms, processes et al. The researcher aims to understand the approach to BRT project management and consultation and to establish the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects.
Offers the advantages of replication if the necessity arises. BRT’s have been successfully implemented in various parts of the world; this allows South Africa to select best world practice to ensure successful implementation and also to identify areas that cause cost escalations. The researcher seeks to recommend a more cost-effective approach to consultation on BRT development projects.
Associated with more significant levels of internal validity due to the systematic selection of processes.  In this instance, the researcher aims to understand the political approval processes, buy-in and acceptance, the number of committees that sit for decision making, the approval turn-around times et al.

Table 3.1: Main characteristic of research design

 

Causal research 

Exploratory research 

Descriptive research 

Amount of uncertainty characterising decision situation

Clearly defined

Highly ambiguous

Partially defined

Key research statement

Research hypotheses

Research question

Research question

When conducted?

Later stages of decision making

Early stage of decision making

Later stages of decision making

Usual research approach

Highly structured

Unstructured

Structured

In this study, the researcher selected the exploratory study, to gain insights into the cost of a wide consultative process approach to Bus Rapid of  BRT’s.  The researcher was also uncertain about the subject and therefore entered the research from the point of not knowing.
Research Philosophy
Saunders et al. (2009:107-109) in their book, discussed the importance of having a research philosophy. Hypotheses, in terms of methods and strategies for research, are made from developing a philosophy; thus a research philosophy is essential as It has an impact on how an investigation is conducted and an understanding of the research is formed.
The researcher employed a phenomenological research design and methodology to achieve the objectives of this study (defined in section 3.5.5). In this view, the following terms are defined: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative Research Methodology 
Quantitative research uses models to test a theory, this type of method is used to explain a phenomenon by collecting numerical data to ascertain the degree to which a phenomenon occurs and is quantifiable. There is a definite start and end point for the research. A methodical approach is used and strictly followed; therefore, accuracy can be determined. Statistical/mathematical methods are used to analyse the data.
A theoretical construct is developed and put to the test. Typical questions associated with a quantitative study include: How often a phenomenon occurs? How many people do a specific thing? It also allows statements of opinion to be converted into numeric data by using the Likert scales. Research is usually acquired by using closed questions. Quantitative studies are generally deductive in nature, and the researcher is usually objective and neutral. (Jonker and Pennink, 2010:65-74).
Qualitative Research Methodology
Qualitative research is when a researcher tries to understand and explain people’s experiences.  A qualitative approach facilitates the integration of information from various sources, including analysis of primary and secondary data. The qualitative approach is exploratory, which helps in understanding the attitudes, perceptions, and intentions in the consultation process (Creswell, 2013).  It is aimed at trying to find the characteristics in a particular situation. Conversations and interviews are where data is sourced. The analysis is conducted through coding of data and content analysis. This method is particularly useful for exploring how and why things have happened.
In trying to understand the why and how this study helps in knowledge development. The researcher attempts to understand a particular phenomenon from the opinions of the people involved. Qualitative studies are conducted when searching for the unknown. Research is obtained using open-ended questions. A mini-theory is usually developed. (Jonker and Pennink, 2010:77-90).
Rational for the Selection of Qualitative Research Approach
In this research study, the researcher used the qualitative research approach as the study is aimed at understanding the views, perceptions, thoughts and experiences of the participants concerning their roles in the project. The researcher wanted to understand the challenges that were prevalent to the participants in the study and how they felt about these challenges with respect to the delays and cost escalations of the BRT’s in Polokwane and Rustenburg. The research is aimed at appreciating the reasons how the consultation of myriad stakeholders has affected the projects, through the experiences of those directly involved in the projects.
Several research strategies will be discussed, below. This provides an understanding of the choices the researcher could adopt.
Positivist Research Strategy
Two research strategies are prevalent when looking at the positivist research strategy.
Experiment
This type of strategy is usually used in natural sciences and tries to examine causal relationships. In the experiment, two groups are established. The experimental and control group. An analysis is done by introducing changes to the experimental group and comparing the outcomes to the control group.
Survey
Usually associated with a quantitative study and a deductive approach. Surveys allow for a significant amount of data to be collected through questionnaires. An analysis is then conducted on the data obtained, and inferences are made. (Saunders et al., 2009:141-151).
Phenomenological Research Strategy
The goal of the phenomenological research is to describe experiences as they are lived. Phenomenological research further examines the particular experiences of individuals in a given situation thus exploring not what is (reality), but what it is perceived to be.
Strategies associated with a phenomenological research strategy.
Case Study
Case studies are usually used to gain an understanding with regards to context and processes. Data is usually obtained through interviews and questionnaires. It is used in exploratory research and can also be used to explain an existing theory.
Action Research
This type of strategy looks at ‘research in action’ and involves practitioners as well as the researcher. It deals with concerns that are prevalent in the marketplace when looking at business research. It is a robust strategy to allow for a theory to be developed and can be used after the study has taken place.
Grounded Theory
Grounded theory is used when following an inductive approach, however, it may also be used when following a combination of inductive and deductive approaches. It is used when trying to build a theory. It is best used when trying to understand behaviour. The interpretations are “grounded in” (or based on) observed empirical data, hence the name. To ensure that the theory is based chiefly on observed evidence, the grounded theory approach requires that researchers should not predetermine theoretical expectations before data analysis, and let the data dictate the formulation of the theory.
Ethnography
This strategy is also used in an inductive approach. It is very time consuming and takes place over an extended period. New patterns are developed continuously. Observations of participants are key. It is best used when trying to ascertain what the participants are thinking from their perspectives. (Saunders et al., 2009:141-151)
 
3.5.5 Reasons for Choosing Phenomenological Research Strategy
The researcher followed a qualitative study with a phenomenological study. The purpose of the study is to investigate the cost of a wide consultative process approach to BRT development, meaning that it is essential to understand what processes are in place, who is being consulted and why as well as establishing from individuals (working on the projects) compared to theory. This strategy allows the researcher to gather detailed information and knowledge of the phenomena.
Target Population
“A population can be defined as all people or items (unit of analysis) with the characteristics that one wishes to study. The unit of analysis may be a person, group, organisation, country, object, or any other entity that you wish to draw inferences about (Bhattacherjee, 2012:65-66)”.
For this research, the researcher focuses on Polokwane and Rustenburg as they are still in the process of implementation. The study will be done through interviews and discussions with project managers, selected stakeholders, transport engineers and municipal employees (Rustenburg and Polokwane) involved in the BRT projects.
A sample is: “The population researched in a specific study.” Usually, attempts are made to select a ‘sample population’ that is considered representative of groups of people to whom the results will be generalised or transferred (Jonker and Pennink, 2010). The sampling process is illustrated in Figure 3.2, below.
Sample Size
A sample is: “The population researched in a specific study.” Usually, attempts are made to select a ‘sample population’ that is considered representative of groups of people to whom the results will be generalised or transferred ((Jonker and Pennink, 2010:158)
Due to a qualitative study requiring a sample size of 8-10 participants from the whole target population, a total number of 10 participants were used in the study consisting of:
2 Project Managers involved in Rustenburg BRT 
1 Project Manager Polokwane BRT
1 Director of Transport BRT Rustenburg
1 Business Development Manager (Rustenburg)
1 Marketing Manager (Rustenburg)
1 Marketing Manager (Polokwane)
1 Stakeholder Engagement Specialist (Polokwane)
1 Transport Engineer Specialist
1 Taxi owner (Rustenburg)
Total Sample Size:
Sampling Technique
Sampling entails the process of identifying a section of the target population to make observations and draw the statistical inferences.
(Bhattacherjee 2012)
There are two categories that sampling can be divided into, probability sampling, which is usually associated with a quantitative study and non-probability sampling which is usually associated with a qualitative study.  As this study is qualitative, the researcher will be focusing on the non-probability sampling technique.
Non-probability sampling techniques (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2008):

Convenience Sampling– In this technique, a sample is drawn from a population that is readily available and convenient.
Quota Sampling– This technique requires the segmentation into exclusive groups, and a non-random sample is chosen. (This is similar to stratified sampling that one finds in probability sampling.)
Expert Sampling– Preferred sampling for this study. It is built on the expertise of the elements, the reason for this is because the sample would provide insight into what is being studied.
Snowball Sampling– In this technique a few participants are chosen based on the researcher’s requirements and these participants will then recommend others.
Purposive samplingis a type of non–probability sampling technique, also called judgmental sampling, it allows for the researcher to select participants based on the research being studied. It also allows for working with small samples. The researcher can focus on a specific group (Saunders et al. 2008).

Probability Sampling
A technique of selecting samples from the target population where each subject has an equal probability of being nominated. Researchers are then able to make statistical inferences on the data. Surveys and experiments are usually associated with probability sampling, and it is, therefore, used when a quantitative study is undertaken (Saunders et al., 2009:213).
There are a few methods that can be used to draw a sample from the population:

Simple Random Sampling – This is when there is a randomly selected sample. It is the most straightforward technique to use.
Systematic Sampling – The target population, in this technique, is ordered according to some criteria and a sample is taken at intervals.
Stratified Sampling – In this technique, the sample frame is divided into non-overlapping groups, and a random sample is drawn from these groups.  
Cluster Sampling – During this technique, the population is broken into clusters, and a random sample for each cluster is drawn, and all units are measured in a specific cluster.

As indicated, the researcher will conduct a non-probability sampling technique. The two techniques that are used are expert and purposive sampling. The reason is that the study needs to sample participants who have the expertise and have experience in the field.
Rationale for Selecting Non-probability Sampling
For this study, the researcher had conducted a non-probability sampling technique as this sampling method is more suited to a qualitative study. The two techniques that were used were expert and purposive sampling. The reason for this is because the researcher chose the participants on the basis of the research being studied coupled with the need to sample participants who had expertise in the field. In this case, the researcher had chosen the relevant consultants and municipal employees; this had also allowed the researcher to look at the patterns that were prevalent.
Questionnaires are a research instrument which can be both quantitative and qualitative based on the type of questions, and they are commonly used for primary data collection. Closed-ended questions with multiple choice answer options are analysed using quantitative methods; these may involve pie-charts, bar-charts and percentages. Responses to open-ended questionnaires are analysed using qualitative methods, and they involve discussions and critical analyses without the use of numbers and calculations. Questionnaires allow users to collect information quickly from a large group of people; however, the primary disadvantages of questionnaires are that they may preclude respondents from elaborating on their answers (Research-Methodology, 2018).
 An interview schedule is a questionnaire whereby the interviewer asks the questions. The interviewer will also explain the questions should further explanation be needed and will also record the answers (Kumar, 2011). Interviews direct participants to respond to specific research questions. There are three types of interviews illustrated in figure 3.6.
Unstructured interviews allow for freedom in terms of their structure and content. It can be used in both a quantitative and qualitative study. In structured interviews, the researcher asks a pre-set list of questions and uses the same wording. It allows for the comparability of data as there is uniformity (Kumar, 2011). A semi-structured interview allows for the researcher to choose which questions to omit and which to ask. Questions may vary from interview to interview (Saunders et al., 2009:320).
Observations
“Observation is a purposeful, systematic and selective way of watching and listening to an interaction or phenomenon as it takes place” (Kumar, 2011). Primary sources are further divided into observation, interviews and questionnaires.
There are two types of observations:
Participant observation –the researcher, participates in the activities and makes observations.
Non – Participant observation –the researcher, is non-participative observes.
Questionnaire Construction
For this research study, the researcher constructed the following interview schedule. It was a questionnaire that was administered through an interview.
The questionnaire as shown in Appendix B is subdivided divided into four sections as outlined below:
Section A:  General respondent profession and BRT experience
Section B:  Respondents opinion on challenges facing BRT
Section C: Respondents opinion on the links between the challenges facing BRT and the escalating costs.
Section D: Respondents opinion on impact on stakeholders
Section E: Respondents recommendations
For this study, the researcher used an interview guide. All questions were structured resulting in participants asking similar questions. An interview schedule was used as the data collection instrument. The researcher met with the participants and asked them the questions while filling out the questionnaire. This allowed the researcher to elaborate when participants were confused and also allowed the researcher to write down what was relevant to the study. Participants were then asked if they were satisfied with what the researcher had captured.
Pilot Study
According to Saunders et al., (2008) it is vital to conduct a pilot study as it tests whether the questionnaire is valid and answers the questions set by the study. The test will also provide insight into:

Recording of data
Making sure all questions will be answered
Assess reliability
Ensure the correct methodology is being used.

A pilot study was carried out on three of the ten participants listed (3.6.3)  The remaining seven were used for the remainder of the study. The pilot study was conducted via interviews for the three participants, all of whom had been on the various BRT projects for over five years (1 project manager, one director and a public participation specialist). The rest of the questionnaires were conducted through telephonic interviews, and this was due to time constraints the consultants faced. The findings of the pilot study are, briefly, presented below.
The participants cited the following as top challenges:

Political Interference / Indifferent political leadership
Poor planning
Lack / under-resourced human capital
Lack of understanding/knowledge of the concept of IRPTN in the country.
Undermining the power of stakeholders.

When asked about the impact of stakeholder engagement, all participants indicated that stakeholder buy-in is crucial in the successful implementation of any project. They further stated that continuous engagements foster good relationships with stakeholders and in their view projects that affect the public purse should have more stakeholder engagements explicitly for business owners, property owners and the taxi industry as they are most affected and have the potential to stop or delay the projects.
When asked which stakeholders needed less consultation, the responses varied from:

Those who are not interested in using the system, stating that they seem always to have negative inputs and questioning the success of the projects.  It was also indicated that planning and holding engagements with this group were an unnecessary cost.
National Treasury and National Department of Transport, it was stated that reports and minimal consultation should suffice to keep this stakeholder updated.
Participants stated that the lack of human resources in Government is one of the significant setbacks and results in the constant and continuous appointment of service providers because the municipalities neither have capacity nor skills to run with the projects and institutional memory is with service providers.

One of the participants stated that some service providers had monopolised the industry as they have been involved in all BRT projects in the country, this has resulted in not only “cut and paste” work but in “ridiculous” project costs which they can justify based on their ‘experience”.  
All participants recommendations were centred on the same theme; that is, stakeholder engagements are critical.  They indicated that engagements do not need to be face to face all the time, particularly when dealing with those least affected. They did, however, highlight that costs of print media were also high and that municipalities should find a way of getting discounted rates from local based media houses.  They further recommended that there should be proper project planning and project management to ensure that the projects do not exceed their implementation timelines.
Once the pilot study was conducted the researcher was able to assess which questions needed more information and, therefore, when interviewing participants in the main study, more insights were gathered.
Administration of Questionnaires
There are different methods that interviews can be administered. There is a personal face-to-face interview. In this method, the interviewer would ask the questions and record the answers from the participants. The second type of interview is when a small group of participants are in one specific location, and a group interview takes place. This is also referred to as group interviews. Interviews can also be conducted over the phone and are similar to a face-to-face interview, in that, the researcher will record the answers to the questions (Bhattacherjee, 2012:78).
This research study was administered through conducting face-to-face and telephonic interviews. The reason for both is due to some participants being unavailable for a face-to-face interview and thus the need for a telephonic interview.
Collection of Questionnaires
For an interview, once a sample has been selected the researcher can do the following:

Ensure that all questionnaires are printed.
Contact each participant and administer the questionnaire. Take down all the details.
Contact the participants to notify them on when the interview will be conducted.
Try to contact the participants who were unavailable and record new information.
Revisit respondents if necessary.

The researcher printed the consent form and questionnaire. An appointment was made, and the researcher visited the premises of the participants. The interview was conducted, and the researcher recorded the answers.
Storage and Security of Data and Questionnaires
The consent form and questionnaires were stored by the researcher. The information was scanned and uploaded to a cloud, to ensure that the information is available digitally as well.
Data Analysis
Once data has been collected, data analysis can be conducted for a quantitative as well as qualitative study. The researcher discusses the over-lapping tasks that are prevalent in both approaches.  
Data requires editing. This allows for data cleansing, and data gaps are minimised. Problems can be minimised by inference, which is looking at questions that may be related and deducing from the answers to one of the questions upon another question. Also by recall, when a researcher recalls what an interviewee has said and by going back to the respondent, a visit or a telephone call can be made to the participant in order to clarify the problem.
A method that is used when analysing qualitative data is content analysis. This method also has a variety of steps to follow after the completion of the editing phase. The steps are as follows:

Identify the main themes. This entails reading the responses of the participants and developing an understanding of what they mean. Once these meanings are understood, themes are built.
Assign codes to the main themes. This is usually done if the researcher wants to count the number of times a theme occurs. The researcher may also choose to identify the themes.
Classify responses under the main themes.
Integrate themes and responses into the text of the report. This is where the researcher takes the identified themes and integrates it into the report. The themes can be discussed. This could provide a feel for the data.

(Kumar, 2011)
As this study is qualitative, the researcher had followed the content analysis methodology and developed themes for the data. These themes were also compared to theory, and secondary data and conclusions were made.  
Validity and Reliability
It is crucial that the data be valid and reliable.
Validity
There are different types of validity with regards to data, and the following is a brief explanation of each:
Internal validity – This refers to the ability of the questionnaire to measure what is intended.
Content validity – This refers to the extent to which the questions that involve measurement provide adequate coverage of what is being investigated.
Criterion-related validity – This refers to the ability to make predictions from the data.
Construct validity – This refers to the extent that constructs that are intended to be measured are, in fact, measured.
(Saunders et al., 2009:372-373)
The researcher was able, in this study, to obtain data that met the requirements of validity. The questionnaire measured what it was intended to measure, and coverage was obtained.  
Reliability
Reliability is the extent to which the analysis will yield consistent findings, and it is vital that the same results be obtained on different occasions with similar observations and transparency.  There are threats to reliability, in that, there could be participant error depending on how the participant felt on a particular day. There could be participant bias which is when the participant is told what to say, and observer error may occur due to the variations in asking a question, the answers could be different and finally observer bias where results could be interpreted the wrong way.
The questionnaire was semi-structured which allowed for the minimising of observer error and bias. The researcher did not experience participant error as the research established the experiences of the participant that spans a medium to long period. Due to the participants being a mix of independent consultants and government employees there was no participant bias as they discussed their thoughts and perceptions and offered insight to the internal processes which include council approvals, the frequency of council sittings, and when special council meetings are held. Participants were asked if they were satisfied with the content that the researcher had captured and whether the researcher had understood the participant’s answers.
Further to this, the concepts of credibility, dependability and transferability are defined below.
Credibility: “A researcher’s ability to demonstrate that the object of a study is accurately identified and described based on the way in which the study was conducted (Jonker & Pennink, 2010:141)”.
The nature of the research required, municipal employees and consultants. Both these sources were credible as the study revolved around their perceptions, feelings and thoughts. The researcher was, thus, satisfied that credibility was achieved.
Dependability: “Being able to account for changes in the design of the study and the changing conditions surrounding what was studied (Jonker & Pennink, 2010:143)”.
The feelings, perceptions and beliefs of participants were formed over a long time horizon. It was based on their experiences. The researcher was satisfied that the participants were dependable as well as the data obtained.
Transferability: “To allow readers to explore the extent to which the study may, or may not, have applicability beyond the specific context within which the data were generated; the researcher should report the contextual features of the study in full (Jonker & Pennink, 2010:160)”.
The research was conducted in Polokwane and Rustenburg. The participants were selected as they played different roles on the projects, although there are synergies in their roles, as they provide administrative functions such as; information sharing for purposes of communication and marketing, project progress status (i.e. deliverables, timelines and budgets), risk and mitigation analysis, presentations and reports. The researcher felt that it would be more conducive to define the context, provide a better understanding.
Limitations of the Study
The study was conducted qualitatively, and only 10 participants were used. The study provides a small view from a few municipal employees and consultants. The themes that were built were relevant; however, this study needs to be conducted in both a qualitative and quantitative method across the various stakeholders which should include the construction companies, bus & taxi drivers (not just owners) and the department of treasury.
Elimination of Bias
Bias is unethical from the researcher’s point of view. It is different from subjectivity, in that, subjectivity deals with the researcher’s background and competence. Bias is when data is hidden or deliberately distorted and therefore does not show an accurate reflection of what is being studied (Kumar, 2011).
To eliminate bias from this study, the researcher had documented the answers given by participants digitally during the analysis phase. This allows for a full view of the data. The analysis that was done by the researcher was, hence, objective. Each of the participants was asked if they were satisfied with the researchers’ transcripts and that the researcher fully understood the participants’ responses. The actual handwritten responses were scanned and copied to a cloud. The researcher is, thus, satisfied that bias was eliminated.
Ethical Considerations
Saunders et al. (2008) state that “ethics” refers to the appropriateness of the researchers’ behaviour concerning the rights of those being interviewed/ questioned/ affected by the research. Further to this, Saunders et al. (2008) highlight the need for researchers to be sensitive towards those who are being interviewed, as this type of research (face-to-face interviews) places some power to the researcher in the questions formulated which could be probing and may cause levels of discomfort.  
Below is the list of ethical issues.
Ensuring participants have given informed consent
Saunders et al. (2009:190-195) state that it is essential to inform the participants of the reason for the study. The researcher in this data collection had provided a consent form to the participants to sign. This form can be found in Appendix A.
Ensuring no harm comes to participants
Saunders et al. (2009:190-195) state that no participants should be harmed during the study. No harm came to participants when the research was conducted.
Ensuring confidentiality and anonymity
The identity of all participants should be protected, and the researcher must ensure this (Saunders et al., 2009:190-195). The researcher did not ask the participants for their names, surnames and identity numbers. The participants remained and will remain anonymous.
Ensuring that permission is obtained
This chapter discussed the different research design, philosophies and methods available to the researcher as well as the type of data collection and analysis techniques. Ethical considerations were also discussed.
The researcher had chosen to conduct a qualitative study using a phenomenological philosophy that employed a mix of action research and grounded theory strategy. The sample was chosen using an expert and purposive method which are non-probability sampling techniques. A semi-structured questionnaire and interview were conducted. Content analysis was used as a data analysis technique due to the nature of the study and measures were taken to ensure the validity and reliability of the results. Ethical considerations were taken into account.
The next chapter will provide the results, discussion and interpretation of the results from the study conducted.
Both Rustenburg and Polokwane have experienced delays in implementing the BRT.  Rustenburg’s’ Yarona was expected to “Go Live” in December 2016 and they are currently looking at the 2018/19 financial year.  Polokwane was scheduled to Go-live in April 2016 and they too are looking at the 2018/19 financial year. A certain set of challenges are attributed to these delays and among them are the resisting stakeholders, management skills shortages and delayed payments by the municipalities.
In this chapter the researcher will provide the results and discuss the findings of the analysis. The chapter will be presented in the following way:
Section A:  General respondent profession and BRT experience
Section B:  Respondents opinion on challenges facing BRT
Section C: Respondents opinion on the links between the challenges facing BRT and the escalating costs.
Section D: Respondents opinion on impact on stakeholders
Section E: Respondents recommendations
The researcher conducted a qualitative study with an exploratory design due to the lack of understanding of the subject. A phenomenological paradigm was selected as the study aimed to understand people’s perceptions, thoughts and feelings about the elements of the subject and the grounded theory research strategy was used.
The sample included five (5) municipal employees, a construction contractor, two (2) consultants, two (2) specialists and a taxi owner. The sample was chosen in order to get a fair balance from both internal and external stakeholders.
Content Analysis was the chosen analysis method. Themes were built around the data and are presented in this chapter. The data was collected by using a questionnaire, face-to-face and telephonic interviews.
Each participant was informed of the anonymity for this research and was, very open about their feelings, thoughts, experiences and perceptions in as far as the way the BRT’s were introduced and subsequently implemented. Given their roles and involvement in the projects, it is safe to state that the information is trustworthy. As part of the process, the participants have signed a consent form.
Each participant was informed of the anonymity for this research and were, very open about their feelings, thoughts, experiences and perceptions in as far as the way the BRT’s were introduced and subsequently implemented. Given their roles and involvement in the projects, it is same to state that the information is trustworthy. As part of the process the participants have signed a consent form.
Professional Analysis
The researcher was interested in the role and experience of each participant with the BRT’s in SA. As BRT’s are a relatively new development in SA, establishing the level of experience amongst all participants was deemed critical given the high failure rates of the projects across the country. It is a widely acknowledged fact that with more experience in a field learnings from previous projects can be translated into a more efficient way of executing subsequent projects.
The consultants (PM’s) have been involved with at least three(3)implementation projects whilst the director has been exposed to all 13 BRT projects. All participants had vast experience in their fields especially the engineers, Transport engineering specialists and the Taxi Owner. However, from the analysis of experience in BRT projects, it is evident that given the total number of projects throughout the country of thirteen (13), most professionals had participated in all the projects in the region sampled. This implies a high concentration of the same professionals across the sampled projects which by inference means that there may be a lack of a broad pool of professionals who are well versed and experienced with BRT projects. The taxi owner has been in the business for over 18 years and has only experience with one BRT project. This is a result of him being a localised businessman with operations in only one municipal area.
Respondents opinion on challenges facing BRT
BRT Cost Drivers
Amongst all participants there was universal agreement that in deed the BRT projects face a myriad of problems.
The participants identified the following as the key primary challenges that are resulting in the escalating costs and delays of the BRT roll outs. The following table outlines the challenges and cost drivers that the participants outlined.
Table 4.1: Cost drivers and challenges

BRT COST DRIVERS

CHALLENGES

 
Finance
 

Political Interference / Indifferent political leadership / government financial modelling

System Design Project Planning & Management

Poor planning /poor design / Lack / under-resourced human capital

Political Buy in and Support

Political interference / indifferent political leadership

Taxi Industry partnership

Lack of understanding/knowledge of the concept of IRPTN in the country. / Unclear partnership models

Stakeholder Engagement & Buy in

 
Undermining the power of stakeholders.

SECTION  C
Respondents opinion on the links between the challenges facing BRT and the escalating costs, varied from a poor implementation plan to budget cuts.  The external stakeholders felt that the municipalities are under-resourced and in the case of both Polokwane and Rustenburg, key positions such as Director of the divisions had not been filled for long periods of time causing delays in decision making that is critical for the project. These delays have resulted in the halting of some construction works, no external communication to stakeholders and extended completion dates.
The  table below (table 4.2) depicts participants’ rankings to the challenge
Parameter Rankings
Participants were requested to rank the cost drivers in accordance to their experience and opinion from a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being the most significant and 5 being the least significant).
Table 4.2: Ranking of Challenges

BRT COST DRIVERS

Marketing

Stakeholder Engagement Specialist

Project Managers

Director

Transport Engineering Specialist

Engineer

Contractor

Taxi Owner

Finance

4

5

5

3

4

1

2

1

System Design Project Planning & Management

1

1

1

1

5

2

1

1

Political Buy in and Support

5

4

3

2

1

5

5

4

Taxi Industry partnership

3

2

2

4

2

4

4

2

Stakeholder Engagement & Buy in

2

3

4

2

3

3

3

5

Based on the rankings of the key cost drivers by the different participants, it becomes evident that the issues are primarily viewed and weighted from the vantage point of the individual’s key role and responsibility in the project.  Though their various vantage points articulate distinct parameters (political buy-in and support, taxi industry buy-in and support), are all actually subsets of the wider issue  of stakeholder support and buy-in.
The finance, system design and project planning are the actual product that all stakeholders are meant to buy into  Participants highlighting the flaw in these three areas (finance, system design and project planning) is in effect stating a flaw in the actual product – the BRT. The Taxi Owner who is the primary role player from a business standpoint, views finance and system design project planning and management as a critical primary issue. This is based mainly on the fact that BRT systems have a direct bearing on his business and by extension, the design, planning and management of them are not congruent with the current traditional taxi modus operandi, routes and financial model. Therefore, the taxi industry buy-in of the project becomes an issue for project managers, stakeholder engagement specialists, and marketers who have to deal with the taxi industry on an ongoing basis.
The pushback felt by these participants then translates into them feeling that the system design and planning is a significant issue as it results in a lack of buy-in from the taxi industry. The key individuals involved in system design, i.e. the transport engineering specialists and director then view their challenges as primarily being driven by lack of political buy-in and support. From the above analysis, it then becomes very clear that buy-in is a significant issue; however, the critical cause of the buy-in which stems from systems design is cascaded across the various key professionals and interpreted into other factors while ignoring the cause which based on the respondents’ feedback, stems from systems design.
There exists a universal agreement that there is a lack of stakeholder buy-in, the reasons are described based on an individual’s role and professional standpoint and their crucial vantage point. Throughout this cascading abdication and interpretation of the critical challenges, there is a resultant financial consequence and impact on BRT projects and stakeholders. Respondents rendered their opinions on the magnitude of the impact on stakeholders and remedial actions that could be taken
Respondents opinion on impact on stakeholders
Table 4.3

STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & BUY IN

Marketing

Stakeholder Engagement Specialist

Project Managers

Director

Transport Engineering Specialist

Engineer

Contractor

Taxi Owner

Effect of consultative process on project management

Very high

Very High

Very High

Very High

Very High

High

Very High

High

Should the number of consultations be increased or decreased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

Increased

What are the cost implications of this approach to BRT project management and consultation?

High

Very High

Very High

Very High

Very High

High

Very High

High

How can the approach be changed in order to decrease the cost of it? 

Innovation

System Design

Clearer mandates

Synergies

System Design

Political support

Political support

System Design

C: What are the impacts of budgetary adjustments and stakeholders input on the BRT projects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are the cost implications of this approach to BRT project management and consultation?

Very high

Very High

High

Very High

Very High

High

High

High

How can the approach be changed in order to decrease the cost of it? 

Political support

Honest Communication

Adherence to timelines

System design

Political Support

Client Support

Political support

Transparency

D: What is the approach to BRT project management and consultation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are you aware of the stakeholders of this project and what impact they have?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Do you understand the consultative process?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

How involved are you with the consultative process?

High

High

Average

High

High

Average

Average

High

In your opinion, which stakeholder needs more consultation? (please state your reason).
 

Commuters & Taxi drivers

Taxi, Politicians, Commuters & Business

Taxi, Politicians & Commuters

Residents & business

Commuters

Government

Commuters
 
 

Taxi
 
 

STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & BUY IN

Marketing

Stakeholder Engagement Specialist

Project Managers

Director

Transport Engineering Specialist

Engineer

Contractor

Taxi Owner

In your opinion, which stakeholder needs less consultation? (Please state your reason).

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non commuters

Non Commuters

With whom should the final decision on this project rest?

Municipality

Municipality

Municipality

Municipality

Municipality

Municipality

Municipality

Taxi industry

Do you think that the BRT’s are a good investment?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Does the widespread stakeholder consultation process have a notable cost impact on the project?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

What do you think could turn this situation around?

Proper implementation

Communication & stakeholder buy in

Commitment from client and contractors

Adherence to timelines by all

Reduce the number of stakeholders

Government commitment

Reduce the number of stakeholders

Offer sound buy out

Analysis of questionnaire
From the above tabulation summary, all participants agreed that the consultative process has a high impact on the effectiveness of project management around BRT’s together with a resultant high-cost implication. The participants further recommended that consultations should be increased as there are challenges with BRT projects and the management thereof.  Despite all participants agreeing that consultation processes should be increased a need to improve the consultation process was also imperative. The participants rendered opinions on how the consultative process could be improved with key participants outlining the key areas of Innovation, system design, clearer mandates, synergies and political support to enhance the consultative process further.
Given the respondent’s recommendations, a clear pattern emerges where system design is viewed as a key route cause of difficulties experienced during the consultative process, this has resulted in impasses between the municipalities and the taxi industry, which has resulted to delays in the project implementation. Better synergies between the different role players, which in this instance requires that politicians, engineers, marketers, project managers and stakeholder specialists should all be on the same page and have very clear mandates of their roles when it comes to consultation and issues regarding the BRT systems. With all key role players being in agreement in terms of the BRT consultative process and approach, a further need to rationalize and place different emphasis on different stakeholders was deemed necessary by participants as there were key segments that had a more pivotal role and the buy-in was deemed extremely critical to the active development of BRT’s. The key stakeholders were identified as  treasury, the taxi owners, commuters, politicians and business owners.
Treasury
Treasury is the funder. The planning, design and implementation of these IRPTNs are funded through dedicated Public Transport Infrastructure (PTI) and Public Transport Network Operations (PTNO) Grants, which are published annually in the Division of Revenue Act (DoRA) for the following three-year MTEF period. The allocation of these grants is reviewed annually by National Treasury and the National Department of Transport (DOT) and assumes a timeous implementation of any project. Delays in projects therefore end up going out of sync with the central government budgeting and planning cycle and is based on the performance of each city in meeting the goals of the 2007 Public Transport Strategy and Action Plan as provided for in the National Land Transport Act, Act 5 of 2009.  
“Over the next 10 years National Treasury priorities include increasing investment in infrastructure and industrial capital; improving education and skills development to raise productivity; improving the regulation of markets and public entities; and fighting poverty and inequality through efficient public service delivery, expanded employment levels, income support and empowerment”. (Treasury.gov.za, 2018).
This lack of synchronicity, then results in budget cuts, redeployment of funds and underfunding of the project; which then means systems are re-designed, widespread consultation is re-undertaken, spiralling into a non-ending  vicious cycle of cost escalations and project erosion.
Taxi Owners
Taxi owners were viewed as the primary partners in the BRT as they have both high political, economic leverage and they are the traditional custodians of the mass transportation of the people of South Africa, their buy-in and support is paramount. It was also stated that historically major delays have resulted from disagreements with the taxi industry on matters relating to compensation, business operating models and system design. The disagreements have in extreme cases resulted in violence and vandalism to infrastructure and the delays in the project roll out plans. These interruptions have a huge cost impact as the infrastructure contractors continue to be paid standing time and in some instances the rising costs of materials have an adverse effect on the budget. The tacit impact being loss of project credibility as timelines are deferred.
Commuters
These are deemed to be the primary beneficiaries and their needs and requirements should be placed ahead of all else. It was felt that the system design often does not adequately address the real and pressing needs of this stakeholder resulting in a lack of buy in and push back.
Business Community
Though the business community is a key stakeholder it was felt that they more than often placed their own needs ahead of those of the BRT objectives especially when it comes to route planning and advocating for compensation resulting from BRT construction disruptions to their businesses. The businesses community had in many cased used the legal system to force delays to the implementation of BRT’s projects.
Politicians
Politicians as the primary representatives of the people were often found lacking in explain the merits of BRT to their constituencies and advising government on key critical aspects regarding funding. This the participants felt often created conflict between communities, contractors and municipalities resulting in delays and sub optimal deployment of resources. The bids that are put out, stipulate that the winning bidder if not local will source 25% of the bid from local SMME’s.  This has resulted in politicizing and patronage especially when it comes to hiring labour force for construction. This leads to hiring of inexperienced, and unskilled labour with political backing that result in unnecessary conflicts on site and most importantly cost inefficiencies in the labour (workmanship, delivery et al.)
General Stakeholder
In terms of stakeholders who needed less consultation all respondents felt that non-commuters i.e. people who are not directly affected or are beneficiaries of the BRT’s, needed less consultation.  Experience has indicated that, this group not only has no interest in the project, they tend to raise negative and unconstructive input.
Despite all the challenges facing the BRT’s,  all respondents agreed that the BRT is a good initiative and investment that requires better consultation, design, rationalization of stakeholders and decisive efficient implementation which will result in better BRT’s and lower the costs of widespread consultation, which in the current state has a very high cost on BRT projects and have dire consequences to municipalities both financial and political. Financial implications even extend to cash flow management as it is apparent that municipalities are engaging in teaming and lading. This is evidenced in delayed payments to contractors and service providers, which leads to further project stoppages and delays.
To counter and mitigate all the delays, it was also considered that the municipality should be bolder at times, take the hard decisions and be decisive in making decisions regarding the BRT’s.
Chapter 5 provides a summary of the insights and perspectives gained from the study and research. Critical recommendations based on the findings of the study coupled with learnings from the literature review, overall coursework of the MBA programme including best practice and relevant models and teachings from across the various applicable courses. The furnished recommendations are deemed by the researcher to be practical and implementable and will allow for the remedy of the challenges uncovered and optimisation of the opportunities identified throughout the study.
Findings from the study
This section will discuss the findings from the literature review and the findings from primary research. These will be linked to the research objectives of this research study, which are:
Objective one: Understand the approach to BRT project management and consultation.
Objective two: Analyze the impacts that budgetary adjustments and stakeholder input have on the BRT projects.
Objective three: Establish the cost of widespread stakeholder consultation on BRT projects
Objective four: recommend a more cost-effective approach to consultation on BRT development projects.
Findings from Literature Review 
In terms of the findings of the literature review, the primary emphasis was in getting an understanding and insight into the use of widespread consultation in BRT projects in South Africa.
Widespread consultation in BRT projects in South Africa 
Based on the literature review the development of BRT projects in South Africa have all been plagued by delays, cost overruns and sub-optimal implementation since their inception and development. This has basically gone against the original thinking and motivation for the development of BRT’s in South Africa which was to address the inequitable commuter transport legacy born out of the spatial planning legacy of the pre-democracy years and to catalyse a transformation of South Africa’s public transport sector into a safe, secure and high-quality experience for the passenger.
The advent of democracy in South Africa has meant that significant projects and initiatives have become a collective undertaking with all stakeholders both relevant and irrelevant having a say and participating in the form and structure of projects. It was found that BRT projects have a wide array of stakeholders all with different interests and agendas when it comes to the design, development and implementation of the systems. The study revealed that varied stakeholders are all consulted, and their needs and input corralled into the project development. The difficulty of addressing all the vested interests has resulted in conflicts, legal challenges, lack of buy-in from some and delays in BRT project development.
Whilst widespread consultation in project development and management is sound practice; it should be used to foster buy-in, inform and educate, rather than be a stumbling block to effective project management.
The delayed implementation of the BRT’s has resulted in cost overruns,  waning political and public support for the overall projects and indeed the transportation dynamics have been overtaken by developments such as ridesharing and e hailing.
Approach to widespread consultation
As a community-based project with the primary upstream beneficiaries being the communities in municipalities, with the taxi industry being critical partners and the most significant indigenous business formation within these communities. BRT projects have no option but to employ extensive consultation to get a consensus on its development as it affects livelihoods and a traditional way of life for a vast majority of the community in these areas. The widespread consultation also extends to what could be termed the downstream beneficiaries which are the business community, broader local communities, politicians and government.
Findings from the study indicate that widespread consultation though noble in effort requires further enhancement in order to accommodate the needs of the primary upstream beneficiaries.
According to the findings, the pushback on BRT comes from System Design, by the primary beneficiaries (taxi owners and commuters) and escalates into a myriad of other issues including finance and political conflicts all resulting in delays.
Impacts of widespread consultation
Development by consensus in a highly charged up democracy like South Africa with an open, accessible legal framework and a history of demonstration to articulate views has meant that widespread consultation can, has and will often create platforms where communities vent their frustration and displeasure on unrelated service delivery issues, which they feel should take precedence over the BRT’s.  This phenomenon is not isolated to the groups as mentioned earlier but is also evident within the business community and non-commuters, who question the merits of investing in BRT’s vs investment in other areas of the communities.
Contrary to this, these engagements, offer a critical platform and diffusion mechanism, in that the communities express their views and the municipality is accorded the opportunity to speak on their programs and projects in order to solicit support and buy-in. Furthermore, these consultations enable the municipalities to showcase their service delivery milestones and initiatives.
The impacts according to the study and literature review can be categorised into the socio-economic cost of an inefficient transport system, direct financial cost of delays, opportunity costs of the idle capital deployed to a sub-optimal project versus the other pressing developmental needs of the community such as health care, education and housing.
Impact of widespread consultation
Development by consensus in a highly charged up democracy like South Africa with an open, accessible legal framework and a history of demonstration to articulate views has meant that widespread consultation can, has and will often create platforms where communities vent their frustration and displeasure on unrelated service delivery issues, which they feel should take precedence over the BRT’s.  This phenomenon is not isolated to the groups as mentioned earlier but is also evident within the business community and non-commuters, who question the merits of investing in BRT’s vs investment in other areas of the communities.
Contrary to this, these engagements, offer a critical platform and diffusion mechanism, in that the communities express their views and the municipality is accorded the opportunity to speak on their programs and projects in order to solicit support and buy-in. Furthermore, these consultations enable the municipalities to showcase their service delivery milestones and initiatives.
The impacts according to the study and literature review can be categorised into the socio-economic cost of an inefficient transport system, direct financial cost of delays, opportunity costs of the idle capital deployed to a sub-optimal project versus the other pressing developmental needs of the community such as health care, education and housing.
Costs of the impact of widespread consultation
The impacts according to the study and literature review can be categorised into the socio-economic cost, direct financial cost of delays, opportunity costs of funding  BRT’s versus other pressing developmental needs of the community such as health care, education, housing, water, electricity et al.
The ambient of the study did not seek to determine and allocate a definitive value to this cost, but by inference for a country with ballooning debt, limited resources and pressing developmental needs underpinned by high unemployment and inequality it is justifiable to conclude that the cost implications are surmountable.  
Advantages of Stakeholder Consultation
According to Post, Preston and Sachs, 2011, the following are the advantages of stakeholder consultation:

Providing Expertise

Stakeholders hold a wealth of knowledge, this includes historical information, and industry insight. Often these stakeholders will have been exposed to either similar projects or the industry longer than the project manager or project team. The involvement of stakeholders when amassing and detailing requirements is important to avoid missing major deliverables of the project and changing scope/design plans. Project managers, or project team members, may not be experts on every project and therefore input from key stakeholders is crucial. Key stakeholders can provide information from their industry that will be important to have when understanding project constraints and risks. This is true to the taxi industry, they started the industry with no “professional” expects, but rather with the end in mind, and that being to move people from one point to another.

Reducing and Uncovering Risk

Frequent engagement and involvement of stakeholders, results in  reducing and uncovering risks on your project. When reviewing initial requirements, project needs, and constraints, stakeholders may bring up concerns or offer solutions about mitigating some challenges. Unearthing risks and then discussing a plan to mitigate them before issues arise dramatically increases the success of projects. The involvement of knowledgeable stakeholders is helpful. Both Rustenburg and Polokwane have experienced pushback from both the taxi industry and form business and property owners. This lack of consultation has led legal battles between the municipalities and business owners.

Increasing Project Success

Reviewing and sharing project plans and requirements with stakeholders, enables  their “buy-in,” which in turn helps increase project success through their support. The buy-in / support is essential especially as not all stakeholders’ needs can be met. There are often conflicting needs and priorities, and therefore it is weighty to set expectations early in the project life cycle, as this supports in managing the relationships throughout the project. Rustenburg and Polokwane have experienced project stoppages from their key stakeholders.  In Polokwane there was an impasse between the taxi negotiating forum and the municipality which resulted in the taxi industry walking away from the negotiations and causing discomfort to residents.  Rustenburg has been dealing with litigation issues which delayed the project.  

Granting Project Acceptance

The regular involvement of stakeholders from the one, is likely to yield a positive project conclusion. Through these regular engagements the project team members should be aware of risks, and how to mitigate the risks and delivery expectations. This allows for reviewed draft deliverables where necessary. These engagements however, should be well structured and all necessary information made available i.e. maps, drawings et al.
Recommendations
Based on the key findings of the research study several critical recommendations are furnished below.
System design and project management optimisation.
Fostering buy-in for a system that is viewed as not being optimal by the primary beneficiaries in terms of planning, design and the financial modelling will always result in lack of buy-in despite the best efforts in widespread consultation.
It is recommended that the BRT system design accommodate the real needs of the primary beneficiaries from their point of view. The system was introduced to better the livelihood of communities; therefore, the travelling distance and routes should consider long distance. Affordability, should not be viewed from the investors’ point of view.  A commuter does not see “saving time” as affordability – to a commuter; affordability is monetary.
Prioritization of stakeholders
Prioritisation is critical in ensuring that, the directly affected understand why the project is being introduced and the merits of the project succinctly communicated.  The question should be; who is directly affected, how are they affected and to what extent, then the answer should be, how are their needs, risks and concerns met.
Synergy and unity in consultation
According to the Stakeholder specialists, the biggest challenge is in information sharing within the project. This results in inconsistent messaging reaching stakeholders.
A consultation process offers an opportunity for dialogue; stakeholders are given information and they give feedback.  Stakeholders can use the platform to educate the municipalities about the local context. Raising issues and concerns, asking questions, and could potentially help shape the project by making suggestions for the municipalities to consider and respond to.  Therefore, a planned process for consultation needs to be in place, commencing with clear objectives about what is to be achieved (International, 2018). This means ALL role players from the municipalities, both administrative and political representatives  (i.e. EM, MM, and  Councillors) and service providers (PM, Engineers, Stakeholder Specialist, MarComs) need to be present at these sessions
Conclusion
This chapter discussed the findings from the literature review and primary study that was conducted. These findings were linked to the research objectives that were constructed at the beginning of the study. The researcher was satisfied that these research objectives were met. The chapter was then concluded by recommendations that came out of the study. This chapter marks the end of the dissertation.
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Latest Management Samples

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MPM755 Building Success In Commerce
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0 | Pages :
9

Course Code: MPM755
University: Deakin University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Answers:
Introduction
The process of developing a successful business entity requires a multidimensional analysis of several factors that relate to the internal and external environment in commerce. The areas covered in this current unit are essential in transforming the business perspective regarding the key commerce factors such as ethics, technology, culture, entrepreneurship, leadership, culture, and globalization (Nzelibe, 1996; Barza, 2…
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SNM660 Evidence Based Practice
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8

Course Code: SNM660
University: The University Of Sheffield

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Country: United Kingdom

Answers:
Critical reflection on the objective, design, methodology and outcome of the research undertaken Assessment-I
Smoking and tobacco addiction is one of the few among the most basic general restorative issues, particularly to developed nations such as the UK. It has been represented that among all risk segments smoking is the fourth driving purpose behind infections and other several ailments like asthma, breathing and problems in the l…
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Tags:
Australia Maidstone Management Business management with marketing University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

BSBHRM513 Manage Workforce Planning
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0 | Pages :
20

Course Code: BSBHRM513
University: Tafe NSW

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Answer:
Task 1
1.0 Data on staff turnover and demographics
That includes the staffing information of JKL industries for the fiscal year of 2014-15, it can be said that the company is having problems related to employee turnover. For the role of Senior Manager in Sydney, the organization needs 4 managers; however, one manager is exiting. It will make one empty position which might hurt the decision making process. On the other hand, In Brisba…
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MKT2031 Issues In Small Business And Entrepreneurship
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5

Course Code: MKT2031
University: University Of Northampton

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Country: United Kingdom

Answer:
Entrepreneurial ventures
Entrepreneurship is the capacity and willingness to develop, manage, and put in order operations of any business venture with an intention to make profits despite the risks that may be involved in such venture. Small and large businesses have a vital role to play in the overall performance of the economy. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the difference between entrepreneurial ventures, individual, and c…
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Turkey Istanbul Management University of Employee Masters in Business Administration 

MN506 System Management
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0 | Pages :
7

Course Code: MN506
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Answer:
Introduction
An operating system (OS) is defined as a system software that is installed in the systems for the management of the hardware along with the other software resources. Every computer system and mobile device requires an operating system for functioning and execution of operations. There is a great use of mobile devices such as tablets and Smartphones that has increased. One of the widely used and implemented operating syste…
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Tags:
Australia Cheltenham Computer Science Litigation and Dispute Management University of New South Wales Information Technology 

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