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RES-850 Research Methods

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RES-850 Research Methods

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Course Code: RES850
University: Grand Canyon University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

1. Discuss the key points in the literature review and how the author used this section to identify the gap or problem addressed in the study.2. Describe the phenomenon under study and how it is a key component in this qualitative research study.3. Describe the problem and how it informed the research questions under study.4. Describe the qualitative design used and why it is appropriate for the identified problem and research questions. Support your response with a peer-reviewed citation from a research source.


Article Citation

Vangilder, C. H. (2016). A grounded theory investigation of thinking and reasoning with multiple representational systems for epistemological change in introductory physics. Grand Canyon University.




(Page #)

Broad Topic Area

The broad topic area for the research study is the use of the multiple representation system (MRS) and the epistemological and the conceptual change work under the influence of the representational systems.

Page – 1,8

Lit Review

The usage of the MRS is one of the fundamental features related to reasoning and thinking connected towards the promotion of both the epistemological and conceptual change. The research study focuses on the interrelation among the reasoning and thinking with the MRS and the changes in personal epistemology. According to the research by Hofer, (2012) multiple researches in the future requires to identify the connection among the psychological constructs and the frameworks of the epistemology. Wiser and Smith (2012) on the other hand illustrates some of the major deep connections that exists among the factors such as the ontology, epistemology and the mental process related t the framework of meta cognitive control (Sinatra, Kienhues & Hofer, 2014).

Page – 24,26

Problem Statement

The problem statement of the research paper illustrates how the reasoning and the thinking process takes place and how the factors of thinking and reasoning impacts on the changes in the epistemology in the terms of processes and mechanism even in case of behavioral, cognitive in the IP classroom.

Page- 8

Research Questions

· To identify the impact of the multiple representation system or MRS on the factor of thinking and reasoning among 20-30 community college IP students in the platform of Central Arizona College in respect to the factor of personal epidemiology and conceptual frameworks (Richardson, 2013).
· How the students of IP do use MRS in their practice of reasoning and thinking?
· How well do the use of MRS in the reasoning and the thinking of the IP students tend to propagate personal epistemological changes?

Page -78,79


The study population for the above research study will consist of 34 individuals among which the 20-30 participants are recommended for the research regarding the grounded theory by Creswell and 30-50 participants are suggested by Morse (2000). The sample size for the research study constitutes of study sample of 29 students from the existing base of curriculum for the IP students in the platform of Central Arizona college.

Page- 83,84

Describe Phenomena (qualitative) or Define Variables/Hypotheses (quantitative)

The qualitative analysis for the interpretation of the data for the research paper highlights the overall math, physics, science and the sequence of the reality that are generally a combined coding techniques in connection with the small and the large discussions among the interviews as collected for the research paper. The analysis consists of collections, co-ordinations and transformations of the codes via the cluster analysis diagram and the process of coding.

Page – 121-126

Methodology  & Design

This particular research study uses qualitative approach and the foundations of the qualitative research rest over the inductive analysis and develops an understanding of the phenomenon towards the descriptive outcomes.

Page  – 80,81

Purpose Statement

The topic of the research illustrates the concept of the distinct process of reasoning and thinking that handles the concepts and the conceptual frameworks regarding the empirically familiar laws that are the major parts of physics.

Page  – 149

Data Collection Approach

For this research study, size authorization is used for archiving the data from the IP course. Apart from this, poll results were the focus of the journal reflections in this scenario. The multiple choice assessment design is used and TUG-K, a standalone test and PEP survey is designed for the production of the epistemological changes in the research method (Nieminen, Savinainen & Viiri, 2012).

Page  – 94

Data Analysis Approach

The participants for the research study were a purposive sample belonging to the adult community college students of the central Arizona college. The procedure of the data analysis includes preparation of the data, information analysis, some of the ethical considerations and the limitations and the delimitations.

Page – 97

Evaluation –
The literature review of the research paper illustrates a brief history of the personal epistemology research that has been expanding the field of enquiry with the coalescences of models and theories like the procedure and the development models. The authors in this section highlighted on the epistemological belief about the category of the knowledge together with the distinction of the epistemological and the met cognition from the psychological terms The section explains the identified gap that the domain general and domain specific epistemologies for the learning influences that influences the thinking and the reasoning that is applicable to all the situations.
The phenomenon under the study targets the reasoning and the thinking with the occurring of the multiple representation system and the category of the effects of the changes in the epistemology un the IP classroom (Schommer-Aikins, 2012). These forms one of the key components of the qualitative research study since the study projects an effort towards the development of an understanding of the phenomenon from the view of the participants of the research.
The problem of the research study hinged on the capability towards the answering of the long standing deficit in the context of the literature on the changes in the epistemology. The problem highlighted in the study targeted for the development of the qualitative research questions on the system of representations and the reasoning and thinking together with the promotion of the personal epistemological changes.
The context of the validity and the reliability of the chosen type or category of the analysis that is the qualitative analysis can be judged or obtained through the saturation, bias or the subjectivity of the research, the reflexes and the prolonged engagement (Wood et al., 2014). The concept of the reliability in the platform of the qualitative research is typically identical to the qualitative analysis since it projects consistency towards the goals and the replication by other researchers.
The appropriateness of the instruments and the tools that were used for the collection of the data and the answering of the research questions as well as for proper addressing can be judged by the involvement of the semi structure interviews in the form of group discussions like the investigation in the labs, the electronic polls, the entries in the student journals and the collection of the data.

Barzilai, S., & Zohar, A. (2014). Reconsidering personal epistemology as metacognition: a multifaceted approach to the analysis of epistemic thinking. Educational Psychologist, 49(1), 13-35. doi:10.1080/00461520.2013.863265
Nieminen, P., Savinainen, A., & Viiri, J. (2012). Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning. Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research, 8(1). doi:10.1103/physrevstper.8.010123
Richardson, J. T. E. (2013). Epistemological development in higher education. Educational Research Review, 9, 191–206. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2012.10.001
Schommer-Aikins, M. (2012). An evolving theoretical framework for an epistemological belief system. In Hofer, B.K. & Pintrich, P.R. (2012). Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing. Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition
Sinatra, G. M., Kienhues, D., & Hofer, B. K. (2014). Addressing challenges to public understanding of science: epistemic cognition, motivated reasoning, and conceptual change. Educational Psychologist, 49(2), 123–138. doi:10.1080/00461520.2014.916216
Wood, A. K., Galloway, R. K., Hardy, J., & Sinclair, C. M. (2014). Analyzing learning during Peer Instruction dialogues: A resource activation framework. Physical Review Special Topics – Physics Education Research, 10(2). doi:10.1103/physrevstper.10.020107

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