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PUA 5305 Public Finance And Budgeting

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PUA 5305 Public Finance And Budgeting

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PUA 5305 Public Finance And Budgeting

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Course Code: PUA 5305
University: Columbia Southern University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

1. Discuss the ethical implications on the budget process at the federal, state, and local levels.2. Apply practical methods to reconstructing finance and budgeting techniques.3. Identify financial policy internal/external opportunities and challenges. 

Germany’s local government budget has gone through extreme volatility since reunion. The financial conditions of the local government bodies in Germany have experienced the funding or financial and economic crisis the bodies underwent. The mid of 2000s saw the local bodies going through economic recession and financial crisis, whereas boom period was also recorded by the bodies in the boom period. The financial situation of government bodies vary from their work-to-work, lower interest rate support have substantially brought down the burden of the central government. The operation of the Germany local government acting as the local council for the government is studied briefly in the project. The local municipalities government budget was studied in the project.
Trend of Revenue Sources and Balances
The financial situation of the municipalities is controlled and influenced the state government schemes. Schemes introduced like the government local initiatives for finance such as finance equalisation scheme, debt-restructuring programmes and costs imbursements are some of the powerful extensive power of intervention and influence tools of the state government (Bulkeley & Kern, 2006). The trend in the revenue sources of the government budget shows a volatility of about 9.62%, whereas the interest expenditure of the government budget showed a volatility of about 13.49% due to changing and volatile interest rate structure (Bundesbank, 2016). The source of income for the government in the form of taxes showed a net increase by 9.71% this was because of the increasing tax base of the country (Table 1). 
Ethical Practices of financial policy on taxes, fees and charge
The ethical practices of financial policy includes that all the residents of the country pay taxes, fees and charges which are occurred in the due course of time. Germany has ensured and taken several steps in order to ensure that the financial policy planned by the authorities is diversified in nature (Gitman, Juchau & Flanagan, 2015). Creating different sources and methods of revenue, which comes from taxes, fees and charges by creating public recreation place and centres that will ensure that the residents of the country are not overburdened and imposed heavy taxes. The country has introduced several steps and initiatives like imposing legal caps on taxes, and permits and other licenses by protecting the resident from being exploited from unfair means. The authorities should include and encourage public participation by the way of participation in making of the financial policy, which will ensure accountability and interactive between the residents and the lawmakers. The code of ethics and guidelines for the country should be such that the officials of the country will need to disclose conflicts of interests in every stage to ensure that the charges collected in the form of taxes and fees are always in the best interest of the public (Weimer & Vining, 2017).
The local municipal government is always acting as the local support for the state government in the ground level works. The influence of taxes, fees, and charged are different in different parts of the world. The ethical practices and guidelines of the country should be such that the financial policy must be in benefits for the public and must ensure the policy of equality in distribution of income. However, the trend in the government’s budget analysis showed that the volatility in such budget is very high and is highly influenced by the economic conditions of the country.
Bulkeley, H., & Kern, K. (2006). Local government and the governing of climate change in Germany and the UK. Urban studies, 43(12), 2237-2259.[online]Availableat: [Accessed 15 Sep. 2018].
Gitman, L. J., Juchau, R., & Flanagan, J. (2015). Principles of managerial finance. Pearson Higher Education AU.
Weimer, D. L., & Vining, A. R. (2017). Policy analysis: Concepts and practice. Routledge.

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