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POL2024 The Politics Of Climate Change

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POL2024 The Politics Of Climate Change

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POL2024 The Politics Of Climate Change

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Course Code: POL2024
University: Norwegian University Of Science And Technology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

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Topic- Suppose you are a minister and explain how you will make India an energy efficient country?
How your policies may upset powerful interests and ministers?
Which political problems may arise from your policies and explain how to adapt or mitigate climate change.
How you may address the problem to ensure the government longevity in office?

Climate change is affecting the development of all the nations including the developing nations like India. India is one of the fastest developing nations in the world. This has increased its energy consumption need. In order to fulfil the increasing need of the nation, it is crucial that government of India takes multi-level steps so as to mitigate the problems related to the energy requirements. It is also to be understood that there are large numbers of economic development works going on in the nation which has called for sustainable use of energy sources. The over dependence on the conventional fuels and increase in the numbers of people that are coming in the main stream of the country is enhancing. In the last few years it has made many changes in the way they are using technology. Technology advancements that can be used for harnessing the renewable energy sources are very much essential. India also faces a huge amount of challenges and barriers in terms of development of infrastructure that can help in harnessing the energy sources. This report explains the way in which India can be converted into energy efficient country. It also elaborates about the way in which the policies for sustainable use of energy could hamper the interest of the powerful and the ministers. Explanation about the issues that may be faced due to recommended issues has been provided along with the mitigation measures that can be taken to tackle the climate change. At last the way in which problems can be addressed ensuring governments longevity in the office has been discussed.
Making India an Energy efficient country
Present energy state in India
India is one of the biggest nations in terms of energy consumption and hence it has become important for the nation and its politician to look for the ways in which their future needs can be fulfilled. India is elaborated itself as the country that has expanding energy deficit and it is enhancing its focus on developing alternative sources of energy especially solar, wind and nuclear energy. In 2014, it was ranked 81st in terms of the overall energy self-sufficiency at 66%. In terms of primary energy consumption, India is at the third position just after USA and China having a global share of 5.6% in 2017.
The total primary energy consumption by different fuels is as follows:


Consumption in terms of MTOE


Crude Oil



Natural Gas






Nuclear Energy



Hydro electricity



Renewable power



India’s net imports are nearly 198.8 million tonnes of crude oil and its products. Along with this, they are importing 25.7 Mtoe of LNG and 129.8 Mtoe coal totalling to 354.3 Mtoe of primary energy which is equivalent to 47% of the total primary energy consumption. Presently 75% of the electricity that is generated in the country is through burning of fossil fuels. India is largely dependent on the fossil fuels for fulfilling its demand by 2030. By 2030, India’s energy dependence on energy import will be climbing to 53% of the total consumption they have. The per capita energy consumption of the nation is going to be 22.042 Giga Joules.

Future Indian energy demand and the steps that could be taken
India’s future energy demand is going to increase at much faster rate than expected earlier. This is due to the fact that rapid economic expansion is going on in the country. With this rapid expansion, it is expected that India is going to become the second-largest contributor to the increasing global energy demand by the end of 2035. Since India has limited fossil fuel reserves, this is a big challenge for the government. Some of the steps that can be taken by the government so as to make India a energy self-sufficient country are as follows:

India can plan to expand its reach towards harnessing energy from the renewable sources. Recently India has made a strategic solar alliance with the countries that are rich in terms of getting solar energy. It is crucial that India works with these nations for improving the technology that is available with them for harnessing the solar energy. There is a need that India adds more developed countries in Alliance so as to gain maximum profit from it. India needs to add 150,000 MW of solar power capacity by around 2020.
India is having world’s fourth largest wind energy market which can be expanded further. This is because there are lots of areas in this country which is receiving wind throughout the year. In order to make India self-sufficient in terms of energy capacity wind energy needs to be harnessed well especially in the coastal region.
Politicians also need to act in the direction of making sustainable use of oil and gas reserves they have. Since these are the source of primary energy hence needs to be stored for the purpose of developmental works while the other household needs can be fulfilled with the help of renewable energy sources.
India is a nuclear power and hence they need to work ore in the direction of harnessing this ultimate source of Energy. With huge Uranium deposits in the country, it would be beneficial for India to make alliance with those nations that are capable of fulfilling their energy needs with the nuclear energy. The problem with this immense source of energy is that it is not easier to control. The problems related to individual and community safety becomes a major issue in the development of energy through this source. India needs to fulfil around 10% of its energy requirement by 2025. Right now India is having five nuclear reactor plants but it needs to add 20 more in the coming decade. They have made many alliances with developed nation but they need to make more such agreements.
Another essential thing that India needs to do in the coming years is to enhance the use of technology in different fields. The use of technology will ensure that there is optimum utilisation of resources. At the same time it will also help India in harnessing the renewable energy. In India there is lot of energy wastage which causes problems related to the unusual power cuts. In order to reduce this high use of technology would be effective. Purchase of cheaper hybrid solar power grids is very much essential.
India has large amount of population that is under poverty line and hence for providing them electricity and other energy needs it is crucial that a long terms approach is adopted. This must include providing them energy at lower cost which cannot be possible without lower operational cost. The dependence on the fossil fuels might never let the energy cost to come down. The production of OPEC countries is going to decrease by 2025 and hence the fuel prices will be going to enhance. Since solar energy prices is on the lower side hence it will efficient if country uses this energy as their major source of energy.

Policies that needs to made so as to make India an energy efficient country
There are multiple policies that need to be made so as to make India an energy efficient country in terms of energy use. Some of the suggested policies are:

Switching towards renewable energy sources: Companies and all the bodies at the local levels must be briefed about the plans made by the government of India regarding fulfilling some amount of their energy needs by the help of renewable energy sources. For this they need to implement the technology that will help them in converting the natural energy sources into electricity. They can take use of this energy for their day to day activities.
Government help in installation: Government will help the organisations especially the small business units to install the technologies that might help in harnessing the renewable energy. Governments need to distribute such technologies to them at the lower cost. This would be extremely beneficial in the case of restaurants which can easily prepare their food with the help of such technology use. There are many mega-kitchens working the country which has already implemented this concept.
Funding: Government should give funding to the community as well as the small and big organisations for installing such technologies. Along with this, funding is also required in the field of research so that more innovation can be promoted. This would be an essential step in terms of making India self-reliant and energy efficient country. Government needs to empower rural villages by giving them facilities such as solar lights.
Government projects: All the development projects that are going on in the country should take use of the renewable energy sources. For example the bridges, roads and other infrastructures should be electrified with the help of solar energy. An extra budget must be allocated to such electrification process. The financial budget for the year should also include financial incentives for such kinds of projects. The government of India has launched the campaign to distribute LPG cylinders and LED bulbs in the rural region. Government must promote more such schemes so that energy could be used efficiently. This is because LED lights save a large amount of energy.
Support to innovation: Company must give support to the innovation so that more technologies that save energy can be developed within the country. The research must be supported at the university and school level so that changes can be made at the basic levels.
Educational policy: As a minister, government can launch programmes to enhance the knowledge of the people related to the sustainable use of energy resources. Without participation of people, it is not easy for the government to make India an energy efficient country. Government should make policy in which local people have their say regarding the way they will meet the energy needs.
Removing corruption: it is generally seen that such projects where large amount of investments is done by the government; there are many middleman who seeks interest. Corruption has been one of the biggest problems of India and hence a policy has to be made in terms of the way in which corruption can be removed. Direct benefit transfer scheme is the way in which corruption can be reduced.

Ways in which policies might affect the politicians and powerful people
In India one of the biggest problems is that powerful people have large say in the policy making. The first problem that they will have is regarding the way these policies would be made. Some of the areas in which they might get upset are:

Most of the ministers and powerful people gets huge amount of money from the companies that is working on the conventional fuels. The decrease in the production of the conventional energy might affect their profit share which they will never want. There are many powerful people that are the stakeholders of the company that are selling conventional fuels hence their interest get hampered.
Oil and gas is one of the major sources of income for the Indian government also hence the powerful ministers will also not want that they upset the companies. They start lobbying in the government so that policies can be moulded according to them.
Allocating a small amount of budget from the financial budget could possibly reduce the growth of the companies that are in the business of conventional fuels who also give some amount of share to the ministers.
Since these policies aims to give direct benefit to the customers hence it will take out the commission of the middle man who use to gain high amount of benefits from the projects. There are large numbers of people who gets benefited in the middle and such schemes will affect their interests. Ministers that get money from corruption might get affected by this.
Ministers who have stakes in the conventional fuels and traditional power plants might also want that the upcoming projects go into their hands so that their growth can be ensured.

Political problem that may arise from policies
Each policy that is made in the country has a direct impact on the political environment in the country. It can be seen that there are people from the political background who gets affected by the policy change regarding the energy generation and use. The political problems that may arise due to the above mentioned policies are:

Investment will: It is seen that many a times government are not willing to make huge investments in the projects that helps in harnessing renewable energy sources. When any policies are made at the central level, it is expected that the local and state level governments will also add investments from their side too especially in the implementation process. In India most of the policies fails due to lack of political will to implement the changes. Local level authorities are not putting it on the ground level unless the problem becomes very big.
State and central government tussle: There is always a tussle between the state and central government especially when it comes to development projects. This tussle comes in terms of utilisation of resources as well as gap in communication. The policy related to use of renewable energy at the local level might face problems due to the roaming of files in the offices. If the governments at the municipal level is not able to implement the policies then might lead to policy failure.
Decision making: In elaborating the policies so that each and every aspect of the policy is understood, there is a requirement of high definition decision making. It is essential that local people gets involved in the process so as to make decisions in the interests of everyone. Addressing the interest of each and every stakeholder is not an easy political challenge. India being a democratic country faces extreme opposition if any policies get changed in the country hence keeping everyone on the same table can never be an easy job.
Lobbying: There are many companies that do the business of conventional fuels and they have a heavy lobbying background. This type of lobbying will not allow the governments to implement the above mentioned policies. They try to interrupt in the proceedings of the government by taking use of the powerful players. This sometimes might lead to internal tussle within the government. This is not good for the political stability in the nation.

Mitigating Climate change  
Climate change is a problem that is faced by India at a very large scale. It has become essential for the governments to ensure that they take measures for mitigating climate change. In order to mitigate climate changes some of the steps that can be done by the government are:

Removing older vehicles: As the decision taken by the NGT, there must be banning on the use of vehicles that are older than 10years especially the vehicles that are of commercial use and runs on the diesel. This will help in reducing the pollution that is created by these vehicles.
Policy regarding use of public transport: India is having poor public transport facilities in most of the cities. In order to ensure that less pollution gets created due to traffic, it is essential that people should be promoted to make policies that promote them to take use of the public transport rather than using private vehicles.
Banning the burning of waste: In India in spite of the ban on burning of waste and garbage, it is not strictly followed. There must be more strict rules about burning of any kind of waste. A more strict approach from the side of the authorities at the local level needs to be followed. Ban must also be imposed on the burning of crops at the farms.
Waste Decomposition: It is seen that in India there is no proper system for decomposition of waste. India needs to make a nationwide policy that addresses the problem related to decomposition of waste. Most of the biodegradable wastes are being dumped in the rivers which should not be done.
Monitoring of the small scale industries: The increasing numbers of the small scale industries has created a problem for the nation in terms of air pollution. Since these small companies are not keeping watch on the amount of pollution they are creating by not filtering the gaseous waste hence government should monitor their operations. If they are found guilty then heavy punishments should be imposed on them.
Efficient use of fossil fuels: Burning of the fossil fuels creates a lot of pollution and leads to emission of harmful gases. It is crucial that India moves towards comparatively cleaner fuels so that less pollution gets generated. This is also required for its use of energy in the coming years. Both at organisational level and individual level burning of the fuels must be reduced.
Unsafe construction: In the urban areas there are many infrastructural projects going on. These open construction sites create a large amount of pollutants that are affecting the climate of the nation. There must be ban on the unsafe construction sites.
Public private partnership model: In order to act towards the climate change it is essential that PPP model is used. This will help them in investing on the areas that can lead to green business. There must be implementation of the ideas that leads to making the business more environment friendly both at micro and macro levels.

Measures that can be taken so as to ensure governments longevity in office
Any government’s longevity in the office can only be ensured when they apply the policies in a better manner. When the government fails to apply the policies at the ground level most of the time they face agitation of the people. In order to ensure government longevity in office, they need to take many steps. Some of these measures are as follows:

Proper implementation: On of the biggest challenge for any government is not to make the policies but to implement it on the ground level. It is found that government due to the slow processing in the bureaucracy is not able to implement the policies and the benefit of the policy is not able to reach to the people. A collaborative and team approach is required by the governments at different levels so as to implement the changes appropriately.  
Timeliness of the project: It is found that government often fails to implement projects on time. Since implementation of technology requires a long time to implement. If the policy is not implemented in the given time frame there it will not be able to meet the energy requirements of the nations. This might create conflict in the minds of the people which may further create problems related to government’s longevity in the office.
Controlled investments: India is a democratic and governments often face charges related to corruption. It is essential for the government to implement the policies in such a manner that controlled investments can be done. Due to corruption most of the projects exceeds in terms of the investment. This creates agitation in the minds of the people and hence they remain in the powers in the next election.
Control over the process: India has a slow bureaucratic process; hence it becomes essential for the governments to make sure that they have control over the operations that are going on in the project especially in terms of the way in which it is implemented in both rural and urban areas. Equal distribution of resources is necessary so that it can be utilised for providing services for the longer period of time.

From the above based report it can be concluded that India is one of the fastest developing nations in the world. The energy requirement of the nations is increasing at much faster rate and in future it is going to be on the second in terms of energy that will be required in the future. India needs to become self-reliant in terms of the energy that is required within the nation. India needs to invest in the technology that will help in harnessing renewable energy sources. The solar and wind energy will help India to meet their future needs hence there is a requirement of making policies that pulls India towards the taking use of renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels.  Switching towards renewable energy sources, Government help in installation, Funding, Government projects, Support to innovation, educational policy and removing corruption are some of the policies that needs to be made by the government. It will affect the interest of the politician and powerful people hence might affect political environment within the country. Removing older vehicles, Policy regarding use of public transport, banning the burning of waste, Waste Decomposition, Monitoring of the small scale industries, efficient use of fossil fuels, unsafe construction and Public private partnership model are some of the mitigation measures that can be taken by the government. Proper implementation, Timeliness of the project, Controlled investments and Control over the process are some of the measures that government should take so as to ensure their longevity in the office.
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