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PHI-FP2000 Ethics For Personal Morality

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PHI-FP2000 Ethics For Personal Morality

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PHI-FP2000 Ethics For Personal Morality

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Course Code: PHI-FP2000
University: Capella University

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Country: United States

Question:
WILCO Engineering’s priorities are to develop:1.new knowledge that furthers the knowledge base of the profession2.new process knowledge 3.Enhance existing knowledge across the organisation4.to attract and retain talented staff.

Answer:
Introduction
Philosophers and theologians have developed a variety of ethical theories over a long period of time such as normative and positive theory which has their own benefits and limitations. The normative theory of decision making expresses judgement about whether a situation is desirable or un-desirable and is based upon some moral standards. Whereas positive theory makes decisions by expressing the opinion or judgment after assuming the condition or situation in context of what the situation is about and offers no judgment based on indication of approval or disapproval and is also not based on standards. The report focuses on implementation of normative theory and its various approaches to real life situation and helps in the evaluation of each approach.
Discussion of the situation
The mood at the St. Mary’s High School is tensed due to anticipation regarding the judgment that is likely to be made by the school authority in consultation with cricket coach regarding the punishment to be given to two senior players for disobeying code of conduct for team. For first time after a decade, the cricket team of the St. Mary’s High School has made it to the state semi-finals. The community surrounding the High School is excited regarding the event and everyone is making plans to attend the big event, which will take place in 5 days. The cricket team is mixed of youth and experienced and all members have put in a lot of effort to reach this level. The main reason for team’s success was team spirit and understanding between members. The coach has strictly instructed his players to be more focused and disciplined in their approach in preparation for the upcoming finals. Over the next 5 days they will practice very hard and must be on time for the practice sessions. The coach had even instructed all his players that norm and code of conduct of team will be applicable for every player with no room for exceptions. However, 2 days prior to semi-finals two senior members, who were main pillars of success for team owing to their experience and match winning capabilities considered themselves in-dispensable for team.  They perceived that the code of conduct and disciplines were not applicable to them and came to practice one hour later than usual time. The behavior of both senior members of team infuriated the coach and he has decided to penalize both players for not complying with code of conduct for team. The code of conduct states that minimum penalty for not following rules and regulations of team invites a ban of 7 days.  The suspension means that both players will be unable to participate in the semi-final match.  With the absence of these two key players, the team will decrease the chances of a win as the team is heavily dependent on these two players. The coach has a difficult task in hand regarding taking best decision as it is related with consequence of St Mary’s High School cricket team.
Different types of Approaches
The kind of normative theories which can be applied to above mentioned situation of ethical dilemma are virtue ethics, deontological and consequentialism. Each of the mentioned approaches can make room for virtues, consequences and rules. As stated by Abel, virtue ethics focuses on inherent character of an individual rather than on specific actions (Abel, 2017).  According to Brady, a deontological approach to normative theory argues that a decision should be made considering factors of an individual’s duties and rights (Brady, 2017).  As opined by Collins, consequentialism or teleological approach of normative theory argues that morality of actions is related to outcome or results of actions (Collins, 2016).
Relating the approaches with the situation
In context of above situation, virtue ethics can be observed and implemented which emphasizes on taking decision based on virtue and morality. In context of above situation deontological ethics can also be implemented which emphasizes on taking decisions based on duties and rules. Whereas approach of consequentialism can also be observed that emphasizes on taking decisions based on consequence of actions associated with decision.
In the case of implementing virtue-based ethics, the virtue or morality of decision maker guides decision process (Paul et al., 2014).  In the context of above mentioned scenario it can be stated that if the coach of cricket team is a strict administrator by virtue and values morality than everything else, then he will not think about outcome or consequences of decision and accordingly sanction punishment for both senior players even if it is related with consequence of match. Therefore, it can be easily understood based on scenario that decision taken by decision maker will be based on his virtue and morality.
In the case of implementing deontological approach, duties and rules of decision maker in context of situation guides decision making process (Uzhga-Rebrov & Karaseva, 2018).  In context of scenario it can be stated that coach of the team will base his decision regarding sanction of punishment on his duties and roles. It is the duty and role of coach to follow code of conduct of team and not discriminate among members.  It is also the duty of coach to think of what is best for the team and therefore his decision on the situation will depend regarding what the coach values more i.e. code of conduct of team or betterment. Therefore, it can be easily understood on basis of scenario that decision taken will be based on duties and roles of decision maker.
In case of implementing consequentialism, the consequences associated with decision in context of situation guides decision making process (Shah & Amjad, 2016). In context of the scenario it can be stated that coach of team will take his decision regarding sanctioning punishment for both players based on outcome which is associated with such a decision. In context of scenario it can be even stated that result of imposing punishment on both senior players will lead to reduction in chances of winning the cricket match.  It may even result in sending the strong message that all players are perceived as equal by team management and that the punishment is applicable for all members regarding disobeying code of conduct regardless of his importance or value in team. Therefore, it can be observed that decision making process in consequentialism approach is based on outcome associated with such action or decision.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Normative Theories
The advantages of normative theories regarding decision making are as follows:

It is simple in nature and easy to implement as it provides basis of decision making based on few simple criteria.
It lays down several rules to sort out ethical dilemmas without relying much on interaction of individuals regarding decision making.
Aninstitution, political system, or set of social relationships can be judged or measured against an ideal type which helps in clarifying weaknesses.

The disadvantages of normative theories regarding decision making are:

Normative theories involve high level of abstraction from reality as the real world is more complex compared to what is perceived in normative theories (Nikolic, 2018)
Normative theories of decision making are narrower in their application as it does not fit to all aspects of decision making.
Normative theories of decision making are overly academic in nature as theories were developed by theoreticians who belonged to a world which was less complex than current world.
Normative theories involve prescriptive approaches as they believe that ethical dilemmas can be sorted out by implementing set of rules.

Selecting the appropriate Approach
The approach of normative theory which makes the most sense is the deontological approach of decision making as it involves the decision maker to make the decision based on their duty and generalized rule (Edwards & Kirkham, 2014). The deontological approach also makes most sense as it believes that right is right and wrong is wrong regardless of consequence associated with it.
The Deontological approach of normative theory works best as it is based on duties and rules associated with an individual or with a situation. The deontological approach is considered as best approach for decision making as the decision is not made on outcome of situation. This is due to the fact that decisions can either bring positive outcome for one party or negative outcome to another, as such in deontological approach decision is based on virtue and morality of an individual that varies from individual to individual (Edwards & Kirkham, 2014) But in case of deontological approach strength lies in fact that deontology is much harder to use to rationalize an unethical decision than other approaches of normative decision making.
Conclusion
From the above report it is clear and evident that normative decision-making theories can be effectively applied in to any real-life situation regarding ethical dilemma and each approach of normative theory have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is also evident that decision making criteria in normative decision making are based on several parameters such as virtues and morality, roles and duties of decision makers and outcome of decision taken.
References
Abel, C. (2017). THE VARIETIES OF THEORY AND THEIR ROLES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. Public Administration Quarterly, 41(4), 670-694.
Brady, M. E. (2017). OPINIONS ON THE THEORIES OF SAVAGE AND DE FINETTI. Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields, 8(2), 137-143.
Collins, T. J. (2016). Examining decision motivations of project acceptance decision makers: A qualitative study.
Edwards, M. G., & Kirkham, N. (2014). Situating ‘giving voice to values’: A metatheoretical evaluation of a new approach to business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 477-495.
Nikolic, J. (2018). BIASES IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AND POSSIBILITIES OF OVERCOMING THEM. EkonomskiHorizonti, 20(1), 43-57.
Paul, S., Müller, H., Preiser, R., Neto, F. B. d. L., Marwala, T., & De Wilde, P. (2014).Developing a management decision-making model based upon a complexity perspective with reference to the bee algorithm. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 16(4), D1-D13.
Shah, S. A. M., & Amjad, S. (2016). ETHICAL DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESSES: LINKING RATIONAL AND NON-RATIONAL THEORIES. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 8(3), 56-80.
Uzhga-Rebrov, O., & Karaseva, E. (2018). Analysis of approaches to modelling of attitude to risk in normative decision making methods. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 21(1-2), 21-41.

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