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NUR2300 Evidence Based Nursing Practice

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NUR2300 Evidence Based Nursing Practice

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NUR2300 Evidence Based Nursing Practice

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Course Code: NUR2300
University: University Of Southern Queensland is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia


To conduct a systematic review of primary research, using a PICO (T) formatted clinical research question. To provide evidence from clinical research to inform changes or improvements to nursing practice. Present this evidence as a written research report and annotated bibliography.  
Step 1. Develop a research question, using the PICO (T) format. This question should be related to one of the key chronic conditions listed by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Step 2: Conduct a literature search looking for Three (3) primary research articles which answer your chosen question. These articles should be presented as an annotated bibliography at the end of your systematic review/ research report.  
Step 3: Write a systematic review, research report which answers your clinical research question. The report should include the following information:
a)Research Question: Provide your research question and describe how you developed the question
b)Evaluation of research: Choose one primary research article and briefly write a critique of the research design, process, ethics and findings within the article. This section should demonstrate your understanding of research paradigms, methods and process.
c)Research Topic: Describe the research topic and how it relates to improving health outcomes for people with chronic conditions. (See National Strategic Framework for Chronic Diseases)
d)Literature Review: Discuss how the evidence you have found within the research literature (include all 3 articles plus any others) could make an impact on future nursing practice and the health outcomes for patients/clients. This should be a  dissemination of research findings and the implications for changes to practice.


Research Paper
The nursing profession is an economic area that is plagued with many challenges and issues (González, Castelló Badia, & Font, 2014). These challenges and issues should always be dealt with, an activity that requires nursing professionalism. Dikmen, Karata?, Arslan, and Ak (2016) outline some of the attributes of nursing professionalism such as autonomy, educational preparation, research participation, and so forth. The attribute of interest in this paper is research participation because it is at the epicentre of evidence-based healthcare (Jones, 2015). In this regard, this paper aims to undertake a systematic review of primary research, utilizing a PICO (T) designed a clinical research question.
Research Question
The research question of interest in this paper is what impact does alcohol abuse have on the mental health of indigenous females? This research question was developed using the PICO (T) framework. Abbade, Wang, Sriganesh, Mbuagbaw, and Thabane (2016) highlight that PICO (T) is a framework that can be used to frame or shape research questions. It stands for Population or Patient Problem, Intervention or Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, and Timeframe (Abbade et al., 2016). In this case, the population was identified as indigenous females (P) who are exposed to alcohol abuse (I). Finding the impact of such exposure on the mental health (O) of the population assists in formulating the entire research question. When considering this information, it is evident that the research question was developed using only specific elements of the PICO (T) framework.
Evaluation of Research
One article worth talking about because of its association with the research question is that written by Heffernan, Davidson, Andersen, and Kinner (2016). The article’s main purpose was to depict the prevalence, kind, and mental well-being associates of substance utilization ailments in an extensive sample of detained Native Australians (Heffernan et al., 2016). The fulfilment of this purpose was dependent on the article’s findings, ethics, process, and research design, all of which can be qualified as outstanding. The research design and process involved the use of a diagnostic questionnaire and interview to collect the required information from a sample of three hundred and ninety-six indigenous people.
Even though the sample comprised of both males and females, this paper focuses on the sixty-five participants who were women. The ethical aspect of the article is also evident and outstanding. The article managed to consider the moral element when undertaking the investigation. Relevant authorities approved the several parts of the article such as design and process. Furthermore, consent to participate in the research was sought and obtained (Heffernan et al., 2016). All these exemplary aspects of the article managed to make the findings exceptional. They can as well be used to inform future investigations. The findings included the fact that many indigenous women suffer from mental illnesses such as suicidal thoughts and attempts, psychotic disorder, depression, and anxiety due to alcohol abuse.
Research Topic
From the information already given above, the research topic is obvious. It concentrates on specific concepts or issues that when combined bring forth the entire subject of interest. For instance, some of those concepts or issues include alcohol abuse, mental health, indigenous women, and so forth. In this regard, the research topic seems to suggest that many indigenous women abuse alcohol. This scenario can always lead to various negative effects on the mental health of such individuals. This information, therefore, shapes the research topic of interest, which is the impact of alcohol abuse on the mental health of indigenous women. Each of the concepts or issues stipulated above, in one way or the other, holds a section or plays a part in the establishment of the research topic. They, therefore, aids in this description of the research topic.
The research topic described above associates with enhancing health outcomes for individuals with chronic conditions. The chronic conditions being talked about in this case include mental illnesses as was already mentioned earlier. Since this topic intends to identify and pinpoint the impacts of alcohol abuse on the mental health of indigenous women, it can assist in ensuring that the population of interest acquire the knowledge and information concerning that adverse effects of abusing alcohol. The acquisition of such info and knowledge can make the indigenous women change their habits and start refraining from alcohol abuse, an occurrence that can assist in handling their mental illnesses. In this regard, this research topic can improve health outcomes of chronic conditions.
Literature Review
Even though only one article has been talked about above as being related to the research question and topic, it is worth noting that many others exist that can assist in answering the research question as well as providing evidence that can impact on health outcomes of patients and future nursing practice. The findings of Heffernan et al. (2016) are already stated above. They can make future nursing practice better by highlighting the need for alcohol abuse regulation as the first means of dealing with various mental illnesses like the ones mentioned in that particular article. In this regard, this regulation can assist in improving the health outcomes of patients. Additionally, when Waterworth, Pescud, Braham, Dimmock, and Rosenberg (2015) were investigating the elements influencing health conduct of indigenous factions, they managed to highlight many factors. Even so, this paper concentrates on one finding, which is harmful health risk conduct like abusing alcohol contributes significantly to mental disorders as well as many other chronic diseases (Waterworth et al., 2015). This finding can inform future nursing practice to focus on changing the behaviours of the indigenous people to assist in dealing with the mental and other chronic illnesses thereby improving health outcomes of patients. Although this article did not focus on indigenous women, they also form a significant portion of the native Australians being discussed in the source.
 The finding of Waterworth et al. (2015) is supported by many other authors, specifically, Roche et al. (2013) and Roche, Duraisingam, Trifonoff, and Tovell (2013). Both sets of authors recognize the fact that indigenous Australians engage in risky behaviours such as abusing alcohol. Such conducts always predispose them to many health problems. For example, Roche et al. (2013) and Roche, Duraisingam, Trifonoff, and Tovell (2013) highlight that abusing alcohol frequently affects the mental health of indigenous Australians by bringing forth psychological distress. This discovery can also impact positively on future nursing practice. It can enable nurses and other healthcare providers to centre on altering the demeanour of the indigenous individuals to aid in handling the mental and other chronic diseases thereby enhancing patients’ health outcomes. Just like in the other article, although the two sets of authors did not concentrate on indigenous women, they also form a noteworthy portion of the native Australians being discussed in the source.
The information provided so far is just a small portion of literature that exists concerning alcohol abuse and its impacts on the mental health of indigenous women. Wilkes, Gray, Casey, Stearne, and Dadd (2014) claim that mental health issues and harmful substance use are of significant prevalence within the population in Australia. Among those people that have alcohol-dependence disorder, twenty and twenty-four percent have anxiety and affective disorders respectively. This statistic emphasizes the relationship between alcohol abuse and mental disorders. In this regard, it can assist in informing nurses about the association between the two extremes, an occurrence that can aid them in identifying and establishing measures of dealing with the mental disorders. Such measures can assist in improving the health outcomes of patients.
Wilson, Stearne, Gray, and Saggers (2010) go ahead in their article to pinpoint various conditions in which alcohol abuse is a crucial contributing element. The scholars mention mental disorders and cerebrovascular disease as some of the health problems that arise due to alcohol abuse (Wilson et al., 2010). Just like in the other cases, this finding can assist in making future nursing practice better because the information can help in the formulation of measures that can prevent the mental illnesses. Furthermore, it can assist in improving the health outcomes of patients since the formulated measures will act as preventive and treatment strategies. The last scholars to be highlighted are four sets of authors who managed to pinpoint facts about alcohol abuse and its impact on the mental health of people. All of their findings can make future nursing practice better and improve patients’ health outcomes just like in the other cases.
Clements, Clapton, and Chenoweth (2010) outline that alcohol abuse can lead to impaired decision-making capacity in indigenous Australians as well as many other people around the world. Mäkelä, Raitasalo, and Wahlbeck (2014) explain that hazardous drinking (alcohol abuse) is related to a diverse scope or aspects of mental health. One mental health aspect that the authors identified is psychological distress (Mäkelä et al., 2014). As Jobling et al. (2016) was engaging with indigenous women experiencing comorbid mental health and chronic physical conditions, they found out that many individuals suffer from such problems. Even though it was not stated, it can be concluded that many of those indigenous women acquire such health conditions due to alcohol abuse. Lastly, Parker and Milroy (2014) focus on the mental illnesses in indigenous women. The majority of them include depression, anxiety, psychosis, and so forth (Parker & Milroy, 2014). All of the authors discussed above talked about the relationship between alcohol abuse and mental wellbeing. Even though some did not focus on indigenous women, the information they provided is critical to understanding the effect of alcohol abuse on the mental wellbeing of the population of interest.
Recommendation for Future Research
Based on the information obtained from the literature review above, various recommendations exist that can assist in informing several aspects of future research such as methodology or methods. The first recommendation is that more investigations should be performed to pinpoint the effect of alcohol abuse on the mental wellbeing of indigenous women. Currently, the majority of research in existence concentrate on males and not women. Furthermore, no investigation exists that focuses on indigenous women only. In this regard, future research should focus on the population of interest already mentioned. Similarly, future research should employ both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies when attempting to answer the research question already stipulated in this paper. The latter methodology can assist in providing outcomes that are valid, reliable, and can be generalized to a larger populace. The former methodology can enable acquisition of rich descriptive data concerning the research topic of interest. The three recommendations for future research stated above stand out as the major ones that can assist in furthering the knowledge concerning the research topic. Nevertheless, other recommendations also exist that should be explored.
Alcohol abuse is a major health problem not only for indigenous women but also for many other people around the world. This paper has managed to formulate a research question, which what impact does alcohol abuse have on the mental health of indigenous females? Moreover, it has conducted a literature review as well as provided recommendations for future research regarding the same research topic.
Abbade, L. P., Wang, M., Sriganesh, K., Mbuagbaw, L., & Thabane, L. (2016). Framing of research question using the PICOT format in randomised controlled trials of venous ulcer disease: a protocol for a systematic survey of the literature. BMJ Open, 6(11), e013175. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013175.
Clements, N., Clapton, J., & Chenoweth, L. (2010). Indigenous Australians and impaired decision?making capacity. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 45(3), 383-393. Retrieved 13th August 2018, from,
Dikmen, Y., Karata?, H., Arslan, G. G., & Ak, B. (2016). The level of professionalism of nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. Journal of Caring Sciences, 5(2), 95-102. DOI: 10.15171/jcs.2016.010.
González, MA, Castelló Badia, M., & Font, CM (2014). The identity of the academic nursing: between education and research. Texto & Contexto-Enfermagem, 23(2), 241-249. Retrieved 11th August 2018, from,
Heffernan, E., Davidson, F., Andersen, K., & Kinner, S. (2016). Substance use disorders among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people in custody: A public health opportunity. Health & Justice, 4(1), 12. DOI: 10.1186/s40352-016-0044-8.
Jobling, K., Lau, P., Kerr, D., Higgins, R. O., Worcester, M. U., Angus, L., … & Murphy, B. M. (2016). Bundap Marram Durn: Engagement with Aboriginal women experiencing comorbid chronic physical and mental health conditions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 40(S1), S30-S35. DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12382.
Jones, H. C. (2015). Clinical research nurse or nurse researcher. Nurs Times, 111, 12-14. Retrieved 11th August 2018, from,
Mäkelä, P., Raitasalo, K., & Wahlbeck, K. (2014). Mental health and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study of the Finnish general population. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(2), 225-231. DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/cku133.
Parker, R., & Milroy, H. (2014). Mental illness in Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander peoples. Working Together, 65. Retrieved 13th August 2018, from,
Roche, A. M., Duraisingam, V., Trifonoff, A., Battams, S., Freeman, T., Tovell, A., … & Bates, N. (2013). Sharing stories: Indigenous alcohol and other drug workers’ well?being, stress and burnout. Drug and Alcohol Review, 32(5), 527-535. DOI: 10.1111/dar.12053.
Roche, A. M., Duraisingam, V., Trifonoff, A., & Tovell, A. (2013). The health and well-being of Indigenous drug and alcohol workers: Results from a national Australian survey. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(1), 17-26. Retrieved 11th August 2018, from,
Waterworth, P., Pescud, M., Braham, R., Dimmock, J., & Rosenberg, M. (2015). Factors influencing the health behaviour of indigenous Australians: Perspectives from support people. PloS One, 10(11), e0142323. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142323.
Wilkes, E., Gray, D., Casey, W., Stearne, A., & Dadd, L. (2014). Harmful substance use and mental health. Working Together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Wellbeing Principles and Practice. 2nd Edition Ed. Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, 125-146. Retrieved 11th August 2018, from,
Wilson, A., Stearne, A., Gray, D., & Saggers, S. (2010). The harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 10(3), 1-16. Retrieved 11th August 2018, from,

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