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NIT6130 Introduction To Research

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NIT6130 Introduction To Research

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NIT6130 Introduction To Research

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Course Code: NIT6130
University: Victoria University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia


Introduction to Research | Develop deep understanding of research ethics in high education study. Collect and analyse ethics related information to deal with an interested research work. Have a comprehensive understanding of ethics policy used in your education institute, state and residential nation.
Choose one of the two options below to write up an assay for conducting ethical research in science or social science study. Please select ONE option ONLY.
Option 1:
Outline an interested research topic and proposed approach (what are you going to implement your research work) for your master degree study and identify the associated ethical, integrity and safety issues and risks associated with what you are proposing.
For each identified area how will these be addressed through the proposed approach to key aspects of the research and how can you substantiate that the approach you are proposing to deal with the identified risks is defensible ethically in relation to codes for research and professional conduct relevant to the field? The material you develop in this topic will be able to be directly incorporated into your research project and/or ethics application.
Option 2:
Choose one of the following research cases and write a report on the ethics issues that may happen. You need to consider both pros and cons of certain type of research. Together with the ethics issues you will consider in the chosen case, you also need to provide the response plan to solve the problems according to the ethics policies, principles, rules in VU, VIC state and Australia.
Research Cases:

Nuclear Testing
Human drug trials (pharmacological research)
Customer expectation study on online gaming
Browser experience satisfaction on VU website
Animal research involving non-primates
Animal research involving primates
Nervous system research
Gambler behavioural analysis
Speech recognition
Smartphone hacking simulation/testing in real workplace environment
Medical history storing and sharing among public clinics via cloud computing technology
Sleep quality study

General Criteria for both options:
You may need to consider some or more of the following aspect in your analysis if applicable:

research design;
recruitment and gaining informed consent;
protection of human and/or animal rights;
vulnerability of your proposed participants and power differential in relationships;
data gathering approaches;
maintaining anonymity and/or confidentiality, data integrity and management, including

dealing with data privacy and security issues;

record keeping;
laboratory and field procedures;
avoiding or minimizing social, psychological, legal and physical risks;
ensuring animal welfare and biosafety etc.;
health and safety for researcher and other research assistants.


Use of information technology in the healthcare sector is highly underutilized mostly in areas of operational efficiency. Despite the tremendous advancements in technology, practitioners in healthcare centers still embrace paper record keeping which lowers the coordination of operations between patients and medics. Modernization forces in healthcare must incorporate information technology as a centerpiece of transforming the health industry. According to Youssef (2014), cloud computing serves as a center model that allows a number of configurable computing resources for sharing a convenient and highly demanded network access which are not normally provided in the regular setting of healthcare. Cloud computing provides both a broad network access and resource pooling for supporting bid data sets gathered in electronic health records (EHR). The two features make it possible for a number of consumers to use computing resources through different electronic gadgets like tablets and smartphones providing timely access to essential medical data (Gabriel et al., 2015, p.17). Also, a cloud computing system can be defined as a measured service that has the capability to conduct an analysis as well as control the usage at the resource with regards to the type of data service being provided. Public clinics share patients’ data which is stored in information systems through the cloud computing technology. Cloud computing infrastructure is composed of hardware and software resources which are also termed as the physical abstraction layers. Healthcare sector gathers large patients’ data on a daily basis which requires proper storage and fast access in times of need. Proper record keeping help improve service in public clinics because information systems make data storage efficiency through easy and fast access and tracking of patient’s medical history. This makes it possible to serve patients fast and accordingly guided by the past medical history.
Research Background
A significant increase in average life expectancy has resulted in the fast gaining of the global population. This has hiked the demand for extra resources to be employed in diversifying the medical care with the goal of improving the services and increasing life expectancy (Miah, Hasan & Gammack, 2017, p.311). Innovative and cost-efficient strategies are needed to help physicians to establish more productive methods to address these challenges in a global context. Cloud computing is a possible solution that may help improve health care services through proper record keeping and sharing of data across public clinics (Chow-White, MacAulay, Charters & Chow, 2015, p.189). It was established by IBM and Active Health Management in November 2010. The system plays a huge role in making healthcare and medical staff access data and information from different sources at the same time such as EHR. Cloud computing also plays a huge role to patients suffering from chronic conditions in that it is possible for physicians to stay connected with them and make fast follow up activities if the patients are observing the prescribed medications. Record keeping and sharing patient’s medical history among public clinics has become efficient and cost effective as well. According to Zhang, Schmidt, White & Lenz (2018), management and sharing of data through cloud computing is making healthcare operations run fast and swift because patients are being served fast than ever before.
This research focuses on establishing the contributions made by storage of medical records and sharing of patient’s data among public clinics through cloud computing improves healthcare’s services. Cloud computing comes with numerous advantages to both patients and physicians. However, despite its contribution to health care, it is vulnerable to a number of risks. Data integrity and privacy remains an issue in cloud computing because some data is termed private and thus should remain confidential. People have the right to privacy for reasons such as maintaining anonymity and security issues. Cloud computing networks are susceptible to hacking which makes data accessed to unauthorized parties. The paper will examine medical history and data sharing among public clinics through cloud computing, its advantages, the ethical, integrity and safety issues present in this context and possible response plan to the issues and risks. The expected result is a clear understanding of cloud computing, its pros and cons in the healthcare sector as well as the risks that accompany it.
Pros and Cons of Medical History Storing and Sharing among Public Clinics through Cloud Computing 



1. Cost effective as record keeping and sharing of data reduces operating costs
(Chu, Chow, Tzeng, Zhou & Deng, 2014, p.468)

1.Internet connection is a must for one to access data from a cloud (Casola, Castiglione, Choo & Esposito, 2016, p.10)

2. It is possible to access data from any place provided one can access the system

2.Quality of information if audio or video is affected if the internet is crowed by many users

3. Cloud infrastructure reduces high software costs that hospitals could have purchased for data management  

3.Cloud computing keeps data safe but has an issue of ensuring that the safety is not compromised (Hossain & Muhammad, 2016, p.192)

4. It is possible to conduct an automatic data recovery from back up option

4.Cloud-based services don’t always give good support to customers

5. It is possible for people over different clinics to share patient’s data by accessing it from the system (Hossain & Muhammad, 2016, p.192)

5 .Sometimes the software used is not compatible with the software and tools used in clod computing making it hard to access data

6. Cloud is the best platform for storing valuable information at no cost

6.It has minimal flexibility in that the apps and services are run on a remote server.

Ethical Issues, Integrity and Safety Issues and Risks
Sharing of medical information amongst public clinics and storage of data via cloud computing technology has various benefits as well as ethical issues. To enjoy the benefits of the storage and sharing of medical information via cloud computed the ethical issues should be addressed. The fact that medication data is confidential it is mandatory that it is stored and shared via active channels. Although cloud computing technology is an effective mechanism of storing and sharing data, the process should be done professionally to prevent unnecessary loss of information (Dove et al., 2015, p.1271). There are various health issues, integrity and safety issues and risks related to the poor use and mishandling of cloud computing technology.
The use of cloud computing technology is prone to hacking leading to unauthorized people using the data. Hackers usually have ill intentions and end up using the medical history for malicious purposes. It is the responsibility of the health institutions to keep patients medical history private and confidential. The information should be released to other parties with either the patient’s permission or by court order (Maurer & Smith, 2013). However, to facilitate treatment and enhance healthy living public health institutions are always sharing patient’s medical history records. The sharing and storing of medical history via cloud computing are risky since the data can be accessed by unauthorised people. Cybercriminals are increasing at an alarming rate and usually hack the system and access the information (Stantchev, Colomo-Palacios & Niedermayer, 2014). This means that the right to a patient’s medical history privacy and confidentiality will be violated. The data is used for wrong purposes, therefore, risking with lives of the patients as well as the health institutions. The use of cloud computing technology in the sharing and storing of patients medical record should enhance privacy and confidentiality through ensuring that the system is not prone to hacking.
According to Sen (2014), cloud computing technology is also prone to security breaches which ends up threatening the patient’s privacy (23). This is because through security breaches patient’s confidential information is made available to others without individual’s consent or authorization. This indicates that the platform is not safe for the process of sharing and storing patient’s information. The widened use of electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets is weakening the safety of cloud computing technology. This is because unsafe access to the database makes it possible for the unauthorised user to access the information. The devices can be easily misplaced, damaged or stolen enabling individuals with ill motives to obtain the data (Greiner, 2015). Some users of the database are careless and do not observe integrity has they hand the cloud computing system. Others share the data willingly with their friends while others give access to unauthorised parties. Due to improper handling of the cloud computing system, the information is exposed to the risky of potential access by illegal bodies. As a result, the data ends up being used for ill and unprofessional purposes.
Response Plan to the Issues and Risks
Cloud computing is an efficient platform for sharing and storing medical history. However, the mode of usage determines whether the data is going to remain within the respective hands. To enhance the privacy and confidentiality of the information, controlling the access to the health information is mandatory. The application of cloud computing technology in sharing and storing medical history should be accompanied with several additional security steps such as strong privacy and security policies (Kshetri, 2013, p.376). The users of the data should not access the database using personal devices. This is because most browsers have a virus making it easy for hacking. Personal devices are easily accessed by friends and relatives who might end up seeing the medical history. The health organisations should be in a position to conduct audit trails, requiring that information system activity to be documented and have the hardware, software as well as the procedures to record and examine the events.
Integrity should be observed between the users of the data. This will ensure that health institution employees do not allow unauthorised people to access the database. The users should also not alter with the data as it interferes with the safety of the patients (Pasquale & Ragone 2013, p.595). Modifying with the data also decreases the accuracy and reliability of the record, therefore, interfering with recovery of the patients. Health institution officers should observe professionalism while sharing and storing medical history (Sultan 2014: 180). This will outdo all potential ethical issues, Integrity and safety issues as well as risks associated with the application of cloud computing technology. As a result, the cloud computing technology will be useful in the process of sharing and storing medical history since it will enhance patient’s data privacy and confidentiality. This will ensure that the potential risks are eliminated thus guaranteeing smooth treatment process.
To facilitate the efficient treatment of patients, doctors usually share a patient’s medical history. The challenge facing health institutions for a long time has been the lack of an active channel for storing and sharing medical history. Cloud computing technology is an effective mechanism for storing and sharing a medical history, but it is associated with several ethical issues, problems of integrity and safety, therefore, preventing its mass application. This is because the system is prone to hacking thus giving access to unauthorised people. This interferes with the privacy and security of patient’s data which is mandatory. However, cloud computing can be useful in the process of storing and sharing medical history depending on the mode of application. The users of the data should observe integrity by ensuring that they don’t use personal devices to access the database. Strong passwords and safe access to the database should always be embraced. This will ensure that the data is only accessible by the authorised parties, therefore, avoiding misuse.
Casola, V., Castiglione, A., Choo, K.K.R. and Esposito, C., 2016. Healthcare-related data in the cloud: challenges and opportunities. IEEE Cloud Computing, 3(6), pp.10-14.
Chow-White, P.A., MacAulay, M., Charters, A. and Chow, P., 2015. From the bench to the bedside in the big data age: ethics and practices of consent and privacy for clinical genomics and personalized medicine. Ethics and Information Technology, 17(3), pp.189-200.
Chu, C.K., Chow, S.S., Tzeng, W.G., Zhou, J. and Deng, R.H., 2014. Key-aggregate cryptosystem for scalable data sharing in cloud storage. IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, 25(2), pp.468-477.
Dove, E.S., Joly, Y., Tassé, A.M., in Genomics, P.P.P., Committee, S.P.I.S., Burton, P., Chisholm, R., Fortier, I., Goodwin, P., Harris, J. and Hveem, K., 2015. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider. European Journal of Human Genetics, 23(10), p.1271.
Greiner, T.E., 2015. How the use of integrated health information technology effects the patient-provider relationship(Doctoral dissertation, Utica College).
Griebel, L., Prokosch, H.U., Köpcke, F., Toddenroth, D., Christoph, J., Leb, I., Engel, I. and Sedlmayr, M., 2015. A scoping review of cloud computing in healthcare. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 15(1), p.17.
Hossain, M.S. and Muhammad, G., 2016. Cloud-assisted industrial internet of things (iiot)–enabled framework for health monitoring. Computer Networks, 101, pp.192-202.
Kshetri, N., 2013. Privacy and security issues in cloud computing: The role of institutions and institutional evolution. Telecommunications Policy, 37(4-5), pp.372-386.
Maurer, F.A. and Smith, C.M., 2013. Community/public health nursing practice: Health for families and populations. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Miah, S.J., Hasan, J. and Gammack, J.G., 2017. On-Cloud Healthcare Clinic: An e-health consultancy approach for remote communities in a developing country. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), pp.311-322.
Pasquale, F. and Ragone, T.A., 2013. Protecting health privacy in an era of big data processing and cloud computing. Stan. Tech. L. Rev., 17, p.595.
Sen, J., 2014. Security and privacy issues in cloud computing. In Architectures and protocols for secure information technology infrastructures (pp. 1-45). IGI Global.
Stantchev, V., Colomo-Palacios, R. and Niedermayer, M., 2014. Cloud computing based systems for healthcare. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.
Sultan, N., 2014. Making use of cloud computing for healthcare provision: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Information Management, 34(2), pp.177-184.
Youssef, A.E., 2014. A framework for secure healthcare systems based on big data analytics in mobile cloud computing environments. Int J Ambient Syst Appl, 2(2), pp.1-11.
Zhang, P., Schmidt, D.C., White, J. and Lenz, G., 2018. Blockchain Technology Use Cases in Healthcare.

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