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NIT5082 Cloud Security

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NIT5082 Cloud Security

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Course Code: NIT5082
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia

Questions:
Tasks
Assume that an Australian State Government has reviewed the Singapore Government’s Smart Nation Plan and has decided to implement their own Smart State Plan. This will initially consist of a network of smart sensors and cameras at traffic lights, bus stops, rubbish bins, etc. in their CBD to monitor citizens behaviour and address street crime.
1. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart Sensor Network by looking at:a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal,
b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens,
c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.
The next part of the Government’s plan is to deploy a Smart WiFi Network which will consist of a series of sensor boxes to act as WiFi hotspots throughout the city. This would allow the introduction of a heterogeneous network where smart phones and other devices could seamless switch between mobile data and WiFi.
2. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart WiFi Network by looking at:a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal,
b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens using their mobile devices in the CBD,
c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.
d. What are the implications for you If you had sensitive information on your mobile device that you did not want to share?
The Smart State Plan will also enrol all citizens with a Digital Identity to ensure that they can correctly be identified and access services provided by the state both electronically and physically.
3. If you were visiting the State Capital after the Smart State Plan has rolled out, do you think that the use of a digital identity would assist you to maintain your privacy while using your mobile phone or devices during your visit? Discuss the reasons for your answer.
4. What steps do you think that you could take to ensure the security and privacy of your digital identity while operating your mobile device(s) in this environment? Discuss each step that you would take along with its advantages and disadvantages. 
Answers:

Introduction
It is important to identify the security issues included in the process of providing cloud or wireless solutions to the users. The data are generally stored in cloud. In addition, the basic types of data stored in cloud are considered as information of the customers, whereas email and data of the users are the important aspects where security issues need to be tested properly. Australian Government has reviewed the Singapore Nation Plan and has taken the decisions for implementing own Smart State Plan. In this situation, the present paper discusses personal and ethical implications of the proposed Smart Sensor Network, In this perspective, the categories of people affected by proposal and behavioural changes in the processing of personal and ethical implications. It is also important to visit the State Capital after implication of Smart State Plan. The steps are discussed in the present study that would be helpful to use digital identity while operating mobile devices in the country.
Task 1
Personal and ethical implication of privacy of the proposed Smart Sensor Network
a. The categories of people affected through proposal
Sensors and the networks of sensors have a vital impact on meeting the environmental challenges. The sensor applications in various fields such as power grids and smart buildings and the smart industrial process are included as the beneficial impact of the proposal. It contributes on efficient usage of the resources (Wang and Chen 2018). There are various fields where sensor networks have a number of applications. For an example, smart sensor networks can be identified through the monitoring procedure of smart sensor networks. In addition, sensors networks are used properly for monitoring structural integrity included in civil structure by localizing the damaged bridges (Cattani et al. 2017).  However, there are transportation and logistics areas where industrial applications, precision agriculture and tracking animals. Smart sensor networks have an important applications and monitoring the system, which could be affected through smart sensor networks. It would be helpful to the system.
Advanced control systems can constitute the smart grids through the key element. They can monitor the system as well as necessary components of smart grid. Computer-based algorithms can allow the efficient way efficient the procedure of data collection as well as analysis. It provides solutions to the human operators along with acting autonomously. For example, new substation automation system has been deployed that provides local autonomously.  For example, geographic information system provides spatial as well as location information. Finally, the substation provides local data in traditional system grids. The opportunity is presenting the case study for India as well as quantifying global positive impact. The power losses accounted as 32% of total power production in 2007.
 The urban terrain tracking and civil structure monitoring system helps to improve the process that is affected through smart sensor network. The procedure of transportation and logistics are the areas where smart sensor network has a significant role. On the other hand, smart sensor network is the area where people are affected in developing smart buildings. In addition, smart grids are energy control systems are the vital areas. Here, smart sensor networks have an environmental impact on the smart grids (Cattani et al. 2017). Coal power plants are the responsible for electricity production across the globe. In addition, decreasing emissions from energy side, there is alternative technologies to clean the area that could be utilized for producing electricity and energy could be distributed in efficient method. However, smart sensor networks are available to produce efficient standalone panels.
The behavioural changes expected from citizens
The entities of enterprise are concerned with the process of adopting practical methods of completing the organizational objectives. It is important to identify the issues directly or indirectly as a basic component of individual. However, the imaginary setting the robots are developed where the actions are pre-programmed (Cattani et al. 2017). It is also beneficial to the autonomous industry such as production lines and computer-automated systems. The reference frame deals with the positive effects and individual skills into the applied method. These are set through the organizations for successful completion of the projects regarding smart sensor networks.
c. Expected changes in individual behaviours
The developed system for implication of smart sensor network has an important change in individual behaviour. The system would be intelligent, robust as well as use any types of cameras or vision sensors as it introduces privacy in the system.  The in-house system is considered as a wireless sensor network, where node can identify the presence of using appliances. There is real-time activity behaviour process of recognition of elderly as well as human emotion detection process (Yin et al. 2015). However, these are augmented with determining wellness procedure to predict unusual behaviour in elderly smart home environment. The system is important to be considered while using the procedure. On the other hand, the system is combination with smart sensing units software in order to collect sensing data. The developed smart sensing system can be helpful for the organizations. On the other hand, the system is combination of smart sensing units software to collect sensing data. The system also includes an electronic device that is worn on wrist. In order to recognize daily activities, the regular household appliances are properly supplemented through proper sensing units in order to sense the usage. 
The instructions from various central coordinators are properly transmitted to central tele-care system to provide help to elderly in unforeseen situation.  The purpose of integrating the system is monitored through less number of healthcare systems. It is also important to monitor the process remotely performance of elderly activities. From the explanation presented  in the system, the emotion recognition system can be developed using the classification of distinctive system performed on distinctive data set of classes that aims to use clustering of data performed on the data collected from specific features in order to differentiate the emotions. The developed low cost, robust as well as flexible intelligent system is capable to developing wireless communication with single wireless sensor network (Burange and Misalkar 2015). It is also important to differentiate the process from probabilistic changing behaviour.  The activities as well as wellness functions of the system are important to be considered in the system.
2.Implications of privacy in proposed Government’s Smart WiFi network
Categories affected by the proposal
The proposed Smart Wi-Fi network has an important impact on people. There are different categories of people live in a city where not everyone can afford 3G or 4G connectivity for several issues like financial and infrastructure. Smart Wi-Fi network could be helpful and would save common people as well as the people required internet connection. However, it could not afford that would get benefit in good terms (Chung et al. 2015). Students as well as youths can be benefited largely from Smart Wi-Fi network implemented by the government of Australia. In addition, these are easily referred to the e-books as well as online learning methods while others can learn and become popular in Australia.  Moreover, the cost of data can be posed an issue. Broadband compromises the speed and price beyond affordability.
The major shortcoming is lack of the Home Plug (Juneja et al. 2016).  There are earliest as well as the most popular and power-line carrier system. It is the system where autonomous systems. On the other hand, it cannot be utilized with low implications of implying the process. There are several equipments compatible with low implementation cost.  The stages of development and compilation of data related to success or failure of service providers. For instances, helping telecommunication regulators is working the type of investment in the infrastructures. The major causes for project failure are not purely technical. On the other hand, shortcoming in communication or interpersonal communication and self-management behavior are responsible for failure of a project. Hence, it becomes significant analyzing the impact of soft skills on the success rate of a project. Thus, it is required to take significant steps that would be helpful for the organization.
An important element of smart grids compromising the programmes makes decision support system with human interfaces. Tools as well as applications consisting of the system are based on artificial intelligence along with semi-autonomous agent software. The simulation applications as well as geospatial information system are included in the system. It is also important to look at the internet tariff plans of private telecoms along with limitation of data usage (Underwood et al. 2015). In emergencies, free wi-fi networks can left people short of communication measures in order to check nearest people. On the other hand, internet connectivity has a measurement of checking the places what is required. In addition, internet has opened several methods in which people develop skills along with business. Apart from these, easy and frees access is significant for middle as well as lower class to provide advantage from smart wi-finetwork implemented by the Government. Security tools as well as measures are deployed in order to keep the users protected from threats of hacking as well as cyber crimes. In this perspective, an expert team into the safety measures can provide solution to the issues as well as people can be able to stay alert through connecting to free wi-fi networks.
Behavioural changes expected from citizens
However, there are some limitations of deploying smart wi-fi network. The government of Australia could spend on the infrastructures as well as managing the cost of free wi-fi to the whole city.  In this perspective, a larger part of annual budget would be spent on the process. Additionally, there would be procedure that helps the data usage per device (Feuerriegel et al. 2016). The issues for hacking the devices for all users having connections of free Wi-Fi with $100 device. The security threat having connectivity gets access to the users and the numbers of credit card users. The encrypted user names as well as passwords are required for good measure.
Sharing confidential data over internet would become very risky, as it is easily a subject to the activities included in cyber crime. Mobile banking is one of the most used names as well as passwords for processing good measures. It is used by the internet users as well as unknowingly become victims to the hackers in order to access the accounts. The government needs to consider that there are various issues of providing free Wi-Fi in the cities as well as measures need to be taken in order to provide complete security over the area. In addition, there are any loopholes should be left from snooping can be possible. In this situation, awareness need to be created specially from the towns regarding the methods for ensuring security as well as confidentiality. It is important to focus on speed regulation and to be kept focus before taking any kind of steps (Zheng et al. 2016). At an average level of end-user, it is required to understand that anything that goes into internet is the subject to the snooping as well as other forms of attacks. Wi-Fi system deployed by the Government requires the system and security is generally higher.
steps contributing for maintaining privacy and security
In case I was to visit the state capital of Singapore, I would have taken security measures as the protection will be every much essential due to the fact that identity theft will be one of the most threatening issue in the city that will be using the smart platform. Major problems that I might be facing in a smart city are as follows: –
Middleman: interruption in the networking process is one of the major threat that affects the security of a smart city. This leads to the fact that data that are transacted in between the citizens of smart city can be intercepted, leading to the fact that the illegal decryption of data is possible during transmission of data through channels. The imposters who are eagerly waiting to intercept data do breaching. This leads to the fact that the data that is being sent through the channel does not reach their desired location and distorted data is what they get due to the fact that the data is modulated during the transferring time. 
Identity theft: identity theft is the major reason for which I would like to take preventive measures in a smart city. The imposters can access data that are stored in the data centre of the city illegally. This leads to the fact that imposters gain access to the data that are private in nature (O’Connor et al. 2014). This is the only reason, data must be stored in a secured place which will be having a barrier for protecting the data. In case the imposters and cyber criminals get access to the personal data of the citizens of the city, they can affect the citizen in an adverse way. Major reason is that imposters will enact in behalf of the citizens and create a wrong impression of the citizen, which might lead to conflicts among the citizen and other stakeholder with whom they are related with (Parra et al. 2017). Cyber criminals can get access to the portals of the citizens, leading to the fact that they can deal with the banking details of the citizens. In case cyber criminals get access to the bank details of the citizens, they can make financial transaction on behalf of the citizens which might affect the citizen in a negative node. Identity theft portrays the most adverse effect in the citizens of the smart city.
Device hijacking: Device hijacking is also very dangerous in nature, leading to the fact that cyber criminals might get access to the devices that the citizens of smart city will be using. This will lead to the fact that impostors will get to know private data and information that are stored in their devices. This also helps imposters to get the knowledge regarding the whereabouts of an individual. In case imposters get to know about whereabouts of citizens, they might harm them (Ayub and Zagurskis 2015). Hijacking device also includes the fact that they change the basic security functioning which will prevent the genuine citizens to get access to their own devices. Imposters spread malicious codes in devices which often lead to ransomware attacks.
Distributed Denial of Services:
 Distributed Denial of Services is also another issue that citizens face due to imposters that are present in smart cities (Roche 2017). The main problem that arises is that cyber criminals block important websites from the servers, leading that there is a denial or blockage regarding the websites are of high importance for both the citizens and government of the smart city. In case the imposters have performed Distributed Denial of Services it gets difficult to stop then as they already has the server codes and pins that helps them to reach the core of the devices that are being used by the citizens. There are two types of Distributed Denial of Services, they are as follows: –

Temporary Distributed Denial of Services: In this case, imposters block website
Permanent Distributed Denial of Services: this is one of the most dangerous kind of cyber-attacks. In this case imposters permanently block websites which affects the citizens and government institution adversely. Citizens might get victimized to Sabotage.

Part II
Steps that might be taken in order to mitigate the risk that are happening in a smart city are as follows: –

Installing Firewall: Installing firewall is one of the major technique that is needed to be done in order to mitigate the risks that might happen in the processing of citizens in smart city. By installing, firewall an overall protection to the servers. This is the reason that installing firewall is so very important in today’s society. Installation of firewall also helps in preventing imposters from accessing data from the data centre that is used by the smart cities. This is also used because it comes with lesser expense as it is pre-installed in the computing devices. It stops malicious codes and software from affecting the computing devices (Taylor and Johnson 2015). This is also helps in preventing imposters to get connected to our servers without proper authentication. Major disadvantage of installing firewall is that it is not very robust in nature, leading to the fact that loop holes are present in the firewall which are detected by the imposters. Lack of innovation in the process is also another reason of not using firewall. Due to the fact that it does not get updated frequently, a firewall protection system lacks the ability of preventing strong and new viruses and malicious codes approaching the system. 
Implementation of 2 factor security system: Implementation of 2 factor security system is also one of the technique that can be done in order to keep the system secured from imposters. In this case the framework is initially secured with the help of password that is created by citizen of smart city (Hentschel et al. 2016). After the implementation of password, a set of questionnaire is prepared which is answered by the citizens that acts as a security measure. This prevents the imposters form accessing data that is stored in the data center. It gets difficult for the imposters to crack 2 security levels in a stretch. Hence, this is a much more robust platform. Major disadvantage of this method is that sometime it fails to identify the genuine citizens due to bugs present in the programming of the security system.

Conclusion
Wide-area network technologies provide several ways in two-way information flow in the smart grid. There are technologies available that provides broadband as well as narrowband solutions for smart grid. It results in highly fragmented market. The selection of technologies will depend on the factors like reliability for smart grid.  The process network technologies is important.  There are two common technologies in the area where Home Plug is considered as broadband over the system of power line system. It provides the rate of developing the connectivity of entertainment delivery.
References
Ayub, K. and Zagurskis, V., 2015. Technology Implications of UWB on Wireless Sensor Network-A detailed Survey. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS), 7(3).
Burange, A.W. and Misalkar, H.D., 2015, March. Review of Internet of Things in development of smart cities with data management & privacy. In Computer Engineering and Applications (ICACEA), 2015 International Conference on Advances in (pp. 189-195). IEEE.
Cattani, M., Boano, C.A., Steffelbauer, D., Kaltenbacher, S., Günther, M., Römer, K., Fuchs-Hanusch, D. and Horn, M., 2017, April. Adige: an efficient smart water network based on long-range wireless technology. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Water Networks (pp. 3-6). ACM.
Chung, J., Demiris, G. and Thompson, H.J., 2015. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Smart Home Technologies for Older Adults. Annual Review of Nursing Research, Volume 34, 2016: Nursing Ethics: Vulnerable Populations and CHanging Systems of Care, p.155.
Feuerriegel, S., Bodenbenner, P. and Neumann, D., 2016. Value and granularity of ICT and smart meter data in demand response systems. Energy Economics, 54, pp.1-10.
Hentschel, K., Jacob, D., Singer, J. and Chalmers, M., 2016, August. Supersensors: Raspberry Pi devices for smart campus infrastructure. In Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), 2016 IEEE 4th International Conference on (pp. 58-62). IEEE.
Juneja, S., Kendre, S. and Patkar, U., 2016. Healthcare analysis via wireless sensor network. IJSRSET Journal, 2(2), pp.2395-4385.
O’Connor, S.M., Lynch, J.P. and Gilbert, A.C., 2014. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications. Smart Materials and Structures, 23(8), p.085014.
Parra, L., Sendra, S., Lloret, J. and Rodrigues, J.J., 2017. Design and deployment of a smart system for data gathering in aquaculture tanks using wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Communication Systems, 30(16), p.e3335.
Roche, S., 2017. Geographic information science III: Spatial thinking, interfaces and algorithmic urban places–Toward smart cities. Progress in Human Geography, 41(5), pp.657-666.
Taylor, C. and Johnson, T., 2015, March. Strong authentication countermeasures using dynamic keying for sinkhole and distance spoofing attacks in smart grid networks. In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2015 IEEE (pp. 1835-1840). IEEE.
Underwood, M., Gruninger, M., Obrst, L., Baclawski, K., Bennett, M., Berg-Cross, G., Hahmann, T. and Sriram, R., 2015. Internet of things: Toward smart networked systems and societies. Applied Ontology, 10(3-4), pp.355-365.
Wang, J. and Chen, Y., 2018. Research and improvement of wireless sensor network secure data aggregation protocol based on SMART. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, pp.1-9.
Yin, C., Xiong, Z., Chen, H., Wang, J., Cooper, D. and David, B., 2015. A literature survey on smart cities. Science China Information Sciences, 58(10), pp.1-18.
Zheng, X., Wang, J., Dong, W., He, Y. and Liu, Y., 2016. Bulk data dissemination in wireless sensor networks: analysis, implications and improvement. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 65(5), pp.1428-1439.

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