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NIT2201 IT Ethics

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NIT2201 IT Ethics

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Course Code: NIT2201
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia

Question

Task
Proceed according to the following instructions.

Identify a recent (within the last six (6) months) ethical dilemma or ethically questionable situation relating to ICT that you are familiar with. This situation can be either in the media (for example one you have sourced from a newspaper, or online through social media) or through your workplace.

a. If using a workplace example, to maintain confidentiality, do not use real names.
b. If you use a media article you must include the link to the media article.

Identify the key ethical issues contained in your chosen case and use the three distinct perspectives of applied ethics including professional, philosophical, sociological/descriptive ethics to analyse the ethical issues involved in the case. 

Answer
IT Ethics
Three Distinct Perspectives of Applied Ethics
Introduction

When focus is given on the last 6 months case it has been seen that Ransomware is one of the ethical dilemma which took place in 2018. In the recent scenario, there are many issues which are taking place just because of the data breach. If focus is given on the Ransomware attack it has been seen that majority of the data breach is the main cause. In this report the focus will be given on various perceptive like professional ethics, philosophical ethics and sociological ethics. The case related to Ransomware will be evaluated on the basis of these perceptive. It has been researched that 53,000 problems take place just because of ransomware (Brewer, 2016).  From this attack main impact is seen on the humans so it is important that people should be aware of the attacks so that safety can be maintained. The privacy of the people is leaked just because of this attack and has negatively affected the people safety. There are many people hackers who are earning by completing less work and seeing the personal information of the people. In this paper the incident will be analyzed in depth so that it can be simple for the people to maintain their safety.
Professional Ethics Perceptive
If emphasis is given on this perceptive it has been seen that it is linked with the professional ethics. In this ethics are considered that will be maintained by the professionals of the business. It is important to focus on the code of conduct in business environment. If there is no proper code of conduct then it can be difficult for the company to survive in competitive market.  It is the responsibility of the people to work in proper code of conduct. If proper code of conduct is there then it can be simple to take corrective step which can be beneficial for the people (Baer & Nagy, 2017).
In case of ransomeware attack it has been seen that hackers or cyber attackers affect the entire system which is not ethical in the eye of law. One of the unethical acts is ransomware attack in which the personal information’s of the people are leaked without any concern. According to ethics, the data should be safeguard of the people and it should not be showcased in front of people. The people who take the personal of the people are considered as hackers and they create many codes to breach the personal data of the individuals by entering into the system. In case of developers it is important to consider the ethics at the time of making software as it will give positive impact on the people. The main purpose at the time of making the software is for own interest. It is the responsibility of the people to focus on safeguarding the information so that customers can be satisfied in a proper manner (Durkheim, 2013). 
Philosophical Ethics Perceptive
In context to philosophical ethics it is essential to complete the task as per the moral of the individuals. When focus is given on the moral laws it has been seen that human being should be true in completing their activities. The moral of the individual is not only limited to profession but it should also be related to the personal life of the people (Scaife, Carter, Traynor & Butler, 2016). The people should consider and value the morals of the other people so that operations can take place in a proper manner. In philosophical ethics the morals are important to be taken into consideration. Ethics are not for short term it is for long term and should be followed by the individual in his or her entire life. It is important to have morality so that personal life of the people can be maintained and also philosophical ethics towards the people should be there in a proper manner ( Darwall, 2018). 
When focus is given ransomware attack it has been seen that there are two perspectives one is related to cyber security and other is related with maintaining confidentiality of data. There are many hackers who give impact on the individuals and it gives negative impact on their personal life also. Next is related to safeguard the information by the people. The individuals are not able to maintain safety. In ransomware the attackers have the motive to harm others. It is important to follow professional code of conduct so that operations can take place in right direction (Kaur, Dhir & Singh, 2017).
Sociological perceptive
 It is important to focus on security so that people can complete their operations in right manner. In this perceptive there are many factors that should be considered by the company so that privacy can be maintained. There are normative ethics, Meta ethics and also descriptive ethics.
In context to normative ethics it has been analyzed that people should focus on the ethics. Ethics is essential to be considered so that proper operations can take place. Meta ethics elaborates the proper theories that are concerned to the behavior of the people and their acts according to ethics. In descriptive ethics the actions are conducted by focusing on the two ethical concepts of the individuals in relation to profession. The attitude of the individual also plays a great role in completing the overall operations of the company (Peters, 2015). 
The developers who create this malicious software focus to destroy the system of the people without any permission. The aim of the developer is to affect the entire information of the people with malicious attack. It has been seen that ethical laws should be followed so that it can be easy to complete the operations. The information of the people are leaked which give negative impact on the people and there are hackers who ask for the amount. People get ready to give amount so that information can be safeguard. In the last 6 months there are many people who privacy has been hampered and they have faced many issues (Trevino & Nelson, 2016). 
In context to the descriptive ethics it has been evaluated that the decision of the authority is justified by focusing on the situation. This is not ethical in the eye of law but these steps are taken by the people are they are paying to safeguard themselves from these types of attacks.  There are no moral ethics in attackers and they are giving negative impact on the people just because they want advantage. It has been analyzed that it cannot be justified to give negative impact on the people just because people want to gain benefit (Kharraz, Robertson, Balzarotti, Bilge & Kirda, 2015).
It can be analyzed that people have to be secure from these attacks by following proper ethics and values so that negative impact can be reduced. It is also not justified that people have to pay to secure themselves. It is the responsibility of the company to secure the people information so that growth can be achieved in the market. The developers focus on the system that are vulnerable and data is also leaked through this. Ethical laws should focus on this case so that it can be simple to protect the individuals. It is important for companies to measure the attacks so that corrective actions can be taken into consideration. There should also be proper justification on the moral basis so that money can be saved and also confidentiality of the information should be there. It has been seen that descriptive ethics perspective focuses on the attitude of the people by evaluating ethical laws carried out by the ransomware authorities. There should be also proper implications of the policies so that operations cannot be hampered. The operations should be handled with proper care so that confidential information cannot be considered in the wrong way.
References
Baer, R., & Nagy, L. M. (2017). Professional Ethics and Personal Values in Mindfulness-Based Programs: A Secular Psychological Perspective. In Practitioner’s Guide to Ethics and Mindfulness-Based Interventions (pp. 87-111). Springer, Cham.
Brewer, R. (2016). Ransomware attacks: detection, prevention and cure. Network Security, 2016(9), 5-9.
Darwall, S. (2018). Philosophical Ethics: An Historical and Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.
Durkheim, E. (2013). Professional ethics and civic morals. Routledge.
Hoffman, W. M., Frederick, R. E., & Schwartz, M. S. (Eds.). (2014). Business ethics: Readings and cases in corporate morality. John Wiley & Sons.
Kaur, G., Dhir, R., & Singh, M. (2017). Anatomy of ransomware malware: detection, analysis and reporting. International Journal of Security and Networks, 12(3), 188-197.
Kharraz, A., Robertson, W., Balzarotti, D., Bilge, L., & Kirda, E. (2015, July). Cutting the gordian knot: A look under the hood of ransomware attacks. In International Conference on Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment (pp. 3-24). Springer, Cham.
Peters, R. S. (2015). Ethics and Education (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
Scaife, N., Carter, H., Traynor, P., & Butler, K. R. (2016, June). Cryptolock (and drop it): stopping ransomware attacks on user data. In Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2016 IEEE 36th International Conference on (pp. 303-312). IEEE.
Trevino, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. (2016). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley & Sons.

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