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MGT811 Contemporary Management Capabilities

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MGT811 Contemporary Management Capabilities

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MGT811 Contemporary Management Capabilities

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Course Code: MGT811
University: International College Of Management, Sydney

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Question
In the contemporary management environment, mergers and acquisitions are hot topics; particularly as mergers and acquisitions are among the most commonly used strategies for growth. The pitfalls of mergers are well known and well-studied in the management literature.
 
Yet, there are some fundamental challenges that organizations keep stumbling over. One of them is integration. Preoccupation with due diligence and political factors surrounding merger negotiations too often leaves a crucial piece in the merger puzzle left until it is too late – integration of cultures and structures and people. It is well known today that poor results from mergers can so often be put down to people issues.
 
In this major assessment, you are asked to analyze the following case and answer the questions below using a business report format. Further detail on the format of the business report is provided below.
 
What conflicting values are at stake in the case? Identify and explain, using relevant management theory and concepts. Contextualise your answer with reference to literature on integration problems in mergers and acquisitions, with specific reference to people issues. 
 
Critique the process that is being applied to work out the details of the integration, particularly with regard to structure and top management staffing using relevant management theory and concepts. Ground your answer in evidence regarding people and culture issues in merger integration studies. 
 
How would you recommend the conflicting values be resolved? 
 
What process would you recommend that the two senior executives and their HR people follow to work out the details of integration in regard to the top structure? 
 
Evaluate the usefulness of the management and organizational theories and practices from the subject that you have applied in analyzing the case.

Answer

Dewaal Pharmaceuticals and Biohealth Labs Merger
Introduction 
Mergers and acquisitions are strategic decisions that organizations take when they feel they are facing greater risks in the industry that they operate. In most cases, they are seen as survival decisions taken by management as a way of ensuring that the organization survives. As businesses grow they face greater challenges that require merging with others businesses or acquiring others to achieve competitive advantage (Homburg & Bucerius, 2006). This process requires proper planning and execution to ensure that the organization achieves the required advantage. In most cases, Schmid, Sánchez, & Goldberg (2012) argues that most mergers have failed because management fails to put proper strategies in place to address any challenges that may arise in the process since these are two different organizations coming together and being integrated as one. Since they are uniting to form a new business entity, it means that some of the elements have to be left out while others are considered. Like in the case of the merger between Dewaal Pharmaceuticals and Biohealth Labs where there were challenges in integrating the two organizations (Light, 2009). This report analyses the merger between the two companies by looking at conflicting values between the two organizations, the process applied in integration, and recommendations on how the process could have been undertaken.
Conflicting Values at Stake 
One of the common challenges in any merger is the conflict of corporate culture when the two organizations come together.  Studies have shown that 30% of mergers fail within three years due to disparities in organizational culture (Jemison & Sitkin, 2016). Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviors that form the unique social and psychological environment within the organization. This includes collective values and beliefs that define the way employees conduct themselves within the organization. Through shared assumptions that employees have within the organization, their behavior is shaped to reflect the value and mission of the organization (Luthans & Doh Jonathan, 2015). When two organizations merge together, the biggest challenge they have to deal with is the cultural conflict that employees from the two organizations undergo. Bradt (2015) adds that the conflicting value existing in the merger is blending the two cultures together. As it is already seen the employees from each of the organization are accustomed to certain cultural practices from their organization which makes them feel threatened by the new merger because they feel one part of the organization they are used may be left. For example, those from Biohealth felt threatened because they thought Kaspar was the one in charge of everything thus feeling a little left out. Merging two cultural values is challenging since they have to be blended to form a new organization.
The hiring of employees for the new merger is another conflicting value that managers face during this process. When organizations come together, they have their own set of employees who have earned a reputation in the organization for their achievements. However, mergers do not recognize such employees since every organization has to decide what to take and what to leave out (Koi-Akfori, 2016). Since the merger, Steve is having challenges dealing with the issues of the head of the human resource since he believes that the individual has achieved what is needed to be in that position. However, the power to hire does not solely lie in the hands of Steve but rather in the new merger process which leaves all employees vulnerable. Puranam, Singh, & Chaudhuri (2009) add that dduring the merger, the human resource system must compare the benefits and compensation patterns of the two organizations and develop one that accommodates both organizations. In this case, new jobs have to be created while existing ones have to be rendered null and void. This challenge makes it difficult for the human resource system to manage employee-related issues from both organizations. This is the reason why Steve and Kaspar have been forced to compromise each of their side and employees to achieve the merger.
Retention challenges are not in most mergers as seen in the case of Biohealth. The company has started losing some of its employees due to the process of the merger since some feel threatened by the new business development while others have to weigh their options in the merger and outside the merger (Stahl & Voigt, 2008). In the case of this merger, Biohealth employees feel threatened by Kaspar who they think is in charge of the whole process rather than both parties. Further, the fact that Biohealth is losing the human resource division to Dewaal Pharmaceuticals becomes more threatening making retention difficult. From the case study, Steven has already lost five people while the other three employees are still weighing their options in the merger. This has been due to lack of communication from Steven on the future of the employees which leaves them vulnerable and uncertain about the future success of the merger. Further, organizational change theorists suggest that a merger is an organizational change process that threatens the status quo of the organization thus the need to ensure that it is carried out properly to achieve the desired goals.
Critique of the Merger Integration Process
The integration process in the merger regarding the structure and top management was a negotiated process where the two organizations had to compromise with each other to reach an understanding. Picot (2002) presents a three-stage model for merger integration that consists of planning, implementation, and integration. Each of this stage consists of activities that take place in collaboration with the two organizations that are integrating. This means that the merger is a streamlined activity that entails two organizations with common interests coming together to develop a strategic advantage. However, Galpin & Herndon (2000) present five stages that successful mergers and acquisitions go through; formulate, locate, investigate, negotiate and integrate. The top structure and top management employees fall within the negotiation stage where Steve and Kaspar have discussed how the organizational structure and top positions will be shared out. However, in the case of this merger, the top management structure has been shared out by the two companies on a compromise basis rather than using a general approach that vets all the employees.
The two leaders have shared out the leadership positions as a way of protecting specific interests. This approach can be disastrous since it can lead to retention challenges when some employees feel like they have been intentionally thrown out of their positions (Light, 2009). Schweizer (2005) suggests that if a merger is a strategic decision, then the top hiring process needs to reflect this strategy by ensuring that those employees that fit are the one given priority. However, the negotiation part has been done by the two leaders only rather than developing a team that will be in charge of spearheading the whole merger process and determining what to include and what not to include. To do this, a thorough selection process is required to ensure that employees from both organizations are given a chance. What is happening in the merger is filling out positions based on what every individual knows rather than developing a clear recruitment strategy like the use of computerized systems to gauge employee abilities (Petitt & Ferris, 2013). The employee selection plan lacks a clear process that uses facts rather than feelings. What is happening between Steve and Kaspar is feeling rather than a proper selection process. The two are protecting the employees that they know and do not want to lose rather than picking the employee based on a neutral criterion that cut across the two organizations. According to Rhodes (2004) when a good strategy is used to recruit employees for the new organization, a new culture develops from the recruits which are good for organizational growth and development. Since Steve is having challenges on who stays and who goes, the recruitment process has become so challenging to him to the extent that he is not sure which employees to drop and which ones need to retain.
The recruitment process being used by the two leaders also presents the challenge of inability to rise above cultural differences from both organizations. Each of the leaders is seeking to a team that has been personally handpicked to be included in the top management rather than using a free and fair process that reduces bias. Since Steve is championing for retaining the China and Bangalore firms, it means that he has his own people that he believes should be given the top management positions in the organization (Light, 2009). On the other hand, Kaspas group has their own view of some of the businesses that they believe cannot be left out for the Steve group. This presents suspicion and biases in the whole recruitment process since it lacks a non-biased human resource integration. Such strategies present challenges in rising above the cultural differences since each organization believes that there is part of their organization that matters more than the merger (Dauber & Fink, 2011). This means that there are integration challenges that the merger is facing since the negotiations seem not to have been done well. In most cases, the negotiation part is what defines a merger since each organization is able to understand how to work out the process.
Lastly, Steve and Kaspa seem to be having challenges in integrating the two organizations together. In mergers and acquisitions, the two organizations are supposed to integrate their business processes and form a new process that defines how the activities are carried out in the new organization (Weber & Tarba, 2010). However, in the recruitment process for top management adopted by the two leaders, there seems to be the challenge of integration since they are sharing pit departments rather than developing a clear strategy that allows their employees to work together in the new merger. Kansal & Chandani (2017) suggest that an integration plan should be put in place that will allow people from both companies to work out strategies that will bring the employees to a common understanding on how the merger will run. This is through setting up a project team to run the whole process or hiring a consultant to assist the organization in dealing with the issues.
How to Resolve the Conflicting Values
The conflicting values in the merger can be resolved by developing an integration plan that brings together the two organizations. With this, the organization can use executives from both organizations to develop strategies for carrying out the merger smoothly. Integration plans entail forming a team from both organizations and developing an integration plan that harmonizes the needs of the two organizations. The role of this team is carrying out the merger process and ensure that activities run smoothly. This process will also allow communication of any merger integration issues that the employees need and ensuring that doubts, gossips, and tensions are sorted out. The outcome is to ensure that employees understand the benefits of this new merger process rather than viewing it as a threat to their jobs.
When organizations come together in a merger, they are presented with the challenge of merging their human resource together to form a new outfit that meets the requirements. This means that decisions have to be made regardless of what the leaders feel. To reduce biases and confusion, the best approach will be to use the services of an external consultant who will recruit top employees without being biased.  The individual will be charged with the responsibility of guiding the integration process, through determining the employees that fit specific positions within the organization. This process will reduce internal politics, interests, power clashes and loyalty ties that employees have to the organization. According to the theory of hiring, organizations need to screen and hire employees based on their performance and results and not the skills and experiences that they have in the organization. Since the merger is presenting new job opportunities, then the role of the consultant will be to move away from the transactional hiring practice and adopt the long-term intrinsic reasons that make one fit for the job. This will reduce bad hires and turnover after the merger.
Retention theorists suggest that rules and policies within the organization can lead to employee dissatisfaction if they lack the potential to motivate them. This means that management needs to ensure that the job is clearly defined to meet the needs of the organization and at the same time motivate the employee. The nature of the job and the responsibilities assigned to each employee have to be designed in a way that makes the job attractive to reduce turnover and increase retention. By defining the performance objectives of each job, it becomes easy for the organization to determine the right type of employees that meet the needs of the organization.
On the other hand, should the organization fail to meet a particular employee that meets the needs of the organization, then benchmarking process will be used to determine whether the organization can get a better employee from outside the two organizations. The role of benchmarking is to compare employee abilities with their counterparts who work for other organizations. This process ensures that the organization is able to find the best brains that fit the new business structure. In most cases, mergers are strategic business decisions that move the organization a level higher than where it was. Benchmarking is a strategy that can be used to differentiate the hiring process from the normal one where the employee is hired through advertisements (Straub, 2014). This is because only the most qualified candidates from the team are hired rather than picking from the team of existing employees.
Recommended Process for HR and Top Executive Integration 
The first step in the integration process is balancing the positions between the two organizations to reduce tension. Management needs to ensure that the employees understand how the merger is working and that each organization has to compromise some positions to see the merger through. Through an equal distribution of the positions that exist, tensions will be reduced since each organization will find a way of ensuring that it satisfies the needs of its employees by accommodating them. Most mergers fail at the negotiation face some leaders are rigid in letting go of some elements of the merger even if they are interested in the integration. As seen in the case, both Steve and Kaspa have their positions that they are fighting to protect since they define them in a certain way. In mergers and acquisitions, managing of human resources is a daunting task since leaders have to balance between who remains and who leaves. This is a business call that requires thorough management thought so that the right decision is made by retaining only those employees that fit the strategic needs of the new business outfit. Since each of the organizations had an operational workforce, there is need to ensure that the whole team is considered through a free and fair process that analyses the potential of each individual in relation to the new needs of the merger. There has to be a balance between the two teams so that each side can benefit from the outcome of the merger. Without proper negotiations on what to include and what to leave out, the merger process can fail due to one organization pulling out. This is seen in the case of BioHealth where Steve is willing to pull out of the process if things do not roll out in his favor.
The second process is to develop the objectives of the whole recruitment process and setting indicators for each objective. To allow the recruitment process to run well, there is a need to develop objectives that need to be used so that the criteria for assessing the candidates can be determined. This means that management can formulate a task force or can hire the services of a consultant to carry out the process (Harroch & Lipkin, 2015).. Objectives define what the organization seeks to achieve and address the main areas that need to be taken care. When proper objectives are designed with activities that follow them, it becomes easy for the merger process to be successful since it ensures that there is a blueprint to be followed. This can be necessitated by a well-planned communication process that defines the role of every element in the merger process and what is required by the top management team. This reduces tension, anxiety and fault finding in the team that is performing the process.
The Usefulness of Management and Organizational Theories and Practices 
Management theories offer grounds for understanding organizational issues in the case of mergers and acquisitions. The theories form the basis of research and standards to be used in the merger process. One major usefulness of these theories is guiding the whole merger process. Mergers are strategic decisions taken by organizations to address the challenges that they are having and developing the strategic advantage. According to Barros & Domínguez (2013), models and theories of mergers and acquisition provide strategies and steps that managers follow when executing such like business ideas. A merger is one of the difficult decisions for any leader since it leads to loss of the organizational image to form a new image that meets the needs of the two merging organizations (Leepsa & Mishra, 2016). These theories explain the motives of any merger and the benefits that the organizations derive from these whole process. For example from the value-creating perspective, a merger is a strategic decision that organizations take to create new value and become more competitive. The role of theory is to offer justification and strategies that can be used to address the issues revolving around the merger process.
Dumi, Ura, & Çobo (2012) suggest that management practice relies on theories, experiences and case studies to provide solutions for workplace situations that managers face. Through the application of theoretical models and practices, managers develop strategic decision making by applying laid down procedures for solving organizational issues in mergers and acquisition. Through syncing information from successful mergers and acquisitions, mergers can be successful if relevant challenges are learned from failed cases so that the mistakes made by such organizations can be avoided while at the same time there is need to ensure that proper management is applied to address the issues facing the organization (Haberberg & Rieple, 2008). Therefore, the theories and practices guide managers in developing proper mechanisms for addressing the merger process through the following of models that have been proposed so that each and every stage of the process is addressed.
Conclusion
The merger and acquisition process is a strategic decision that needs to be executed with caution to achieve the intended benefits, many mergers have failed while others have not kicked off completely due to failure to meet the prerequisites clearly. This means that Steven and Kaspas need to address relevant issues that are stalling the negotiation process so that the merger can be achieved. When handling merger-related issues, the two leaders need to form a task force to be charged with the responsibility of meeting the needs of the organization. This means that a panel or committee will work better in streamlining and addressing any pertinent issues in the merger rather than the coffee meetings that the two are doing. Further, this calls for strategies to be used in addressing retention challenges that the merger presents to employees so that the finest resources are not lost.
References
Barros, R. H., & Domínguez, I. L. (2013). Integration strategies for the success of mergers and acquisitions in financial services companies. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 14(5), 979-992.
Bradt, G. (2015, June 29). The Root Cause Of Every Merger’s Success Or Failure: Culture. Forbes.
Dauber, D., & Fink, G. (2011). Hybridization: Blending organizational Cultures in mergers and acquisitions. Academy of Management Journal, 6(2), 51-74.
Dumi, A. R., Ura, E., & Çobo, E. (2012). Management Concepts and Theories, the Strategic Development Levels on Transfer Organizational Work in the Poor Countries. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 1(2), 181-192.
Galpin, T., & Herndon, M. (2000). The complete guide to mergers and acquisitions: process tools to support M & A ntegration at every level,”. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Haberberg, A., & Rieple, A. (2008). Strategic management: theory and application. London: Oxford University Press.
Harroch, R., & Lipkin, D. (2015). 20 Key Due Diligence Activities In A Merger and Acquisition. New jersey: FT Press.
Homburg, C., & Bucerius, M. (2006). Is speed of integration really a success factor of mergers and acquisitions? An analysis of the role of internal and external relatedness. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 3347-367.
Jemison, D. B., & Sitkin, S. B. (2016, March). Acquisitions: The Process Can Be a Problem. Havard Business Review.
Kansal, S., & Chandani, A. (2017). Effective Management Of Change During Merger And Acquisition. Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies Annual Research Conference (SIMSARC13). KPMG.
Koi-Akfori, G. Y. (International Journal of Economic, Finance and Management). Mergers and acquisitions: Post-merger and acquisition Intergration strategies. 5(2), 49-56.
Leepsa, N., & Mishra, C. S. (2016). Theory and Practice of Mergers and Acquisitions: Empirical Evidence from Indian Cases. IIMS Journal of Management Science, 7(2), 179-194.
Light, D. A. (2009). Who Goes, Who Stays. Havard Business Review.
Luthans, F., & Doh Jonathan, P. (2015). nternational Management, Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Petitt, B. S., & Ferris, K. (2013). Valuation for mergers and acquisitions. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: FT Press.
Picot, G. (2002). Handbook of international mergers and acquisitions; Preparation, Implementation and Intergration. New York: Palgave Macmillan.
Puranam, P., Singh, H., & Chaudhuri, S. (2009). Integrating acquired capabilities: When structural Integration is (un)necessary. Organization Science, 20(2), 313-328.
Rhodes, K. (2004). Merger and Acquisition Strategies. Graziadio Business Review, 7(1).
Schmid, A. S., Sánchez, C. M., & Goldberg, S. R. (2012). M&A today: Great challenges, but great opportunities. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 23(2), 3-8.
Schweizer, L. (2005). rganizational integration of acquired biotechnology companies in pharmaceutical companies: The need for a hybrid approach. Academy of Management Journal, 6, 1051-1074.
Stahl, G., & Voigt, A. (2008). Do cultural differences matter n mergers and acquisitions? A tentative model and examination. Organization Science,, 19(1), 160-176.
Straub, M. (2014, March). Job Benchmarking improves hiring process. The Business Times.
Weber, Y., & Tarba, S. (2010). Human resources practices and performance of mergers and acquisi-tions in Israel. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 203-211.

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