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MGT704 Global Business Management

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MGT704 Global Business Management

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MGT704 Global Business Management

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Course Code: MGT704
University: University Of Southern California is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States


The purpose: Identify and evaluate strategies adopted by a firm to pursue an international growth opportunity related to emerging economies.  
The product: Preparation of an analytic case study that critically examines the strategy adopted by a firm to pursue an emerging economy opportunity. This may be from the perspective of an incumbent local firm in an emerging economy or an incumbent multinational. Select relevant frameworks of analysis to shed light on your chosen firm’s cross-border growth strategy  
The format: The case study should be submitted as an analysis of up to 3000 words. You should prepare this report individually.
The criteria: (i) Quality of analysis through knowledge and application of relevant frameworks and concepts, (ii) Level of demonstrated understanding of key issues, interrelationships and implications, (iii) Quality of argument including data to support arguments and identification of growth opportunities related to emerging economies, and, (iv) Communication and presentation.


The paper will introduce the overview of the company along with its identification and evaluation of different strategies that are adopted by the companies to gain profit. The adoption of the strategies will help the firm to work adequately. It provides a view of the strategic alliance partners of the company that will prove to be beneficial for the organization. It presents the values, vision, mission, and ethics of the company to satisfy the needs of the customers by developing new technologies within the firm. It also provides with the organizational resources and capabilities that are generated for providing convenience to the customers. It focuses upon the view of the stakeholders for the company.
Overview of the company
General Dynamics Corporation (GD), is an American corporation that is founded on February 7, 1899. It is the defense multinational corporation and aerospace that is formed by the divestitures and mergers (Iftikhar, Musa, Alam, Su’ud & Ali, 2018, May). As per the revenue of 2012, it is considered to be the world’s fifth-largest defense contractor. The company has its headquarters in West Falls Church, in Fairfax Country, Virginia.
The company comprises four major segments of business they are aerospace, information systems technology, combat systems, and marine systems. In 2017 the total revenue of the company is estimated at US$30.973 billion and the net income by US$2.912 billion. The total number of employees that are employed by the company to date is around 98,600 (Beske, Land & Seuring, 2014). The products that are manufactured by the company are IT systems, control and communications and command, watercraft, munitions, weapon systems, fighter jets, combat vehicles, and business jets.
Identification and the evaluation of the strategies
General Dynamics Corporations (GD), has adopted the federal IT strategy for the significant growth opportunity of the firm. Low single digit growth can be obtained from the IT services that optimize funding stability. The IT services business of around $4.4 billion of the 60% to 70% of the Falls Church-based company focuses upon the intelligence customers and defense department (Bloom, Floetotto, Jaimovich, Saporta?Eksten & Terry, 2018).
GD finds a growth opportunity about the emerging economies with the big organizations that manufacture business jets, tanks and submarines. Since the year 2013, from the IT services GD has faced the fall in the revenue from $4.7 billion to the figure of last year by $4.4 billion. GD comprises of different major business levels such as functional-level strategy, corporate-level strategy, and business-level strategy. The functional-level strategy states that how the firm manages its business-level strategy (Co?ar, Guner & Tybout, 2016). The business-level strategy describes the way how the organization competes. The decisions that are taken in this level showcases the amount that is spent on different activities such as development, advertising, and product research.
The compensation plan has been executed by General Dynamics that presents the lack of understanding of the stock price, market forces and relationship between the long-lasting business strategies (Michaelson, Pratt, Grant & Dunn, 2014). The adoption of the business strategies results into better investments in the future, improves the productivity, increases the returns, decreases the risk on returns and presents the view of the defense market (Helfat & Martin, 2015). The business strategies have been successfully adopted by GD.
The firm has developed its financial condition, in which the cash balance is estimated at $500 million. The company tends to build a reliable, focused and efficient defense company. The business strategy of GD addresses the program that presents the military that is constantly emphasizing. This involves the requirement for the warfighters and to exchange the resources that are lost in Afghanistan and Iraq (Kuppuswamy & Bayus, 2018). 
Strategic alliance
The strategic alliance is considered to an agreement for business among two or more independent organizations to work together based on the common goal. The alliances are divided into two major categories they are equity-based and contractual (Wirtz, Pistoia, Ullrich & Göttel, 2016). It is considered to be the compromise among the pure solutions of the organization that lasts for long and pure market transaction that appears for a short period.
The IT Strategic alliance partners of GD have introduced capabilities and new models of digital business that are influencing the technology landscape. The models and capabilities are changing with the engagement of the government with the citizens, and it supports the warfighters (Yeung & Coe, 2015). GD has built a strategic alliance with Aeronautics Defense Systems, LTD. The alliance helps GD’s tactical and ordnance systems to provide unmanned aerial systems technologies of Aeronautics that includes the Unmanned Multi-Application System (UMAS), within the selected global consumers and U.S. market.
Aeronautics and GD developed strategic cooperation that brought both the companies together (Teece, 2014). This alliance is the proof of the commercial and technological profits that the alliance4 could produce among the U.S. and Israel industries. Exciting opportunities could be generated through this alliance as it leverages the GD’s expertise to system integration that comprises of high standard technology leader within the market of the international crewless vehicle. GD aims to build a successful team with Aeronautics to grab their products and capabilities to execute within the market (Prajogo, 2016).
Resources and capabilities
The resource of GD comprises of management of the security incident and public safety that relies upon the limited data communication and legacy land mobile radio. The mission system of GD offers an internship position in different fields of engineering that includes mechanical engineering, software engineering, systems engineering and many more (Davcik & Sharma, 2016). The mission systems of GD combines the capabilities and resources of GD’s advanced information systems that offer mission-based operations support, integration and systems development. The C4 systems of GD were considered to be the leading integrator of information technology and systems and secure communications.
The organization brings together the capabilities and diverse talents of GD’s C4 systems and advanced information systems (Rao & Tilt, 2016). The company aims to deliver and innovate values to its customers that have a combination of expertise and talent of the people that are determined to be the difference in the strategies. The resources that are included in GD are as follows:

Networking for soldiers,
Afloat networks and mission systems for sailors,
Support for cyber operations, data encryption, and highest level network
Payloads for airborne systems and satellites
Deep space antennas that peers within the longest reach of the universe

The capabilities that are included in GD are as follows:

Platform and networking integration
Satellite and radio communications
Operational support, defense products, and cybersecurity
Space electronics, reconnaissance systems, and sensors, surveillance, and intelligence
Platform computing and weapon control systems, mission management and planning systems
Information systems of open architecture

Values, Mission and Ethics
Every organization comprises of some values, mission, ethics, and vision. In the same way, GD also has some mission system that states that the talented employees of GD are concentrated towards the engineering technologies that makes easy for the first responders, intelligence analysts, airmen, coast guard, marines, sailors and soldiers to focus towards the mission (Schilke, 2014). The vision of GD is to reinvent the bounds of innovation to fulfill the mission of the customers.
On the other hand, the mission of the company is to create new techniques by alliancing with its communities, suppliers, teammates, and customers to rapidly supply the critical solutions of a full spectrum of the mission. While the organization’s values are entirely based upon the components that determine and drives of how to execute the business systematically (Dunning, 2015). It upholds the support of the community, practices of sustainable business, good corporate citizenship and commitment to excellence. The priority of GD is to focus upon its customers to fulfill their needs. GD makes it easy for the users to operate the technologies in a much convenient way without any difficulties.
The company’s Human Centered approach based on the user experience helps the experts to develop the technologies to generate more pleasant experience for the customers or users by taming the technology complexity (Bouncken, Gast, Kraus & Bogers, 2015). By reducing the waste, developing the processes and innovations the company constantly pursue excellence. The company presents an outstanding commitment by providing systems to the customers, highly reliable and high-quality products.
This is because the company is the leading provider of mission-critical systems. GD comprise of constant development of the deeply embedded culture (Wilden & Gudergan, 2015). This culture, in turn, drives towards constant shared commitment that focuses upon the change in the future. The company aims to find new ways to execute the things more effectively, in a better way and faster as well as to deliver less expensive products to its customers. The ethics of GD is the difference in the moral nature.
The employees of the company are entirely dedicated to the ethical values of the community. Every member of the company follows the rules and regulations of the firm behaves as per the values. Thus, according to the communities, employees, customers, and shareholders the company is considered to be the best stewards of investment (Zoogah, Noe & Shenkar, 2015). The ethical values of GD are based on the five elements they are, value creation, alignment, humanity, trust, and honesty.
Problem Identification
Like most of the defense organization, GD also comprises of the factors related to international fears. To justify the present situation, the operating income of the company has not increased much. Over the past two years, there has been a significant decrease in the cash flow statement of the net income. For the past five years, the earnings and revenues have not shown any growth based on the defense and aerospace systems (Albers, Wohlgezogen & Zajac, 2016). Due to the pending Department of defense office Inspector General (DOD IG) investigation, the company is facing various problems that could result in debarment. The continental early warning system (CEWS) is an issue as it does not follows the procurement rules and violates the regulations.
Problem analysis
The mission system of GD opens up the problem manager for the IT services that are supported by the intelligence and defense systems and services. The role of the IT infrastructure is to solve the technical problems to coordinate the activities and processes. It focuses on avoidance of the incident, analysis of the cause and problem identification (Galpin, Whitttington & Bell, 2015). The problem manager will have a close relationship with the management team and technicians of the IT services. Also, it will coordinate with the process managers such as the change manager and incident manager to focus on the problems. The needed follow-ups of the problems that include process communications and changes. 
It understands the company’s constraints, risks, challenges, opportunities, metrics, processes, policies, systems and information’s. It evaluates, investigates and improves the organizational systems, processes, technologies, and information of GD. It captures, analyzes, identifies and investigates the business information, process and system and various other forms of detailed requirements and specifications (Galpin, Whitttington & Bell, 2015). With the help of the identification, completion of the error resolution task and analysis of the cause the life cycle of the problems could be managed. It communicates effectively with the IT management based on the status, trends, issues, and awareness. Thus this good help in developing the revenues of GD that has decreased in the past five years. The cash flow statement of GD would be increased by the use of the problem manager.
Industry-based considerations
The concentration ratio of GD has increased from 2015 to 2016 and from 2016 to 2017. Thus the ratio of GD in the year 2017 is estimated by $6,187 million. In 2017 the company’s revenue is recorded by the vital services and products. GD is considered to be the market leader about the defense and aerospace industry (Kleynjans & Hudon, 2016). Thus, the revenue of GD in 2017 is estimated at $2.5 million for the wheel combat vehicles. It is observed that the revenues of GD in the year 2017 have shown a considerable increase as compared to the last two years.
Resource-based considerations
The total revenue of GD is estimated at $7,535 million that has been declined with the value of Zacks Consensus that estimates at $7,543 million by 0.1%. From the Aerospace segmentation, the revenues generated around $1,825 million by 12.0%. Thus, the operating profits are estimated at $346 million by 21.2%. Based on the combat system the segment’s revenues increased by 11.9% to $1,440 million (Rey & Bastons, 2018). Hence the operating profits are estimated at 9.3% to $224 million. The revenues of the information technology and systems generated $2,236 million to 4.2%. Therefore, the value of the operating profits is increased by 4.7% to $247 million.
Institution-based considerations
GD competes against the large system and platform integration contractors and also with the small firms that are specialized in the specific capability of technologies. Globally GD competes with the contractors of international defense. The rival of GD is Huntington Ingalls Industries that is considered to be the primary competitor of the company. The antitrust policy has evolved from the Supreme Court cases that play a significant role in maintaining the efficient markets and promoting the financial prosperity of GD (Chell, Spence, Perrini & Harris, 2016). As per the earnings is concerned the growth rate of GD in the year 2017 is estimated at 8.73%. The report of GD states that the earnings of 2018 showed continuous operations of $2.65 per share defeating the Zacks Consensus whose value is estimated at $2.47 by 7.3%.
Stakeholder view of the firm
The stakeholders of GD based on the other institutions is 47.18%, 39.17% for the mutual fund holders and 13.04% for individual stakeholders. The role of the stakeholders in GD is to emphasize the visions of the company (Malbaši?, Rey & Poto?an, 2015). Such factors that seem to be challenging for the stakeholders in various ways. With the help of the communication, the task of the stakeholders in the organization becomes more complex. The stakeholders of GD attempts to solve the problems of the organization in an organized way. The stakeholders of GD has the power to make decisions based on the project, but that must be appropriate.
The GD’s stakeholders are divided into four major categories they are confronting stakeholders, indifferent stakeholders, facilitating peripheral stakeholders and agents of the steering team (Ebrahim, Battilana & Mair, 2014). This categorization of the stakeholders helps to organize the project for the evolution of the particular project. The stakeholder of the firm organizes the functions and structures of GD. It is the responsibility of the stakeholder to rationalize the structures of the project of the organization systematically. The dynamics of the stakeholder of GD is based on the sociology of the adequate actions of the company. The stakeholders depend upon its investments that have been done in the company and expects to get a good increase (Reamer & Nimmagadda, 2017).
The paper concludes by describing the strategies of the organization to get the global opportunity for growth based on the emerging economies. It provided a brief identification and description of the strategies that are adopted by the firm to increase its sales within the market. The strategic alliance is also discussed that presented the strategic partner of the organization. It focused upon the various problems of the company and the tools and techniques to solve the problems systematically. The financial condition of the company is also provided based on the considerations. It presented the view of the stakeholder of GD along with its importance and role in the organization. Thus, it is observed that GD has created a problem manager to identify the problems and solve them.
Albers, S., Wohlgezogen, F., & Zajac, E. J. (2016). Strategic alliance structures: An organization design perspective. Journal of Management, 42(3), 582-614.
Beske, P., Land, A., & Seuring, S. (2014). Sustainable supply chain management practices and dynamic capabilities in the food industry: A critical analysis of the literature. International Journal of Production Economics, 152, 131-143.
Bloom, N., Floetotto, M., Jaimovich, N., Saporta?Eksten, I., & Terry, S. J. (2018). Really uncertain business cycles. Econometrica, 86(3), 1031-1065.
Bouncken, R. B., Gast, J., Kraus, S., & Bogers, M. (2015). Coopetition: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. Review of Managerial Science, 9(3), 577-601.
Chell, E., Spence, L. J., Perrini, F., & Harris, J. D. (2016). Social entrepreneurship and business ethics: Does social equal ethical? Journal of business ethics, 133(4), 619-625.
Co?ar, A. K., Guner, N., & Tybout, J. (2016). Firm dynamics, job turnover, and wage distributions in an open economy. American Economic Review, 106(3), 625-63.
Davcik, N. S., & Sharma, P. (2016). Marketing resources, performance, and competitive advantage: A review and future research directions. Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5547-5552.
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Ebrahim, A., Battilana, J., & Mair, J. (2014). The governance of social enterprises: Mission drift and accountability challenges in hybrid organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 81-100.
Galpin, T., Whitttington, J. L., & Bell, G. (2015). Is your sustainability strategy sustainable? Creating a culture of sustainability. Corporate Governance, 15(1), 1-17.
Helfat, C. E., & Martin, J. A. (2015). Dynamic managerial capabilities: Review and assessment of managerial impact on strategic change. Journal of Management, 41(5), 1281-1312.
Iftikhar, A., Musa, S., Alam, M., Su’ud, M. M., & Ali, S. M. (2018, May). A survey of soft computing applications in global software development. In Innovative Research and Development (ICIRD), 2018 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Kleynjans, L., & Hudon, M. (2016). A study of codes of ethics for Mexican microfinance institutions. Journal of business ethics, 134(3), 397-412.
Kuppuswamy, V., & Bayus, B. L. (2018). Crowdfunding creative ideas: The dynamics of project backers. In The Economics of Crowdfunding (pp. 151-182). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
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