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MANM489 : Most At Risk And Strategies Used To Curb Mental Illness

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MANM489 : Most At Risk And Strategies Used To Curb Mental Illness

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MANM489 : Most At Risk And Strategies Used To Curb Mental Illness

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Course Code: MANM489
University: University Of Surrey

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:
1 Clearly state the chosen topic. Discuss the incidence and prevalence (epidemiology) of reported cases globally, including the current estimated morbidity and mortality rates of the condition.2. Discuss the cohort most at risk of the condition( the age of the population mostly affected)3. Review the current strategies for health promotion of the chosen topic and discuss the effectiveness of the programs. Do the program app to be working? Consider if the programs are suitable to the cohort most at risk.
Answer:

Morbidity and mortality rates
 It is estimated that one in a group of four people is likely to suffer from mental health disorders globally (Walker, E., McGee, R.., & Druss, B., 2015). Currently, there are over four hundred and fifty million people who suffer from mental disorders globally, this aspect places mental health as one of the leading causes of disability globally (World Health Organization, 2017).
Mental health conditions come in different forms including bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, depression, self-harm among many more. Depression, for instance, is among the leading four causes of disease burden globally. Self-harm is one of the common mental health conditions that has been reported globally. Self-harm is defined as an act that is performed by an individual to harm his or herself by either injuring oneself physically or poisoning oneself without respect of any particular motivation. Self-harm can occur through excessive consumption of alcohol, body piercing, starvation or from associated conditions such as anorexia nervosa (Carroll, R., Metcalfe, C., & Gunnell, D., 2014). However, it is worth noting that individuals who harm themselves during a dissociative state report to have a reduced sense of awareness when performing the activities associated with self-harm (Buser, T., Buser, J.  & Rutt, C., 2017). It is of significance to recognize that mental health conditions such as self-harm and depression play a significant role in the increase in morbidity and mortality within the general population.
According to the World Health Organization report on investing in mental health, thirty-three percent of the years lived with disability are due to the presence of mental health disorders (World Health Organization, 2014). Cumulating to this, two point one percent of the years lived with disability are due to the presence of deliberate or intentional injuries. Independently, unipolar disorder comes with twelve point one five percent threshold of years that are lived with disability.
Cohort most at risk
The report further asserts that among the six leading causes of disability globally, neuropsychiatric disorders bear the upper hand with four conditions being at the forefront as the causes of disability. These mental health conditions include bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol use disorders. Individuals with this conditions are the cohorts most ar risk of suicide or self-harm (World Health Organization, 2014)
In addition, mental health disorders significantly affect the normal life years of the individual –thirteen percent of DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) is reported to occur as a result of these disorders (Murray, C., Barber, R. M., Foreman, K. J., Ozgoren, A. A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F. & Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., 2015). Self-harm or intentional injuries is singly responsible for thirty-three percent and HIV and aids for another six percent of adjusted life years. There are over one hundred and fifty million people who suffer from depression at some point in their lives. Compounding to this, it is estimated that nearly one million people commit suicide annually and about twenty-five million people are suffering profoundly with schizophrenia. An additional thirty-eight million people suffer from epilepsy. Ninety million of the people living with mental health conditions suffer from drug or alcohol abuse.
Of the massive number of people suffering with mental health conditions, a significant number of those most at risk of self-harm include: individuals who are more than ten years old; those who are suffering from schizophrenia; epilepsy; the use of illegal or illicit drug; those with alcohol use disorders; those individuals suffering from depression; Individuals who have acute emotional distress as a result of the present interpersonal conflicts or those with a chronic pain. In addition, individuals with a history of self-harm or thoughts of self-harm are within this cohort.  
Current strategies of health promotion
Currently, diverse strategies have been put in place to control and avoid self-harm and other mental health conditions –owing to the fact that they are responsible for a significant number of deaths and development of disability. Health prevention and health promotion strategies are at the forefront of the strategies that can be employed by healthcare personnel so as to control and alleviate the negating effects of mental health conditions such as suicide and self-harm. Improving economic strength is one of the strategies that can be employed to prevent suicide. Studies indicate that there are higher instances of suicide during tough economic recessions. During times of great economic turmoil, many people with mental conditions. These strategy has been effective in controlling self-harm (Amato, P., & Lucia, A., 2017)
In addition to the stated strategy, strengthening of access to suicide care is effective as a way to avoid self-harm and control mental health. Poor mental health is an associated cause of suicide. By strengthening access to suicide care, those suffering from mental health conditions have lower cases of self-harm and suicide. Access is one of the core reasons why those suffering from mental health problems do not seek urgent medical attention. Some of the approaches that are employed include: the including of mental health services in health insurance policies, increasing the number of mental health care service providers in underprivileged areas and providing higher quality care to the mental health clients. This intern leads to the more use and adoption of mental health services and reduction of depressive symptoms within the population. These strategy is working and effective in controlling and avoiding the increased severity of mental health conditions (Eldredge, L., Markham, C., Ruiter, R., Kok, G., & Parcel, G., 2016).
The adoption of a protective environment is also effective as a strategy. A protective environment for those suffering from mental health conditions, such as in the workplace, makes them feel more respected and accepted and thus helps in managing and controlling their negative thoughts of self-harm.  The rates of suicide and self-harm are higher among the middle-aged individuals. These individuals make up forty-two point six percent of the workforce. Basically, this means that by improving the type of environment within the workplace, lower instances of suicide and self-harm will be experienced. Stress in the workplace promotes instances of suicide. A safer environment has been shown to decrease suicide and self-harm (Eldredge, L., Markham, C., Ruiter, R., Kok, G., & Parcel, G., 2016).
Conclusion:
For the groups of people currently suffering from mental health conditions, such as drug and alcohol abuse and schizophrenia, the adoption of appropriate strategies with a non-judgmental stance is effective in improving the quality of life.  A positive attitude to those suffering from mental health conditions is effective in improving their quality of life at the end of the day.
Introduction:
The World Health Organization recognizes mental health by describing health as the “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition is basically intertwined with the significant effect that mental health has on the general population.
References:
Amato, P., & Lucia, A. (2017) .Service providers’ competence and cross-cultural aspects of mental health promotion for immigrant youth: A quantitative approach. The Social ION, 6(1), 12-21
Buser, T., Buser, J.  & Rutt, C. (2017). Predictors of unintentionally severe harm during nonsuicidal self?injury. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(1), 14-23
Carroll, R., Metcalfe, C., & Gunnell, D. (2014). Hospital presenting self-harm and risk of fatal and non-fatal repetition: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 9(2), e89944.
Eldredge, L., Markham, C., Ruiter, R., Kok, G., & Parcel, G. (2016). Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley & Sons
Murray, C., Barber, R. M., Foreman, K. J., Ozgoren, A. A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F. & Abu-Rmeileh, N. M. (2015). Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. The Lancet, 386(10009), 2145-2191
Organization, World Health. (2017). Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates
Walker, E., McGee, R.., & Druss, B. (2015). Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA psychiatry, 72(4), 334-341
World Health Organization, & World Health Organization. Management of Substance Abuse Unit. (2014). Global status report on alcohol and health. World Health Organization.

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