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M48CPD Clinical Leadership

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M48CPD Clinical Leadership

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M48CPD Clinical Leadership

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Course Code: M48CPD
University: Coventry University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom


A recent state-wide quality improvement project has shown that a fully electronic medication system improves the safety of medication administration. In order to share this knowledge, the state organisation has shared the results on a quality improvement website.?The two hundred bed hospital where you work has recently had some medication critical incidents. These critical incidents occur in the context of a general increase of minor medication errors over the last three years. The hospital’s most senior Nurse/ Midwifery Leader has reviewed the information on the state’s quality improvement website. The Nurse/ Midwifery Leader calls the Nurse/ Midwifery Unit Managers for a meeting and advises of the general increase in medication errors and that there is an expectation that all wards will have adopted the fully electronic medication system within six months. The electronic medication system is freely available from the government and can be installed directly onto the ward computers. Discuss how an effective Nurse/ Midwifery Unit Manager would lead this change to address this patient safety issue. 
1.The Introduction includes an expertly constructed thesis, and provides an exceptional, clear, comprehensive and concise overview of all major concepts and issues to be addressed in the body of the work. 2.Outstanding, concise discussion of reasons to adopt the fully electronic medication system3.Excellent plan of change outlined that includes milestones and time frames 4. Exceptional application of a leadership style to the plan of change. Outstanding critical evaluation and comparison with one other leadership style. 5.Exceptional, description and discussion of aspects of potential resistance and outstanding discussion of how resistance might be addressed. 6.Outstanding, clear, concise, conclusion, which includes original pertinent insights; draws upon all significant points raised in the essay and draws these together in an expert manner.


Leadership requires a transformational mind that embraces change essential in the present technological world. Medical errors remain common in the work place resulting from errors in medication, overdose, under dose, wrong prescription, and omission of patient details leading to severe cases. The challenges are brought up by the use of traditional system of medication where staff goes through files to determine the medication to be given to a specific patient. The process becomes lengthy and thus raises opportunities for discrepancies and medication errors (Elliott, Lee & Hussainy, 2016). While the latest change to electronic medication system requires resources for a successful change, the long-term benefits improve patient safety and proper administration of drugs.
The present medical world is turning towards the digital system of medication as a solution to the errors experienced in the past. According to Jha, DesRoches, Campbell, Donelan, Rao, Ferris & Blumenthal, (2009), an electronic medication management system works towards improved safety, effective, and quality medication within hospitals. Our hospital, given the high number of bed occupancy would benefit largely from the digitization of the system as it would support doctors and nurses in the prescribing, checking, ordering, reconciling, and dispensing the right drug to the patients and in the required dosage according to patient need.   
Moreover, it would assist the hospital in its decision support system as in the case of checking allergy and other evidence based medication as the progress of any patient can be monitored electronically from the time one enters the facility to the point of leaving. At the same time, the system would aid in the automatic ordering and timely supply of the hospital inventory as the information can be shared with the supplier to have the inventory arrive on time (Qian, Yu, & Haile, 2015).. Lastly, the electronic medical records would make it easier to monitor patients over a long time and tracing the previous challenges thus assist continuing and new workers in understanding illnesses and the prevalence of the same.   
Managing the Change Process
The expected change is supposed to materialize after six months where the employees are expected to have fully internalized the system and using it in their daily dispensation. The process shall involve monitoring and evaluation in its three distinct steps following the Lewin’s change model respectively.  
In managing the process, the Lewin’s model shall be used in ensuring a seamless transition where every staff becomes comfortable with the new system. The first step involves preparation of organization members to see the change as necessary in this case, the benefits of the new process shall be compared in advance to the previous and have staff examine the benefits and reduced challenges that shall ensue in the change (Hussain, Lei, Akram, Haider, Hussain & Ali, 2016). The process according to Lewin is called the ‘unfreeze’ stage where it calls for disbandment of the existing process and preparing the mind of individuals towards the expected change. The workers have to be motivated towards the change and the leader present ways to cater for their challenges. Workers not able to use the computer will have to be assured of training and support towards the adoption thus making them comfortable to the change.  
The change process begins in practical where the deliberations take off. First, workers have to be trained on the new system working by an experienced expert. Struggle with the new system is expected but will be quelled down by the support from the recruited trainers to make the change a success. During the transition, people begin to learn new cultures, communication system, and way of thought. The new system will begin to be used and workers enticed with gifts and reward for enhanced use as a motivating factor towards accepting the change. Education and communication among departments has to go on in the process of change to experience the worker feeling and adjust where necessary to cater for a successful change (Levasseur, 2001). At this stage, people have to feel part of the change and internalize it as their own meant to bring overall benefit to the groups.
Refreezing Stage
The process comes in after the change begins to take shape and employees have embraced the new working system using the electronic medical system and as such the hospital becomes ready to refreeze. At this stage, the administration can make new working structures, organization chart, job description, and shifts. The process involves monitoring and evaluation in making sure the change deliberations are used every time within the organization to experience the benefits. According to Ellis & Abbott (2018), once people begin to use the electronic system, the change would reform into part of the organization culture where any information on medication can be gotten from the same. The evaluation stage would assist in determining the improvements to be made therein towards enhancement of change and fostering quality patient care in the facility.
Transformational Leadership
Change requires the use of leadership styles that brings people closer to the change and makes them view the importance of the same towards improvement. In this case, the management shall use the transformational leadership style in carrying out the change process. The leadership style calls for inspiring the staff through effective communication and continuously seeking feedback from the workers on the process of change and creating an environment that supports carrying out the change (Iqbal, Anwar & Haider, 2015). The management change team shall communicate the need for change and have employees air out their feelings on the change. Only then shall the change process take place. The leadership style is essential as it caters and brings in the workers as interested parties in the change process thus raising the chances of its enactment (Turnnidge & Côté, 2018). Transformational leadership guarantees a change process fully accepted by workers as they become part of the changes occurring and thus increases the chances of its uptake.   
Comparison with Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leadership occurs in a set p such as the military where staff are not considered to share power with their leaders. As such, the ruling and decisions come from the top level and are expected to be carried out by the juniors without complains. Such a setup makes it difficult to embrace the change as workers would be less interested in the change as it would be beneficial to the management and not towards the lower level. Change becomes beneficial whenever the benefits are passed and fully explained to the lower level workers thus enhancing acceptability (Northouse, 2018). However, this type of ruling calls for iron fist model rarely appreciated by most staff. As a result, it may lead to a high employee turnover rate and absenteeism as well as lack of creativity since the strategic direction emanates from one quota of the organization.  
Resistance in Change
The process of change does not occur without challenges. As such, challenges are expected from the case where a number of employees used to the old systems shall resist the change at their level. The case is to be addressed through training and reward system where the workers adapting to the change shall receive rewards in varied forms thus inspiring the rest. Training shall assist in making the process simpler thus making the work interesting and less straining (Westbrook, Gospodarevskaya, Li,  Richardson, Roffe, Heywood & Graves, 2015). After workers understand the benefits and receive the necessary support, the resistance level shall be minimized.  
Change is inevitable in any future oriented organization. Technology seems to take over and bring advantage to the medical world in almost all dimensions. Adapting the change would present several benefits to the hospital in as far as its patient management is concerned. Quality and effective care bolsters organization towards attaining its goals and reducing costs incurred through errors in medication. Using the right type of leadership assists in following up the Lewin’s change model where workers get involved in the process as perceive it as own. Transformational leadership would assist the organization in introducing the electronic medication system that would uplift the operations of the medical facility.
Elliott, R. A., Lee, C. Y., & Hussainy, S. Y. (2016). Electronic prescribing and medication management at a residential aged care facility. Applied clinical informatics, 7(01), 116-127.
Ellis, P., & Abbott, J. (2018). Applying Lewin’s change model in the kidney care unit: unfreezing. Journal of Kidney Care, 3(4), 259-261. 
Hussain, S. T et al. (2016). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge.
Iqbal, N., Anwar, S., & Haider, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(5), 1-6.
Jha, A, K. et al. (2009). Use of electronic health records in US hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(16), 1628-1638.
Levasseur, R. E. (2001). People skills: Change management tools—Lewin’s change model. Interfaces, 31(4), 71-73.
Northouse, P. G. (2018). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications.
Qian, S., Yu, P., & Hailey, D. M. (2015). The impact of electronic medication administration records in a residential aged care home. International journal of medical informatics, 84(11), 966-973.
Turnnidge, J., & Côté, J. (2018). Applying transformational leadership theory to coaching research in youth sport: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(3), 327-342.
Westbrook, J.I et al. (2015). Cost-effectiveness analysis of a hospital electronic medication management system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 22(4), 784-793.

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