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ITECH5403 Comparative Programming Languages

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ITECH5403 Comparative Programming Languages

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Course Code: ITECH5403
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Since the development of Plankalkül back in the 1940s, a large number of programming languages have been designed and implemented – each for its own specific problem domains and made with its own set of design decisions and compromises. For example there are languages which:

Are strongly typed and loosely typed,
Provide support for object orientation / abstraction of data types,
Use static or dynamic scoping rules,
Provide memory management (i.e. garbage collection) or allow the developer fine-grained control over heap-allocation and recycling,
Provide closures to allow functions to be passed around like variables,
Allow easy access to array slices and those which do not,
Perform internal correctness checking of data and those which do not,
Provide diverse and comprehensive suites of built-in functionality and those with a more limited set of features,
Use pre-processors and macros to selectively expand or substitute source code, etc.

Choice and justification of interpretation/compilation method(s) to be used. 10
– Discussion of memory management and scoping features. 10
– Specification and rationale for major language features in terms of:
– Simplicity,
– Orthogonality,
– Data types,
– Syntax design,
– Support for abstraction,
– Expressivity,
– Type checking
– Exception handling, and
– Restricted aliasing.
– Discussion of the readability, writability and reliability of the language based on the language characteristics as chosen.


Comparative Programming Language design for Banking System:
Designing a language is like architecture. As nature’s rules bind an architect, likewise programming language designers are also limited by theorems of computability. Here, the characteristics of underpinning hardware are to be considered along with language used by programmers.
Here a language is designed with the problem domain of banking. This report intends to include features and functionalities suitable for banking. For this the field including what differentiates them from existing languages and programming paradigms such a functional, logical, object oriented and procedural programming is used.
In this study justification for choosing the methods, scoping features and memory management, rationale and specifications for language features are to be included. Further different reliability, writability and readability properties are also demonstrated here.
Explanation of language purpose:
As anyone who has been already used in handling big test in various multinational banks with any production assessment team, there is no language to develop insurance and banking software. This is for the software company catering insurance companies. Here, internal software is expected to be assimilated with various tools, developed to use multiple programming issues. Here numerous devices are used to depend on the problems related to windows program, mobile phone, tablet applications and website (Howland & Good, 2015). Here, the software should also be replaced over time for various purposes. This includes software to create a new system from scratch, purchasing software of vendors, switching vendors and creating in-house versions of commercially available software of banking.
The banks should be having internal libraries and various packages. This is to be used heavily, and one must identify codes from any specific bank. At last, generations must come for software engineers for the more diverse environment. Here, the banks must be embracing philosophies and include those technologies internally (Russell & Norvig, 2016). It has been allowing attracting high talents and sustaining problematic and motivating scenarios for software engineers.
Justifying the use of interpretation or compilation method to be used:
In compiled implementations, the main program gets translated to various native machine instructions. Hardware directly executes these. However, in implementing an interpreter, that program would get turned into anything else. These perform whatever actions that are needed to be called. Thus, depending on language and implementation, there are various forms of anything else. Hence, for this reason, the interpreter must be used to design the current code for the banking system (Felgentreff et al. 2015).
Hence, binary instructions for virtual machines, also known as bytecode are applicable here. Further, a tree-like representation of the central system like abstract syntax tree can be implemented here like abstract syntax tree. This must be the same for educational or prototype interpreters. Moreover, there should be tokenised representations of source programs same as Tcl. Further, there should be characters of source programs as done in TRAC and MINT.
Here, one thing complicating issues that are possible to compile or translate bytecodes to various machine instructions that are native is to be used. Hence, a successful interpreted deployment should acquire any compiler. As any compiler run in a dynamic way, this is known as an in-time compiler or JIT compiler, behind the scenes. Moreover, JITs are created for Lua, JavaScript and Java and various other languages. Here, one can possess hybrid deployment where few codes are interpreted, and apart from this some of the systems get compiled.
Thus the main advantage here is ease in learning and usages, minimising programming experiences and knowledge, allowing complicated activities to get performed in a few steps. Further, it permits simple editing and creating several of different text editors (Valverde & Solé, 2015). Besides, it will enable incorporation of extra interactive and dynamic actives in web pages. This includes running and editing of codes quickly. However, it must be reminded that interpreters have been running very slowly. Moreover, there is restricted access to various low levels and systems regarding speed optimisations. Besides, limited commands are running detailed operations over graphics.
Moreover, there are reasons to use languages complied. There are reasons behind making the current program interpreted. It must be reminded that one can see that it has been making sense to use compiled languages regarding intensive parts of any applications. Interfaces like invoking applications and various less-intensive are written in interpreted languages. It is also suited for different ad hoc requests and prototyping applications. The tasks of a designer, here, is to measure the pros and cons of every language. This is to decide what specific language has best-served part of an application.
Memory management and scoping features:
The memory model is the characteristic of writing and not its implementation. Through getting interpreted is a component of execution and not any language. Here the scheme of programming language comprises of automatic memory management. This has several dozens of applications that are interpreted. However, there some of effective native-code of compilers has been PLT Scheme, Gambit and Larency including interpreters and JIT compiler making various seamless transitions.
Memory management:
Here, manual memory management has been consisting of legacy features that are commonly used to be compatible with various legacy codes. These legacy codes are mature to have native-code compilers typically (Ancona et al., 2016). Here, multiple languages have been defined through any implementation. This is simpler to create interpreters than to design any compilers. This is easy to implement secure and automatic memory management for interpretations and then to deploy automatic memory-management that are of high-performance. Hence the languages get their definition from the first implementations, correlating automatic memory with the descriptions. The reason is that in interpreted setting, this implementation is simpler.
Moreover, manual memory management can be used for rising performance levels. Furthermore, it is seen that automatic memory management is speedy than manual memory management. However, this needs about twice the memory. Hence, the manual memory management is generally used for tiny devices. Here the memories are scare. In large huge data centres, doubling memory is costly. As there are concerns regarding for performance one generally finds native-code compilers instead of any interpretation.
Scoping features:
It must be reminded that an essential characteristic of the variable its name’s scope. This would be referring to the section of the program that any variable should be relying on to label the similar unit of storage. According to technical language, scopes are the parts of the applications where the name gets bounds by the same entity. This is the subtle point of what is meant by part of a program. Here, the most straightforward plan is the unit of code marked due to the text of the program. This is the block of text, functions or any module. It has been corresponding to the most common definition of scope also known as lexical scope. Here, the variable is known as A in a function and is clear that they share similar named (Clark, Sammut & Willans, 2015). However, they behave shares the same values. As the scope of name involves both services, they share similar values. As the scope of every title is limited to different functions, they are different variables saving the same name. Here, the challenges at the point of discussion are that few programmers have never encountered the concept of scope. This is because various languages have tried and making things as comfortable as possible. Hence the idea has never been occurring beyond the basics. In the current case of banking, scripting languages are the natural ways of working. Here, every variable defined has been used around the program. Here, the most natural way to work is to have each variable available for use throughout the program. The variables used are known as global. Further scope of the global variable of the complete program. Here the extent can be regarded as a small idea.
Describing significant features of the current programming language:
The present programming language is intended to be simple. This must be providing programmers with a simple, clear and unified set of ideas. This must be grasped easily. This overall simplicity should be affecting readability written that language. This is useful in maintaining. Moreover, this is easy to implement and develop an interpreter of this banking programming language. Power required for this language must never be sacrificed for simplicity (McLean, 2014).
This programming language must not affect other words. While assessing data storage, length of time data is kept within the storage system, known as persistence. Besides, orthogonal persistence describes situations where developers treat data similarity. This is done without the length of time data is kept within storage.
Data types:
Data types are limited or blocked area. This area is confined to store a few specific items. Here, to this programming language. For example, data types of integer type can store an integer value. As any variable is defined as an integer, it can store integer value only. These data types are kind of data or, in other words, a category of data used for the program. This should be anything from integer type to Boolean (Spyropoulou et al., 2015). They should reveal; the data to be inserted or utilised. Here data types are vital in programming languages. Hence the memory to be stored in a specific data can be saved. Moreover, data types ask memory management unit how much requirement of mind it has comprised of before it gets compiled.
The syntax is a vital factor here, as it makes the difference to write clear code. This is mysterious and unable to decipher instead of comments and is clear-cut. Syntaxes must be explaining the purposes of grammar to explain any program to any human. Structure in an application must be made explicit with the language especially. Here, the language must be concise. This must be adding to this explanation and merely obscuring that explanation (Zhang, 2017)
Further, the syntax must be conforming. These are various things that people have been learned daily. These things should not be unlearnt forcefully. This confuses explanations for non-experts.
Figure 1: “Example of class named BankAccount”
(Source: Lierler, Y., 2014, page number 1 to 22)
Support for abstraction:
It is one of the primary ideas in this programming language. Here, the primary aim is to control complexity by hiding various unnecessary details from users. It has been helping users to deploy more complicated logic over to provide abstraction. This is done without knowing and thinking about every hidden complicacy.
Further, this is a generic idea and never restricted to this programming. Here, objects would be providing abstraction hiding details of internal implementations. The methods of the objects needed to call and input parameters are required to trigger particular operations. However, one never requires knowing how this method gets implemented and what kind of actions this has been performing to generate expected results.
For example, in the current case, abstraction strategy can decompose activities on the base of functional responsibilities. This is illustrated through the following diagram:
Figure 2: “Data Flow analysis for Bank Account System”
(Source: Kultsova et al., 2015, page number: 767-777)
Figure 3: “Try-Ctach Example”
Source: (Bielik, Raychev & Vechev, 2015)
The present programming for banking must be utilised for translating. They should be expressing their concepts in natural language. The working should be done with mathematics notations. Next, flowcharts and pseudo-codes are to be written.
At last the final writing of the programming must be done. Here, translations are needed since every language has been offering distinct abilities. This natural language should be readable and expressive. Here, pseudo-code is more precise in nature and notion of math must be concise.
Further, the code has to be executable.
Moreover, the price of translation is restricted to various ideas of subsets that can be expressed in multiple languages. Furthermore, the concepts are easy concerning expressing computationally. These are awkward to write with math notation. These symbolic manipulations are done in math that is impossible for most of the programming languages.
For example, for the current scenario, elegant solutions that can be regarded as the instance of the class is illustrated hereafter. It explains how to extend the program for working at multiple branches.
Figure 4: “Instance of class”
(Source: Anderson et al., 2015)
Type checking:
The type checking is the simple test to type errors to govern the program. This is to be done through compiler while executing the program. This activity assures operands that are compatible. This is legal for operators and allowed under various rules of languages. This can be converted implicitly through compiler generated codes for right types. Here, this kind of automatic conversation is also called coercion.
This automatic conversation is known as coercion. However, this can be done in two ways.

Static type checking

 It should have been done during compilation. Through using this kind of languages, one is enforced to declare variable type prior they are used. Further, the compiler needs to know what variety of data types has the variables belong to.

Dynamic type checking

 Here, dynamic type checking has been done during runtime. As these languages are used, one requires to specific or declare variable type. This must be done as the compiler itself figures out what kind of variable is done as one assigns the value first.

Figure 5: “Comparison of Types”
(Source: Harper, 2017)
Exception handling:
It must be reminded that exception is the run-time error. This interrupts normal flow to execute programs. There are disruptions while execution goes on. These errors are further categorised into two parts.  The first one is compile-time errors like syntax errors and semantic errors. Then there is a runtime error. Here the robust programming must be handling every exception and then continue with the normal flow of executing a program. The current programming language should be providing inbuilt exceptional handling method (Luxton-Reilly et al., 2018).
Further, an exception handler is the set of code handling any exception. Moreover, these exceptions can be controlled through try and catch. Apart from this, try catch block is the typical code going beyond the neighbourhood. Besides, catch block the error with the regular system. His has been going into that block handling.
Figure 6: “Example of User-Defined Exceptions)
(Source: Bremler-Barr, Harchol & Hay, 2016)
Restricted aliasing:
Restrict keyword is considered as the extension towards strict the rule of aliasing. This is helpful for programmers for declaring pointers that share similar types that never alias with others. Through using restrict, the programmers can declare loads and stores with qualified pointers. This can be done through another pointer that is copied directly and indirectly from any restricted pointers (Bau et al., 2017). These are the stores and loads addressing similar challenges of the lifetime of the pointer goes on. These pointers are aliased through pointers instead of individual copies. Here, restrict the no data hazards that are created. This takes place as the contact between compiler and programmer. Here, compilers have been depending on information to create optimisations. As the data gets aliased, the outcomes ate undefined, and programmers are not expected to compile in spite of any warning. Here compilers assumers that programmer is not making any lie.
Reliability, writability and readability on the language based on language characteristics:
The term is applicable for this programming language in a meaningful manner. They are reliable, and many of them have been encouraging that. However, the current programming language has been by default stable. Here, words helping reliability has been existing. The first type is Haskell. Here the system is powerful, and there are various ways to debate as the current program is to be used purely functionally (Giang et al., 2015). Here the depth to understand s to write down Haskell program forces. Here, the programmers are to be meticulous and knowledgeable. Next, the scheme of precise and regular nature of language should encourage correctness of the code. Then there is Erlang. Here the motivation of language and runtime has to generate hugely and fault tolerance systems such that it might work well.
Many languages can be taken as an instance here. They possess unintuitive semantics and is highly illogical like PERL, PHP and JavaScript. They have not been boding well concerning reliability code which is written with those languages. Further, robust type systems have always been encouraging code reliability. Here, most of the errors are type errors (Kensek, 2015). Also, dynamic typing is useful here. However, this has not been unreliable. Besides, it must be reminded that low-level languages have been comprising of various features such as manual memory management, pointers and then an absence of runtime checks that are harder to write all those strong programs. Besides, traditional lock-based programming used in multi-threads is the tool used for shooting to foot quite helpfully. Here, as far as portability is concerned, there no actual, compilation. Moreover, there are to be run on every platform.
It is the measurement of how simple this programming language can be utilised. This intends o create programs for any specific problem domain. Here most of the language characteristics has been affecting readability as they impact writability. It has been followed directly by the fact that procedure of writing the program. This needs programmers top re-read that section of the program that is written already. It can also be considered under the context of the targeted problem domain of any language. This has been merely having not been reasonable as compared to the writability of two words under the realm of specific application. This takes place as it is designed for the use (Benton & Radziwill, 2016). Moreover, the vital characteristic influencing the writability of that language can be consisting of various things.
Further, this includes simplicity and orthogonality. As the language comprises of a considerable number of distinct constructs, few programmers have not been familiar with everything of them. Here, the case has been leading to misuse of various features. Besides, disuse of others has been more elegant and more efficient along with those that are used (Lewis, 2017). This has been possible for unknown functions that have been happening accidentally having bizarre results. Hence this has been possible to utilise those unknown elements accidentally having strange outcomes. Thus same types of primitive constructs and constant set of rules to combine them have been better than merely to a considerable number of primitives. Here, programmers can design solutions for complex problems as they learn a simple set of initial ideas. Here, too much orthogonality has been a detriment for writability. Here, errors in programs go undetected as they nearly combine primitives to be legal. It has been leading to absurdities in code that cannot be discovered by interpreters. Then there must be support regarding abstraction. Here, abstraction has been meaning the ability to define and utilise complex structures or operations to allow various details to get ignored.
Moreover, an idea has been allowing programming design methods. Here, a degree of concept has been permitted programming language and this naturalness of the expressions. This has very vital or writability (Crick et al., 2017). This programming language has been supporting two different categories of data, processes and abstraction. This overall support for the concept has been an essential factor as far as writability of any language is concerned. Lastly, there is expressivity of languages for various characteristics. This is a language such as APL. This indicates that different dominant operators have been allowing a great deal of computation to get accomplished with small programs. Here, it has meant languages that have been relatively convenient, instead of being cumbersome. This is a way towards specifying computations.
Stating precisely, readability is not the actual characteristic of programming language. However, the programs have written in those languages. These are the languages that never permits to develop regular programs. Thus they can design unreadable programs of all kinds of languages. Here, readability is the property specifying how easy one can make sense various parts of programs that are not written. Moreover, this programming langue can provide various facilities to create programs. This is simple to understand. Here, for instance, ability to name particular things and not having some additional things has been accounting to readability (Caceffo et al., 2016). Besides, to be more specific, languages such as Bash has been made obstacles for naming parameters to different functions. This impedes the capability of writing regular programs. Further, another thing accounting readability has never concerned languages. However, this has been cultured across languages. Here, for instance, culture might provide hints with regards to way different kinds of everyday things that are needed to get exposed. It is to be determined whether the culture has been promoting the use of unit tests. Besides, the culture has been promoting the use of names impossible to pronounce and provide hints regarding the references (Randmets, 2017). Unlike human beings, who learn languages through mimicking, the program is to be written. This should be resembling other programs that are not seen. This is the reason why exposure is to do to regular programs that are vital to learning programs.
The above study shows that without any doubt, interpreted languages are easy to design, develop and learn. However, for the current programming language designs, parsers and lexers are to be considered. Different valid arguments are provided in the report that is for and against writing the own. As one thinks of design and sensibly deploy all the things, this is what matters. However, it must be kept in mind, that motivation and time for implementing common usage language. The study shows how to apply an esoteric language for this banking purposes. Further, those interpreters must be short as a few hundred lines. It must be reminded, that it is impossible to learn about all kind of libraries that are related to programming languages. Here, though it is a good practice for programmers to make oneself familiar with others as possible. Ultimately, the programmer must understand that it takes lots of commitments and times.
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