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ITC254 Wireless Networks

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ITC254 Wireless Networks

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Course Code: ITC254
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia


1. Different antenna, such as yagi, horn, and cellular antennas, etc. has different merits. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. Provide an opinion regarding which antenna types will become the dominant players in the future of medium- and long-distance wireless links.
2. A local engineering group ask you to present your finding of the most recent advanced wireless technologies. Research any 3 different wireless network protocols in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. What security challenges they are facing? Provide a report of your opinion.
3.Read the following two research papers, please give your critical reflection on the topic of the software-defined wireless network.


An antenna is characterized as a variety of components which are associated with transmitters or collectors. Antenna delivered some electromagnetic influence keeping in mind the end goal to produce an electric current. The principal antenna was created by Heinrich Hertz in the year 1888 and he was delivered dipole antenna which can be utilized for both transmitter and beneficiary. The antenna wire is portrayed as a transducer which is used to change over RF repeat into pivoting current. It can be used for both transmitter and beneficiary circuits to transmits and get banner or information. There is the various employees of an accepting wire, for instance, in WLAN, phone, TV, satellite correspondence, and in the military for correspondence. Radio waves are included EM waves that pass on information or banner by means of air at the speed of light. A transmitter is a kind of antenna which is used to transmit a signal from one location to another and receiver is used to receive this transmitted information. The main concept if the transmitter is that converts radio waves into electrical signals (Taminiau, Stefani, & Hulst, 2008).
There are numerous kinds of antennas accessible in showcase in which three sorts of reception apparatus’ are extremely helpful, for example, yagi-uda antenna, horn antenna, and cell phone antenna.
Yagi-Uda Antenna
Yagi-Uda reception apparatus is otherwise called a yagi-uda RF receiving the wire and this sort of radio wire is utilized where the high scope of pick up and directivity is required. This kind of radio wire is exceptionally prominent for TV and the primary favorable position of this reception apparatus is that it can give high increase motion to the recipient. Yagi-Uda is a most fundamental sort of accepting wire which is used on TV from the latest couple of years. The key favored angle of this getting wire is that is surrendering a high pick of the data banner and high directivity. The repeat extent of yagi-uda accepting wire is appropriate around 30 MHz to 3GHz. There are three segments of this accepting wire, for instance, administrators, reflector, and driven (Kuwahara, 2008).
Figure: yagi-uda antenna

(Source: Kuwahara, 2008).

extremely Easy to handle and control
Give High Gain
The directivity of this antenna is especially high
small power consumption
The frequency of this transmitter is extremely high (Hofmann, Kosako, & Kadoya, 2007).


preservation price is incredibly high
Prone to blare
This antenna depends upon climate situation (Alhalabi, & Rebeiz, 2009).

Horn antenna
The main horn antenna was created in the year 1897 and it is one of the oldest types of an antenna whose shape resembles a horn. Horn reception apparatus is used to Increase the radiation efficiency and get off the electron shaft. The recurrence scope of horn reception apparatus is 400 MHz to 40 GHz and offer up to 1 kW power. There are three sorts of horn gathering mechanical assembly used in correspondence, for instance, sectorial horn, rectangular horn, and cone formed horn. Horns receiving wires are used at high-repeat application, used as a feed part, and moreover used to choose the particular parameter of the radio wires. This kind of receiving wire can be utilized to exchange radio signs from a waveguide out into air and space and it was framed by round and hollow metal tube in the state of the horn. The primary reason for this shape is to create a number of RF waves at once (Kazemipour, Hudli?ka, Dickhoff, Salhi, Kleine & Schrader, 2014).
Figure: Horn antenna

(Source: Kazemipour, Hudli?ka, Dickhoff, Salhi, Kleine & Schrader, 2014)

The corresponding impedance of this antenna is especially high-quality rather than yagi-uda
Generate high directivity
Horn antenna required small lobes
Decreased standing waves ratio
Slim beam breadth (Cai, Qian, Zhang, Jin, & Cao, 2014).


flicker angle of this antenna is extremely high
This is very multifaceted to design
Protection cost is very high (Qi, Tang, Ma, Pan, Tao, Sun, & Cui, 2015).

Cellular Antenna
Cellular antenna is extraordinary compared to other reception apparatuses which are regularly utilized in cell phones. It is additionally called as a mobile phone receiving a wire that gives high pick up and intensified flag at the collector. At the point when any individual exchange motion starting with one area then onto the next then there are numerous misfortunes happen through which quality of flag can be diminished so to enhance the quality of flag this sort of receiving wires are utilized. There are numerous uses of this type of antenna, for example, in TV, PDAs, for military correspondence and for satellite correspondence (Malicki, & Johnson, 2017).
Figure: cellular antenna

(Source: Maliki, & Johnson, 2017)

the capability of this antenna is extremely high
compact overall interfering
The frequency variation of this antenna is extremely large rather than other antennas
short extend power
additional accurate (Zhao, Zhang, Ishimiya, Ying, & He, 2015).


This antenna needed infrastructure process
Needed handover systems
This is very complex to implement (Hong, Baek, Lee, Kim, & Ko, 2014).

These whole three reception apparatuses can be utilized for correspondence reason yet in which cell receiving wire is extraordinary compared to other antennas since this radio wire can be sued for long separation correspondence. In future cell phone antenna can be utilized in every cell phone and issue of range can be lessened by expanding generally recurrence extend. Accordingly, individuals can utilize these antennas for individual uses and cell receiving wire can be utilized for versatile correspondence.
2.Wireless network
Wireless network refers to an innovation in which flag or information can be exchanged from transmitter to recipient without electric links. In this innovation, there is no association amongst transmitter and collector that implies the two sources does not require any interfacing wires. Wireless networks are also called computer networks which are not connected by any wire or cable that means the transmitter and receiver are not connected by any electric wires and cables. The use of wireless technology increased overall efficiency and productivity of many computer systems and devices. Wireless network protocols use radio wave signals to transfer data from one device to another peripheral device (Zhang, Wang, Cai, Zheng, Shen, & Xie, 2015).
Wireless network protocols
There are many types of wireless networks protocols available in the market which are following

Zigbee and Z-wave

LTE is defined as long-term evolution which is one of the latest advanced versions of cellular network protocols. Before LTE there are many other wireless network system is used such as GPRS, EV-DO, and HSDPA but LTE changed the way of communication. In this modern technology, the much mobile organization is using this technology in smartphones because this protocol increased the speed of data transfer and improved efficacy of peripheral devices. The main objective of this protocol is to improve low data rate and reduce roaming problems of older network protocols. This protocol can provide more than 100 Mb per second and it cannot be used for home and local area networks (Liu, Kato, Ma, & Kadowaki, 2015).
Figure: LTE

(Source: Liu, Kato, Ma, & Kadowaki, 2015)

It can support both data signals and voice
Support MIMO
Provide high data rate
More efficient
Large bandwidth
High in speed rather than other cellular network protocols


Complex to design
Maintenance cost is very large
Limited and not applicable for all devices

This is the current wireless network protocol which decreased the disadvantages of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. It is characterized as IEEE 802.15.4 which give an abnormal state correspondence framework that delivers individual zone systems. This is more affordable and more effective as opposed to Wi-Fi convention. The recurrence scope of this convention is from 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz. This type of network protocol can be used for home automation which provides a platform to monitor and control lights, peripheral devices and home appliances (Laya, Alonso, & Alonso, 2014).
Figure: Zigbee

(Source: Laya, Alonso, & Alonso, 2014)

small power utilization
This is extremely simple in creation
Zigbee is awfully simple to monitor and control


This type of procedure want acquaintance of networks
This is incredibly high in price
fewer safe and sound rather than Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi alludes as wireless fidelity that can be utilized for wireless correspondence and the recurrence scope of this convention is from 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz. In this convention two gadgets or PC framework are associated through Wi-Fi hotspot and after that clients can send or get any information’s. The IEEE group of this convention is 802.11. Wi-Fi can be used for a small distance in a particular office and in the building but due to low-frequency range, this cannot be used for long distance communication (Choi, Lim, & Sabharwal, 2015).
Figure: Wi-Fi

(Source: Choi, Lim, & Sabharwal, 2015)

Increased mobility
More convenience rather than Bluetooth
Low cost


Low-frequency range
Low reliability
Cannot be used for all peripheral devices
Less secure
Slow in speed as compared to wired networks protocol

Security challenges faced in wireless network protocols
There are much security challenged faced in wireless network protocol which is following

Signal transmits in the air so data can be easily hacked
Wireless information can be fracture down from any end
antenna nodes remain unattended which is one of the major trouble in the security of data or information
Wireless data can be simply hacked so information can be lost at every movement
The receiver does not receive correct signal or information due to many sounds and wounded
Ad-hoc is one of the ordinary exertions for all wireless network systems (Vissicchio, Vanbever, Cittadini, Xie, & Bonaventure, 2017).

3.Software-Defined Wireless Network
Critical reflection of journal papers
Article 1
The title of this investigation paper is Software Defined Wireless Networks: A Survey of Issues and Solutions that was composed by Rangisetti, A. K., and Tamma, B. R. According to the maker, remote frameworks are defying various challenges in correspondence. I agreed that point in light of the fact that there are various challenges looked by remote frameworks, for instance, security, nature of organizations, and low capability. I watched that the essential issue in a remote system framework is security. The reason behind this issue is that there are various progressions that give a hacking system to our banner or information, by which we lost our data. I figure it can be settled by using data encryption framework. This methodology gives a security of our banner and gives an honest to goodness yield at authority (Sun, Gong, Rong, & Lu, 2015).
In this paper, we have observed that software-defined networks play a significant role in the development of mobile network systems. We explained network function virtualization and the role of mobile edge computing in the field of wireless mobile networks. Therefore we can use software-defined networks to increase data rate and efficiency of mobile networks systems.  
Article 2
The title of this journal paper is architecture for software-defined wireless networking that was engraved via Carlos J. Bernardos, Antonio de la Oliva, Pablo Serrano, Albert Banchs, Luis M. Contreras, Hao Jin, and Juan Carlos Zuniga. In this paper, maker analyzed frameworks organization and challenges looked in remote frameworks organization (Bernardos, Oliva, Serrano, Banchs, Contreras, Jin, and Zúñiga, 2014). In this paper, we yield to an SDN technique for portable frameworks which is a cutting-edge advancement of wired frameworks. We have watched that security is the essential issue for all correspondence structure, However when we trade data beginning with one region then onto the following using remote frameworks organization than we lost the security of data. In any case, to avoid this issue we can use programming portrayed arranging for a correspondence structure. We have moreover discussed different sorts of remote frameworks and their inclinations and obstacles (Sun, Gong, Rong, & Lu, 2015).
Virtualization of the system also provides a platform to increase the speed of data signal as compared to traditional methods. In this modern technology, there are many mobile networks developed through which we can transmit signals from the very long distance and we also increased the overall efficiency of information systems. All these things can change the way of communication and many wireless networks protocols reduced cost and charges. There are many new mechanisms and processes which are already developed and adopted by which we can move in advanced technology such as sharing of network systems and infrastructure to decrease price, virtualization of wireless servers which can increase the data rate of signals, and dynamic energy strategies and policies that can reduce electricity and water bills. According to this paper, it is not easy to develop new wireless networks system due to elevated belief on proprietary. In this article, we discussed networks and use of wireless networks system in information systems. We propose a large level architecture system using software-defined network system and people can use this technology to transfer data or information from one location to another. In this, we explained the architecture of software-defined networks and their interface system with wireless networks (Sun, Gong, Rong, & Lu, 2015).
Alhalabi, R. A., & Rebeiz, G. M. (2009). High-gain Yagi-Uda antennas for millimeter-wave switched-beam systems. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 57(11), 3672-3676.
Cai, Y., Qian, Z. P., Zhang, Y. S., Jin, J., & Cao, W. Q. (2014). Bandwidth enhancement of SIW horn antenna loaded with the air-via perforated dielectric slab. IEEE Antennas and wireless propagation letters, 13, 571-574.
Choi, W., Lim, H., & Sabharwal, A. (2015). Power-controlled medium access control protocol for full-duplex WiFi networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(7), 3601-3613.
Hofmann, H. F., Kosako, T., & Kadoya, Y. (2007). Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna. New Journal of Physics, 9(7), 217.
Hong, W., Baek, K. H., Lee, Y., Kim, Y., & Ko, S. T. (2014). Study and prototyping of practically large-scale mmWave antenna systems for 5G cellular devices. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(9), 63-69.
Kazemipour, A., Hudli?ka, M., Dickhoff, R., Salhi, M., Kleine-Ostmann, T., & Schrader, T. (2014). The horn antenna as a Gaussian source in the mm-wave domain. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves, 35(9), 720-731.
Kuwahara, Y. (2008). Multiobjective optimization design of Yagi-Uda antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 53(6), 1984-1992.
Laya, A., Alonso, L., & Alonso-Zarate, J. (2014). Is the Random Access Channel of LTE and LTE-A Suitable for M2M Communications? A Survey of Alternatives. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 16(1), 4-16.
Liu, J., Kato, N., Ma, J., & Kadowaki, N. (2015). Device-to-device communication in LTE-advanced networks: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(4), 1923-1940.
Malicki, J. J., & Johnson, C. A. (2017). The cilium: cellular antenna and a central processing unit. Trends in cell biology, 27(2), 126-140.
Qi, M. Q., Tang, W. X., Ma, H. F., Pan, B. C., Tao, Z., Sun, Y. Z., & Cui, T. J. (2015). Suppressing side-lobe radiations of horn antenna by loading metamaterial lens. Scientific reports, 5, 9113.
Sun, S., Gong, L., Rong, B., & Lu, K. (2015). An intelligent SDN framework for 5G heterogeneous networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(11), 142-147.
Taminiau, T. H., Stefani, F. D., & van Hulst, N. F. (2008). Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna. Optics Express, 16(14), 10858-10866.
Vissicchio, S., Vanbever, L., Cittadini, L., Xie, G. G., & Bonaventure, O. (2017). Safe update of hybrid SDN networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), 25(3), 1649-1662.
Zhang, R., Wang, M., Cai, L. X., Zheng, Z., Shen, X., & Xie, L. L. (2015). LTE-unlicensed: the future of spectrum aggregation for cellular networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 22(3), 150-159.
Zhao, K., Zhang, S., Ishimiya, K., Ying, Z., & He, S. (2015). Body-insensitive multimode MIMO terminal antenna of the double-ring structure. IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, 63(5), 1925-1936.

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