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ISY3005 Knowledge Management

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ISY3005 Knowledge Management

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Course Code: ISY3005
University: Australian Institute Of Higher Education

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Country: Australia

Question:
Write about the case study of World Bank(US).
Look out for
• Key trends• Positive and negative factors• Ask yourself the what, when, where, how and why• Any charts or exhibits included with the case
Identify all problems/issues
Create a mind map or concept diagram to group and track the issues demonstrating relationships between issues/problems.From your mind map the major problem should become clearer. The major problem/issue is the one that once resolved will minimise or alleviate the other problems. 
Answer:

Introduction
Knowledge Management (KM) refers to the steps involved in the identification, collection, storage and sharing implicit, explicit and tacit information within and outside an organisation. Most organisations use the intranet to gather and disseminate information. Sources of knowledge include corporate announcements, blog spots, videos and news articles (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2014). However, companies are now turning to the internet as a means of advancing their knowledge management capabilities. As a scientific discipline, the application of knowledge management is theories such as organisational, ecological and tacit. The study examines the best ways at which the World Bank can advance its knowledge management activities by incorporating the contribution of external partners (Uden, Hadzima, & Ting, 2018).
Background
The World Bank not only focus on the provision of financial services to reduce poverty, especially in developing countries. The bank acknowledges the importance of knowledge in fulfilling its goals and objectives. Although World Bank has been using the intranet to manage the flow of information in the organisation, the approach was more centralised which hindered a seamless flow of information between the head office and field officer. Generally, it would take at least one day before a field officer gets a response on an urgent matter from the head office. Moreover, external partners were not involved in collecting and sharing of information on the effective ways of improving the living conditions of people globally (Uden, Hadzima, & Ting, 2018). The bank seeks to advance the application of knowledge management in its daily operation by incorporating personal experiences of other individuals.
Key Issues and Problem
The World Bank wants to bring about radical changes in its knowledge management system. However, the bank is facing challenges on how best to combine the contribution of external parties and organisational goals to provide the best financial and non-financial solutions to the customers. The organisation seeks to improve its knowledge management activities by using the internet and social media platforms. However, some countries are reluctant towards allowing internet within its jurisdiction citing security issues. Others lack the necessary infrastructures. The World Bank is faced with three key issues that need to be addressed. First, identifying potential interventions for the next phase of growth of its knowledge management activities. Second, how best to apply knowledge management to core business activities. And three, identifying how knowledge would be used to help customers in developing countries strategically.
Relevant theories to address problems
Three prevailing theories present approaches that can be applied by World Bank to handle knowledge management and processes. First, organisational knowledge management theory examines the structure of an organisation and how they can be designed hierarchically and culturally to manage knowledge. Second, Ecological knowledge management theory focuses on the relationships that bring individuals together. The theory focuses on the connections that bring people, thematic groups, communities, and organisations together (Dalkir, 2013). Ecological KM theory states that there must exist both internal and external factors that push people to come together and share knowledge and experiences. And third, Techno-centric theory address the established technological processes that support the store and flow of information between the organisation and its clients. The three theories clearly show that knowledge management involves people, technology and processes (Palacios-Marqués, 2015).
Mind Map/ Concept Diagram
Mid Map refers to a diagrammatic presentation of a concept. Mind Map links the identified problems to the proposed solutions. The knowledge management at World Bank can be presented using a mind map as shown below.

Problem-Solving Objectives
The three key issues/ problems can be solved as illustrated below.
Identifying potential interventions for the next phase of growth of knowledge management activities.
World Bank already has a traditional culture that supports both internal and external sharing of knowledge. First, the organisation has a satellite technology that promotes global communication. And second, World Bank has over 100 thematic groups that support creation and sharing of information. The next phase of knowledge management should focus on developing IT infrastructures. With the advancement of internet, the World Bank should turn to social media platforms as mediums of sharing knowledge. Social media platforms would ensure effective and global sharing of knowledge (Cordes-Berszinn, 2013). Likewise, the World Bank should conduct an independent review of its knowledge management processes and interventions to identify areas that need improvement. The improvement would allow the company to align KM with its core business activities. World Bank should use traditional technologies such as customer care offices and 24-hour hotlines in areas where customers have no access to the internet. Traditional technologies would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of handling inquiries from customers (Talamo & Bonanomi, 2015).
Applying knowledge management on core business activities.
The four activities under KM are knowledge; creation, translation, mobilisation, and transfer. Each activity plays an important role in fulfilling the World Bank’s core business activities.
Knowledge Creation
Knowledge creation refers to the transfer, combination, and conversion of information. World Bank should employ right KM strategies that align with its business strategy. First, the World Bank should develop personalising strategy that supports knowledge exchange between its employees. The organisation should support the culture of communication through learning and apprenticeship. Therefore, the World Bank should recruit employees from different cultures and backgrounds to support diversified sharing of information/ knowledge. Second, the World Bank should develop shared visions and team learning that encourage learning from one another (Guchait, Lei, & Tews, 2016).
Knowledge Mobilisation
Knowledge mobilisation refers to using research to make decisions. First, the World Bank should identify its end users as a way of saving resources. Forming a relationship with end users allows the World Bank to conduct relevant knowledge-based researches that are relevant to the end users. Second, the World Bank should frequently update end users with the latest information that is relevant to the situation facing them (McInerney & Koenig, 2011).
Knowledge transfer
Knowledge refers to the act of transferring information from one user, situation or pace to another. World Bank can apply two ways to improve knowledge transfer. First, the organisation should improve its global help desk system. Liaison offices should be established to facilitate constant communication between the headquarter and branches. Likewise, the World Bank should put help desk run by professional in place to provide reliable advice to the customers. Second, knowledge should be leveraged to eliminate reinvention and duplication (Edwards, 2016).
Knowledge translation
Knowledge translation refers to presenting knowledge in simple ways that can easily be understood by different users. World Bank should train its expertise working in different cultures the importance of using tools such as stories to communicate with customers. The stories used should relate to specific problems facing the audience (Henderson, 2003).
Identifying how knowledge would be used to strategically help customers in developing countries.
Three interventions can be used by the World Bank to help customers in developing countries strategically. First, the World Bank should provide professional guidance to such customers. The customers should be provided with guidelines for applying the knowledge provided by the bank. Likewise, the knowledge manager should allocate to each client to help with understanding the knowledge as well as monitor the client’s application of the knowledge (Massaro & Garlatti, 2015).
Second, the World Bank should facilitate exchange training programs for employees in developing countries. Exchange training programs will help employees from developing countries to advance their management skills in developed countries. Interacting with experienced employees from developed countries help in sharing knowledge and adopt advanced technology which would improve the seamless flow of information back home. Likewise, the World Bank should send its experienced employees to developing countries to practically solve knowledge management problems (O’Brien, 2010).
Third, the World Bank should forge long term relationship with governments of developing countries. Supportive government policies will help to implement and promote World Bank projects. A good relationship with the government allows the World Bank to get closer to the potential customers (Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2014).
World Bank KM Implementation/Action Plan

Tasks and Topics

Brief Description

Benefits

Level of required resources

Writing the processes

Writing down the key steps of the KM

The method is stable; offer quick references and involve capturing routine tasks

Low

Process formalization

Using both manual and automated methods to complete specific steps

Important when completing tasks that involve many users.

Medium

Expert system

Applying experts to analyse and make judgment on collected information

Support creation of models that support complex decision making

High

On the Job Learning

Filling key positions

Experienced employees work together with new employees

Support training new employees to handle key positions

Low

Cross training

Using employees from developed countries to train employees from developing countries on handling overlapping jobs

Help in developing knowledge diversification at low costs

Medium

Communities of Practice

Regular communication between employees handling similar jobs

Help to bring together employees from different background and cultures to share ideas

Medium

Sharing experience

Storytelling

Employees are brought together through thematic groups to share their daily experiences and challenges that face them at work

Employees hold tact knowledge on World Bank operations which can be shared effectively using storytelling techniques.

High

Developing leaders

Rotation program

Selecting employees to work in different departments within the organisation

Support exposure to leadership traits

High

Leadership Program

Selecting employees to undergo leadership programs

Support exposure to leadership traits

High

References
Becerra-Fernandez, I., & Sabherwal, R. (2014). Knowledge Management: Systems and Processes. London: Routledge.
Cordes-Berszinn, P. (2013). Dynamic Capabilities: How Organisational Structures Affect Knowledge Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Dalkir, K. (2013). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
Edwards, J. S. (2016). The Essentials of Knowledge Management. London: Springer.
Guchait, P., Lei, P., & Tews, M. J. (2016). Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness. The Journal of Psychology.
Henderson, R. I. (2003). Compensation Management in a Knowledge-Based World (9th ed ed.). Upper Saddle River: New Jersey.
Massaro, M., & Garlatti, A. (2015). ECKM2015-16th European Conference on Knowledge Management: ECKM 2015. California: Academic Conferences and publishing limited.
McInerney, C. R., & Koenig, M. E. (2011). Knowledge Management (KM) Processes in Organizations: Theoretical Foundations and Practice. San Rafael, California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers.
O’Brien, E. (2010). Knowledge Management for Process, Organizational and Marketing Innovation: Tools and Methods: Tools and Methods. Alberta: Idea Group Inc.
Palacios-Marqués, D. (2015). New Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management in Organizations: 5th Global Innovation and Knowledge Academy Conference, GIKA 2015, Valencia, Spain, July 14-16, 2015, Proceedings. London: Springer.
Talamo, C., & Bonanomi, M. (2015). Knowledge Management and Information Tools for Building Maintenance and Facility Management. London: Springer.
Uden, L., Hadzima, B., & Ting, I.-H. (2018). Knowledge Management in Organizations: 13th International Conference, KMO 2018, Žilina, Slovakia, August 6–10, 2018, Proceedings. London: Springer.

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