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INT235 International Relations Theory And Practice

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INT235 International Relations Theory And Practice

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INT235 International Relations Theory And Practice

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Course Code: INT235
University: University Of The Sunshine Coast

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Country: Australia

Question: 
1. Please select one idea or perspective and provide an evidence-based counterargument, using scholarly sources on IR theories, your own critical thinking and, if appropriate, your own experience.
 
Slice 1After the proposed industrial action was suspended by the Fair Work Commission, both parties adopted a pluralist approach where the role of unions advances the interests of employees but accepts the responsibility to compromise, while management is to achieve organisational goals in a way that reconciles conflicting interests. Conflict is seen as a resolvable outcome of the employment relationship (Bray et al., 2018). There was genuine fair bargaining with the first offer of 2.75% rejected but the counter offer of 3% was accepted.Had the parties continued with the opposing unitarist v radicalist approaches, the possibility of resolution was slim.Slice 2In the NSW rail industry, at the enterprise level, struggle to assert a HRM unitarist perspective may be present. Simply because a pluralist overlay exists does not mean a flux between all three theories ebbs and flows does not occur in the workplace. The HRM position was incompatible with the interests of the employees. The employees interests where to obtain more capital (pay increases) which was contrary to the Sydney Trains and the NSW Government. Employees sought to influence rostering and staffing practices (control of work practices) which unitarist believe are the prerogative of the leadership of the organisation. Loyalty to the organisation is lost.Slice 3The dispute is not an example of only pro-management, conservative values.Pluralism Management approach is a better description because:• Some conflict existed but a common ground was negotiated.• Management did offer an increase in salary above the original increase offered indicating a willingness to negotiate.• The conflict was resolved through available processes and the outcome adopted by both parties.Slice 4The Human resource management approach to the employment relationship is great in theory, employment relationships can be harmonious. However, the Train disruptions in January 2018 (McGowen, 2018, para. 1) indicated that further theories based around conflict are essential when examining employment relationships. Conflict is evident in all relationships and therefore must be catered for. Pluralist and Radicalism are theories that help to explain how the train dispute in January almost lead to a strike state wide.
Answer: 

The Resolution of Sydney Rail Strike, Unitarist V/S Radical Approach
The feud between the employee unions and the NSW authorities is resolved; we can term it as a resolved issue because both the parties are busy in the process of the negotiation. The process of negotiation is necessary to satisfy the condition of the “Complex Interdependence.”  This theory is apt to define the relationship between the employer and the employee in the case of “proposed Sydney Rail Strike” and its aftermath.  
The intervention of the “Fair Work Commission” brought in two changes into the equation.  They forced the employee unions to think with a pluralist approach.  Rail authorities were always thinking in a pluralistic manner. They are running a profit based organization where employees are earning their salaries in return on the work and the efforts that they are doing.
The complex interdependence between the rail authorities and the employees can be seen in some newspaper cuttings where they published some alternative methods to commute on the day of the strike. It was a direct challenge from indirect competitors (Hawke, 2018).  Regular strikes can always force the customers to migrate to other options. This could force the rail authorities to bring down the number of the services. The “fair work commission” also introduced a negotiation manual in the deal. This manual was aimed at the removal of radical feeling among the employees. This manual gave them the assurance that the existing system has some rooms ready where authorities can listen to their demands (Folker, 2012). The introduction of this negotiation pattern triggered the change and employee unions also adapted Unitarist stance instead of a radical stance to make it work. A radical stance can only lead to the abolishment of a system or a relation. A unitarist stance, on the other hand, opens the roads towards a solution.  
When the employees demanded that they want a control over the rostering process then it was a radical thought. It was an attempt to challenge the authority of the institution. The rostering and staffing practices is a domain of the management, they are running a system and employees are only playing a role in a big system. (Sullivan, 2018).
This controlling power should work for the best and sometimes optimum results to facilitate a system. In the case of NSW rail authorities, they have all the rights to complain against overwork or unhealthy working conditions.  Even under a unitarist approach if we check the proposal of an increase in the pay and the rights to keep a check on the staffing options. Then authorities have another option if they have the resources to increase a pay-out then instead of increasing the pay of an existing employee they can hire a new employee and create a relief factor for an employee who is unhappy with the staffing schedules (McGowan, 2018).
While dealing with a rail system or any other mass rapid transport system every employee is bound to face the pressure of the peak hours. A maximum number of the services during the peak hours is the responsibility of the authorities and right of the commuters. It cannot be compromised under any given condition.
The pro-management conservative values advocate a pluralistic approach to look at the system and its components. Every system follows its own share of conflicts. We cannot please all the people all the time. However, the pro-management approach allows us to search for the minimum common grounds where we don’t have any conflict. These minimum common grounds can only be achieved when both the parties are following a unitarist outlook. A radical approach here has all the good reasons to break the flow of the communication and the system may fail in this case.
The recommendations of the fair work commission clearly state that the terms and conditions can be negotiated and reworked under the light of the new circumstances. It is an open gateway between the management and the employees where they can present their cases on a one on one basis and get the settlements done (Guzman, 2018).
In the absence of proper theories, we can understand a conflict better with the help of a Pluralist and Radicalism based theories. The proposed train strike in the month of the January clearly indicates a hangover of the radicalism in the approach of the employee unions.  (Denning, 2012). However, when a company has to deal with an issue like collective bargaining power of the employees then the traditional relationship-based theories like Radicalism and Pluralist based theories can help us in developing a better understanding of the issue and resolve them. This is why the unitarist approaches of both the parties helped the process of the negotiation and make it work.
Bibliography:
Denning, S. (2012). The Leader’s Guide to Radical Management. New Jersey: Wiley.
Folker, J. S. (2012). Theories of International Cooperation and the Primacy of Anarchy. New York: Suny Publications.
Guzman, D. M. (2018). Harmers Workplace Lawyers intervenes to stop Sydney rail strike. Financial Review, https://www.afr.com/news/policy/industrial-relations/harmers-workplace-lawyers-intervenes-to-stop-sydney-rail-strike-20180123-h0ne1p.
Hawke, S. (2018). Sydney train strike means no rail transport and ‘roadways will be a mess’, minister says. ABC News, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-01-17/sydney-trains-strikes-will-mean-no-rail-transport-and-roadways/9336446.
McGowan, M. (2018). Sydney train strike stopped: Fair Work Commission blocks union action. The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/jan/25/sydney-train-strike-stopped-fair-work-blocks-union-action.
Sullivan, M. O. (2018). Sydney train strike: Workers push ahead with industrial action after ‘imperfect’ poll. The Sunday Morning Herald, https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/sydney-train-strike-workers-vote-overwhelmingly-in-favour-of-industrial-action-20180124-h0njpb.html.

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