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ICT80011 Research Methods

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ICT80011 Research Methods

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ICT80011 Research Methods

0 Download2 Pages / 379 Words

Course Code: ICT80011
University: Swinburne University Of Technology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia


In writing the summary. you should assume that you are writing for a superior at work who wants to know what the article is about and what its author’s views are. Your summary will need to extract the essential meaning from the article and to reflect accurately the perspective and tone of its author. It should also give the name and title of the author and the article’s place and date of publication. 
In writing your summary you should make sure that:
you have begun with an overview of essential information to put the article into context including providing referencing details, and you have kept to the summary format throughout.
someone else can read what you have written and have a clear idea of what the article is about without any other outside information (keeping to the summary reporting format is essential for this).
your summary accurately reflects the intention and emphasis of the author: you have not included your own comments (keeping to the summary reporting format is essential for this).
Your summary is written in your own words without any quotations from the original text.
( NASA has built a ‘new frontier’ after revealing some of the strongest evidence vet that alien ife may exist. The space ageney said practically all the elements needed life had been discovered in the same place on our solar system-on one of Saturm’s ic moons. A missing ingredient hydrogen, has been found for the first time on Enceladus. The breakthrough discovery was made by unmanned NASA Cassini after 13 years exploring Saturn. During a deep dive through high-powered of water spurting from the moon’s surface, it tound hydrogen. The gas is the final piece of the puzzle following the discovery of water in an ocean under Enceladus’s surface. It means Saturn’s sixth moon may have the same single- with which life began on Earth, or more complex creatures still. These organisms, still found on our planet in the darkest depths of our oceans, use hydrogen and carborn dioxide as fuel.
Mary Voytrk, senior astro-biologist at NASA headquarters, said: This is a new frontier because this is the first time we have seen evidence of an alien food source in an ocean not on Earth. We knew we had two of the key ingredients for life and novw we have the third. This is the most exciting discovery in my eight-year career at NASA. The building blocks of life on Enceladus Earth can exist without, an energy source and six elements-carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. phosphorous and sulphur. The final two, phosphorous and sulphur, have not yet been found in Enceladus’s ocean-but scientists suspect them to be there because the rocky core of the moon is believed to be chemically similar to meteorites containing the elements. This now paves the way for further explorations to find life in our solar system spacecraft celled organisms are water, which no form of life on David Rothery, professor of planetary geosciences at the Open University, said: Right now, we only know of life beginning once in the universe, here on Earth which leaves us alone in the dark. It could have simply been an incredible fluke. But if it has happened twice n this solar system, it opens up everything. There are tens of billions of worlds in our galaxy and there could be alien life on many of those, too. Alien life was once only thought possible on habitable planets within the ‘Goldilocks zone- far enough from a sun not to be a fireball, but not so far as to be freezing.
Enceladus, a frozen moon about 800 million miles from Earth, was one of the least likely candidates. But in 2005, the Cassini spacecraft was orbiting Saturn when it picked up plumes of vapour coming from the tiger stripes’, or deep fissures, in th moon surface. This established that while Enceladus is freezing on its surface, underneath is a liquid ocean. That ocean is warmed by rock at the core of the moon, tidally heated as Enceladus orbits Saturn. The gravity from the planet pulls the moon out of shape wherever it is closest, creating friction that heats the rock to 90c enough to melt the ice. Scientists did not have to drill beneath the ice to examine the reservoir under the moon’s south pole, as its vapour erupts in plumes through cracks in the surface. Cassini, on its final mission before it runs out of fuel and burns up, was sent diving deep into the jets.
Yesterday NASA announced the spacecraft had found hydrogen as a gas, the form needed to support single-celled organisms, in the moon’s ocean. These microbes use hydrogen, which they cannot extract from water, like we use oxygen, to fuel cells. The Hubble telescope has twice seen similar vapour plumes coming off Jupiter’s moon, Europa, which makes it a second key candidate for this kind of alien life. Jim Green, of NASA ‘s planetary science divisions, said: We are pushing the frontiers of finding new environments)


According to NASA, alien life can exist as the space agency has said that on one of Saturn’s ice moon, Enceladus has all the required elements that is needed for life existence. This report discusses about Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and the chemical energy found in the moon’s ocean by NASA that is suitable for the existence of life.
After 13 years of Saturn’s exploration, hydrogen has been found on the planet. After the discovery of water in the planet, the missing ingredient that would make existence of life possible was hydrogen. Now that hydrogen has been discovered it serves as one of the strongest evidence for NASA. The senior astro-biologist Mary Voytrk said how finding alien food source in an ocean and not on earth is serving as the new frontier. Two key ingredients was found earlier and now the third is discovered as well. According to scientists life on Enceladus can exist without the six elements, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon however, sulphur and phosphorus is yet not found in Enceladus’ ocean. Scientists are still suspicious about existence of aliens as they believe rocky cores of the moon and meteorites are chemically same.
Finding the source of food in the Enceladus’ ocean is a mere evidence leading to further exploration and it is only the food source that has been found not the existence of life said the lead author of the Cassini study, Hunter Waite.
Enceladus was one of the planet that was least expected to have lives on it however, the Cassini spacecraft while orbiting Saturn observed plumes of vapour from the moon’s surface. On further investigation scientist found that underneath the freezing hard surface there is a liquid ocean that warmed when the moon orbits Saturn. Also, when Cassini was sent diving into the jets it found hydrogen gas, that can support single-celled organism in the moon’ surface. The Hubble telescope has observed the vapor flumes twice. Therefore scientists are positive on existence of alien life.
Allen, V. 2013. NASA reveals alien life could exist within OUR solar system. [online] Mail Online. Available at: [Accessed 26 Aug. 2018].

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