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Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Human Resource Management Assignment Paper


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Employee Relations Ensure that there is a good relationship between the employees and the employers with the objective of increasing the productivity, morale and motivation. Make sure the employees discipline and conduct adheres to the rules of the Organisation. Oversee that the problems of the workers are solved and preventing such problems occurring.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper


Role of HRM function.
For, Flint et al., (2005) the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has in recent times been seen as moving away from a supportive – selecting, training, and retaining (Porter, 1996) to a strategic role (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 2002). The latter explained that rather than being supportive, focusing on recruiting, training and
taking care of benefits, HRM’s role has become strategic building and using human
capital to ensure competitive advantage. According to (Bratton and Gold, 2007:37) strategic human resources management is
―the process of linking the human resources function with the strategic objectives of
the Organisation
in other to improve performance‖ they also added that it is actually
a managerial process which require HR policies and practices to be linked with the strategic objectives of the Organisation. Human resources should be considered as a significant Organisational asset. In this context, the application of the appropriate strategies for its development, can lead to the improvement of the corporate performance both in the short and the long term.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper However, there are also companies where human resources are not considered as
having particular importance for the firms’ growth. In this context, Haines (1997, 95)
that there are firms that ―view their human resources as an expense rather
than an asset an element that is expendable and perhaps discarded when the skills possessed becomes obsolete; however when human resources are viewed as an asset, companies enhance individual value through training and human development and ensure continued contribution to the Organisation

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An overview of how Coca-Cola, through their HRM functions, has allowed the
company to be considered a ‘role model
in terms how it takes HR as business partner and how can lead to the next level.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
At Coca Cola Human Resource is closely attached tied to strategic planning, In order to effectively meet their strategic goals and objectives, a world leading company, hire or develop staff with the required skills, knowledge and attitudes.
Human Resource Plan has a great value to achieve of an organisation’s overall
strategic objectives and it is clearly explain that the human resources role completely understands and supports the route in which the organisation is touching. A complete HR plan will also support other exact strategic objectives undertaken by the marketing, financial, functioning and technology departments. Coca-Cola believes in delivering better performance requirements better capabilities. So its HR policy is planned in procession with this approach and stand on attracting and retaining the brilliant people and developing them constantly.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
development is the main issues for human resource management. It constantly
educated on ‗How to Develop People’. Employees, business objectives and ability
levels are followed up by the performance management. Reward system and career management systems are considered on job family model. As a fraction of career management system, internal appointment procedure is used so as to grant them career and job upgrading opportunities. In 2007 there are 97 placement have been filled through internal assignments.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper Winning and potential employees are reviewed efficiently and exclusively. Talent re-evaluate meetings are planned for next steps with individualized development programs. The HR policies can help an Organisation both internally and externally. It meets requirements for diversity, ethics and training as well as its commitments in relative to instruction and commercial governance. The HR policy of Coca-Cola establishes a cultural diversity. HR policies also played a very effective at supporting and building the desired Organisational culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

The key to a successful organization is to have a culture based on a strongly held and widely shared set of beliefs that are supported by strategy and structure. When an organization has a strong culture, three things happen: Employees know how top management wants them to respond to any situation, employees believe that the expected response is the proper one, and employees know that they will be rewarded for demonstrating the organization’s values.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR has a vital role in perpetuating a strong culture, starting with recruiting and selecting applicants who will share the organization’s beliefs and thrive in that culture. HR also develops orientation, training and performance management programs that outline and reinforce the organization’s core values and ensures that appropriate rewards and recognition go to employees who truly embody the values.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

This article covers the following topics:

The importance of having a strong organizational culture.
HR’s role in fostering a high-performance culture.
Definitions of organizational culture.
Factors that shape an organization’s culture.
Considerations in creating and managing organizational culture.
HR practices to ensure the continuity and success of an organization’s culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Communications, metrics, legal, technology and global issues pertaining to organizational culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

An organization’s culture defines the proper way to behave within the organization. This culture consists of shared beliefs and values established by leaders and then communicated and reinforced through various methods, ultimately shaping employee perceptions, behaviors and understanding.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper Organizational culture sets the context for everything an enterprise does. Because industries and situations vary significantly, there is not a one-size-fits-all culture template that meets the needs of all organizations.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

A strong culture is a common denominator among the most successful companies. All have consensus at the top regarding cultural priorities, and those values focus not on individuals but on the organization and its goals. Human Resource Management Assignment PaperLeaders in successful companies live their cultures every day and go out of their way to communicate their cultural identities to employees as well as prospective new hires. They are clear about their values and how those values define their organizations and determine how the organizations run. See What does it mean to be a values-based organization?Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Conversely, an ineffective culture can bring down the organization and its leadership. Disengaged employees, high turnover, poor customer relations and lower profits are examples of how the wrong culture can negatively impact the bottom line.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Mergers and acquisitions are fraught with culture issues. Even organizational cultures that have worked well may develop into a dysfunctional culture after a merger. Research has shown that two out of three mergers fail because of cultural problems. Blending and redefining the cultures, and reconciling the differences between them, build a common platform for the future. In recent years, the fast pace of mergers and acquisitions has changed the way businesses now meld. The focus in mergers has shifted away from blending cultures and has moved toward meeting specific business objectives. Some experts believe that if the right business plan and agenda are in place during a merger, a strong corporate culture will develop naturally. See Managing Organizational Change and Managing Human Resources in Mergers and Acquisitions.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Business Case

If an organization’s culture is going to improve the organization’s overall performance, the culture must provide a strategic competitive advantage, and beliefs and values must be widely shared and firmly upheld. A strong culture can bring benefits such as enhanced trust and cooperation, fewer disagreements and more-efficient decision-making. Human Resource Management Assignment PaperCulture also provides an informal control mechanism, a strong sense of identification with the organization and shared understanding among employees about what is important. Employees whose organizations have strongly defined cultures can also justify their behaviors at work because those behaviors fit the culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Company leaders play an instrumental role in shaping and sustaining organizational culture. If the executives themselves do not fit into an organization’s culture, they often fail in their jobs or quit due to poor fit. Consequently, when organizations hire C-suite executives, these individuals should have both the requisite skills and the ability to fit into the company culture. See HR Can’t Change Company Culture by Itself.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR’s Role

Culture plays a vital role in an organization’s success. Therefore, HR leaders and other members of the HR team should foster a high-performance organizational culture. See How to Practice HR on Purpose.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR leaders are responsible for ensuring that culture management is a core focus of their organization’s competitive efforts. For HR leaders to influence culture, they need to work with senior management to identify what the organizational culture should look like. Strategic thinking and planning must extend beyond merely meeting business goals and focus more intently on an organization’s most valuable asset—its people.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR has been described as the “caretaker” of organizational culture. In carrying out this essential role, all members of the HR team should help build and manage a strong culture by:

Being a role model for the organization’s beliefs.
Reinforcing organizational values.
Ensuring that organizational ethics are defined, understood and practiced.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Enabling two-way communications and feedback channels.
Defining roles, responsibilities and accountabilities.
Providing continuous learning and training.
Sustaining reward and recognition systems.
Encouraging empowerment and teams.
Promoting a customer-supplier work environment.
Recognizing and solving individual and organizational problems and issues.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
What Is Organizational Culture?

For HR professionals to have any impact on culture, they must first have a thorough understanding of what culture is in a general sense and what their organization’s specific culture is. At the deepest level, an organization’s culture is based on values derived from basic assumptions about the following:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Human nature. Are people inherently good or bad, mutable or immutable, proactive or reactive? These basic assumptions lead to beliefs about how employees, customers and suppliers should interact and how they should be managed.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
The organization’s relationship to its environment. How does the organization define its business and its constituencies?
Appropriate emotions. Which emotions should people be encouraged to express, and which ones should be suppressed?
Effectiveness. What metrics show whether the organization and its individual components are doing well? An organization will be effective only when the culture is supported by an appropriate business strategy and a structure that is appropriate for both the business and the desired culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Culture is a nebulous concept and is often an undefined aspect of an organization. Although extensive academic literature exists relating to the topic of organizational culture, there is no generally accepted definition of culture. Instead, the literature expresses many different views as to what organizational culture is.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Organizational culture can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including leadership behaviors, communication styles, internally distributed messages and corporate celebrations. Given that culture comprises so many elements, it is not surprising that terms for describing specific cultures vary widely. Some commonly used terms for describing cultures include aggressive, customer-focused, innovative, fun, ethical, research-driven, technology-driven, process-oriented, hierarchical, family-friendly and risk-taking.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Because culture is difficult to define, organizations may have trouble maintaining consistency in their messages about culture. Employees may also find it difficult to identify and communicate about perceived cultural inconsistencies. See Defining Organizational Culture.

Factors That Shape an Organization’s Culture

Organizational leaders often speak about the unusual natures of their company cultures, seeing their domains as special places to work. But organizations such as Disney and Nordstrom, which are well-known for their unique cultures, are rare. See Viewpoint: 3 Steps to Cultivating a Customized Culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Most company cultures are not that different from one another. Even organizations in disparate industries such as manufacturing and health care tend to share a common core of cultural values. For example, most private-sector companies want to grow and increase revenues. Most strive to be team-oriented and to demonstrate concern for others. Most are driven, rather than relaxed, because they are competing for dollars and market share. Some of the cultural characteristics that distinguish most organizations include the following.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper


At the heart of organizations’ cultures are commonly shared values. None is right or wrong, but organizations need to decide which values they will emphasize. These common values include:

Outcome orientation. Emphasizing achievements and results.
People orientation. Insisting on fairness, tolerance and respect for the individual.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Team orientation. Emphasizing and rewarding collaboration.
Attention to detail. Valuing precision and approaching situations and problems analytically.
Stability. Providing security and following a predictable course.
Innovation. Encouraging experimentation and risk-taking.
Aggressiveness. Stimulating a fiercely competitive spirit.
See Trust Engenders Trust: A Q&A with Paul J. Zak.

Degree of hierarchy

The degree of hierarchy is the extent to which the organization values traditional channels of authority. The three distinct levels of hierarchy are “high”—having a well-defined organizational structure and an expectation that people will work through official channels; “moderate”—having a defined structure but an acceptance that people often work outside formal channels; and “low” —having loosely defined job descriptions and accepting that people challenge authority.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

An organization with a high level of hierarchy tends to be more formal and moves more slowly than an organization with a low level of hierarchy.

Degree of urgency

The degree of urgency defines how quickly the organization wants or needs to drive decision-making and innovation. Some organizations choose their degree of urgency, but others have it thrust on them by the marketplace.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

A culture with high levels of urgency has a need to push projects through quickly and a high need to respond to a changing marketplace. A moderate level of urgency moves projects at a reasonable pace. A low level of urgency means people work slowly and consistently, valuing quality over efficiency. An organization with high urgency tends to be fast-paced and supports a decisive management style. An organization with low urgency tends to be more methodical and supports a more considered management style.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

People orientation or task orientation

Organizations usually have a dominant way of valuing people and tasks. An organization with a strong people orientation tends to put people first when making decisions and believes that people drive the organization’s performance and productivity. An organization with a strong task orientation tends to put tasks and processes first when making decisions and believes that efficiency and quality drive organization performance and productivity.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Some organizations may get to choose their people and task orientations. But others may have to fit their orientation to the nature of their industry, historical issues or operational processes.

Functional orientation

Every organization puts an emphasis on certain functional areas. Examples of functional orientations may include marketing, operations, research and development, engineering or service. For example, an innovative organization known for its research and development may have at its core a functional orientation toward R&D. A hospitality company may focus on operations or service, depending on its historical choices and its definition in the marketplace.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Employees from different functions in the company may think that their functional areas are the ones that drive the organization. Organizational leaders must understand what most employees perceive to be the company’s functional orientation. See Building a Customer-Centric Culture: Five Lessons Learned.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Organizational subcultures

Any organization can have a mix of subcultures in addition to the dominant culture. Subcultures exist among groups or individuals who may have their own rituals and traditions that, although not shared by the rest of the organization, can deepen and underscore the organization’s core values. Subcultures can also cause serious problems.

For example, regional cultures often differ from the overall culture that top leadership tries to instill. Perhaps aggressiveness that is common in one area may not mesh with a culture emphasizing team building. Or an organization with a culture built around equality may have trouble if the national culture emphasizes hierarchy and expects people to bow to authority. Managers and HR professionals must recognize those differences and address them directly.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Creating and Managing Organizational Culture

An organizational culture tends to emerge over time, shaped by the organization’s leadership and by actions and values perceived to have contributed to earlier successes. A company culture can be managed through the cultural awareness of organizational leaders and HR professionals. Managing a culture takes focused efforts to sustain elements of the culture that support organizational effectiveness. See Taking (Back) Control of Your Organizational Culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

How culture develops

An organization’s customs, traditions, rituals, behavioral norms, symbols and general way of doing things are the visible manifestation of its culture; they are what one sees when walking into the organization. The current organizational culture is usually due to factors that have worked well for the organization in the past. See Building an Inclusive Culture and How to Create a Culture of Civility.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Founders typically have a significant impact on an organization’s early culture. Over time, behavioral norms develop that are consistent with the organization’s values. For example, in some organizations, resolution of conflicts is hashed out openly and noisily to create widespread consensus, whereas in other places disputes are settled hierarchically and quietly behind closed doors.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Though culture emerges naturally in most organizations, strong cultures often begin with a process called “values blueprinting,” which involves a candid conversation with leaders from across the organization. Once the culture is framed, an organization may establish a values committee that has a direct link to leadership. This group makes sure the desired culture is alive and well. For values blueprinting to work, organizations must first hire people who live the values and have the competency needed to perform the job.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Sustaining a culture

The management of organizational culture starts with identifying a company’s organizational culture traits or “artifacts.” Artifacts are the core business activities, processes and philosophies that characterize how an organization does business day-to-day.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Identifying these traits—and assessing their importance in light of current business objectives—is a way to start managing culture. Three broad concepts help identify the traits specific to a culture:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Social culture. This refers to group members’ roles and responsibilities. It is the study of class distinctions and the distribution of power that exists in any group.
Material culture. This involves examining everything that people in a group make or achieve and the ways people work with and support one another in exchanging required goods and services.
Ideological culture. This is tied to a group’s values, beliefs and ideals—the things people view as fundamental. It includes the emotional and intellectual guidelines that govern people’s daily existence and interactions.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Leaders and HR professionals within an organization should approach culture management by initially gaining an understanding of the common traits found in all businesses. Then, they should take the following steps to manage their organization’s culture:

Identify common artifacts or traits, including those from the standpoint of an organization’s social, material and ideological culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Convene groups of employees—representatives from all levels, functions and locations of the organization—to assess the validity, significance and currency of key artifacts.
Subject those traits to a rigorous assessment of their underlying shared assumptions, values and beliefs.
Summarize findings and share them with all participants to solicit additional insights.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Create a culture management action plan. The plan should enhance traits that support corporate growth or organizational effectiveness and correct traits that might hinder a company’s advancement.
Typically, shared assumptions and beliefs originate with an organization’s founders and leaders. Because those beliefs proved successful (otherwise the company would not exist and the leaders would not be in their positions), often they go unchallenged; however, those assumptions and beliefs might be outdated and may hinder future success.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR Practices to Develop Culture

HR has a special role in ensuring that an organization’s culture will continue and thrive. When an organization does a good job assessing its culture, it can then go on to establish HR policies, programs and strategies that support and strengthen its core purpose and values. In aligned organizations, the same core characteristics or beliefs motivate and unite everyone, cascading down from the C-suite to individual contributors.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

HR professionals have many tools for developing and sustaining a high-performance organizational culture, including hiring practices, onboarding efforts, recognition programs and performance management programs. HR’s biggest challenge is deciding how to use these tools and how to allocate resources appropriately. See Taming the Savage Culture: A Q&A with Tim Mulligan.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Hiring practices

The central role that HR plays in helping an organization capitalize on its culture is in hiring. HR has the opportunity to select people who fit the way the organization operates. Traditionally, hiring focuses primarily on an applicant’s skills, but when a hire’s personality also fits with the organization’s culture, the employee will be more likely to deliver superior performance. See Finance Sector Needs New Focus on Culture to Attract Talent and Candidates Choose Jobs Because of Company Culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

On the other hand, ill-fitting hires and subsequent rapid departures cost approximately 50 percent to 150 percent of the position’s annual salary. Unfortunately, nearly one in three newly hired employees’ leaves voluntarily or involuntarily within a year of hiring, and this number has been increasing steadily in recent years. See 5 Unique Interview Questions Every Recruiter Should Ask.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Some hiring practices to ensure cultural fit include these:

Looking at each piece of the organization’s vision, mission and values statements. Interview questions should hone in on behaviors that complement these areas. For example, if the organization works with a lot of intensity, then job applicants should display that natural intensity to be considered for hire.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Conducting a cultural fit interview. Ask questions that elicit comments about organizational values such as honesty or integrity. If a candidate’s description of the worst place he or she ever worked sounds just like the organization where he or she is interviewing, the candidate probably will not be successful.
Leaving discussion of company culture for later. Do not tell candidates about culture up front. First, listen to what they have to say about their experiences and beliefs. This tactic will reveal more candid responses to help determine whether they are a fit for the organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Making sure at least three people are involved in the hiring process. Different people will see and hear different things. These varied perspectives give a clearer understanding of the person being considered for hire.
Searching for employees who will fit in seamlessly can have drawbacks. The biggest mistake an organization can make is to paint an inaccurate picture of itself as it tries to attract candidates. If new hires discover they have been sold a bill of goods, they will not be happy; they will probably not stick around, and, while they are around, morale will decline.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Another possible drawback is that people are more reluctant to take negative actions against people like themselves. As a result, mediocre workers are more likely to stay employed if they share the cultural values. Similarly, although an organization’s comfort level is palpable when the culture is aligned, experts say, too much comfort can result in groupthink and complacency.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Onboarding programs

HR plays a primary role in socializing new employees by designing and overseeing the onboarding process. Onboarding teaches newcomers the employer’s value system, norms and desired organizational behaviors. HR professionals must help newcomers become part of social networks in the organization and make sure that they have early job experiences that reinforce the culture. See Managing the Employee Onboarding and Assimilation Process.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Reward and recognition programs

These programs are key mechanisms HR can use to motivate employees to act in accordance with the organization’s culture and values. For example, if teamwork is a core value, bonuses should value teamwork and not be based on individual performance. HR should also put the spotlight on those who personify the company’s values. See Who’s at the CENTRE of your recognition program?

Performance management programs

Employees who share values and aspirations tend to outperform those in environments that lack cohesiveness and common purposes. Performance management programs can greatly affect corporate culture by clearly outlining what is expected from employees as well as by providing a feedback tool that informs employees about proper behavior. See Performance Management That Makes a Difference: An Evidence-Based Approach.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper


Conflicting messages regarding corporate culture may create distrust and cynicism, which can prompt, or help employees justify, actions as deleterious as embezzlement. Experts say that cultural inconsistencies may also cause workers to grow discouraged, to believe management is disingenuous, to doubt statements from higher-ups and to be less inclined to give their best effort.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Organizations may be investing significant time and money in creating a culture but may not be reaping the commensurate rewards—especially if executives, supervisors and rank-and-file employees have differing perceptions of the company’s culture. HR professionals must therefore ensure that the organization clearly and consistently communicates its culture to all employees. See HR’s Role in Creating a Culture of High Trust: Q&A with Richard Fagerlin.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper


Assessing organizational culture is a crucial step in developing sound HR strategies that support enterprise objectives and goals. But how do you measure something as potentially tough to describe as culture? After identifying the key dimensions of culture such as values, degree of hierarchy, and people and task orientations, performing these next steps will help organizations assess culture:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Develop a cultural assessment instrument. This instrument should enable members of the organization to rate the organization on the key cultural dimensions, as well as on aspects of the organization not covered on the assessment.
Administer the assessment. Survey respondents should include individuals at all levels, functions, divisions and geographical units of the organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Analyze and communicate about assessment results. Leaders and HR executives should discuss areas of agreement and disagreement about the organization’s culture.
Conduct employee focus groups. Just because top management leaders agree on organizational culture does not mean that all employees see things that way.
Discuss culture until consensus forms around key issues. Focus on “Who are we?” and “What makes us who we are?” Organizations that decide that where they are now is not where they want to be may need to look at moving the organization to embrace a different culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Cultural assessments, and other activities such as cultural audits and 360-degree feedback, may also help uncover cultural inconsistencies. Then leaders and HR professionals can eliminate the inconsistencies. For example, if customer service is a focus of the company’s culture, evaluate how much time employees spend visiting customer sites, how much interaction they have with customers, what customer service training they receive and other indicators of a customer service focus.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Legal Issues

Employers that emphasize cultural fit in their recruitment and selection process can be vulnerable to discrimination claims if they are not careful. HR professionals should ensure that hiring practices and selection decisions based on a cultural fit rationale do not result in discriminating against any applicants who may not be “just like” the selectors.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Employers should also be aware that certain types of organizational cultures (for example, cultures that are highly paternalistic or male-dominated) may tend to perpetuate disparities in promotions, compensation and other terms of employment. Those disparities may violate anti-discrimination laws. See In Focus: Latest Lawsuits Shine Light on Racist, Sexist Workplace Cultures and Address the Small Infractions to Create an Inclusive Culture.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Global Issues

Research suggests that national culture has a greater effect on employees than the culture of their organization. Organizational leaders and HR professionals should understand the national cultural values in the countries in which the organization operates to ensure that management and HR practices are appropriate and will be effective in operations in those countries. National cultural differences should be considered when implementing organizational culture management initiatives in global businesses.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Managers must be able to respond to nuances in communication styles, as well as deal with different expectations that employees have of their leaders across national cultures. Not meeting those expectations may doom the global organization’s chance for success in particular countries.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

These issues become even more complex in global business mergers. Success in international mergers depends on the merged organization’s willingness to enable people with different cultural perspectives to engage in meaningful and valuable discussions about the new business.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

By structure, we mean the framework around which the group is organized, the underpinnings which keep the coalition functioning. It’s the operating manual that tells members how the organization is put together and how it works. More specifically, structure describes how members are accepted, how leadership is chosen, and how decisions are made.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Structure gives members clear guidelines for how to proceed. A clearly-established structure gives the group a means to maintain order and resolve disagreements.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Structure binds members together. It gives meaning and identity to the people who join the group, as well as to the group itself.
Structure in any organization is inevitable — an organization, by definition, implies a structure. Your group is going to have some structure whether it chooses to or not. It might as well be the structure which best matches up with what kind of organization you have, what kind of people are in it, and what you see yourself doing.
It is important to deal with structure early in the organization’s development. Structural development can occur in proportion to other work the organization is doing, so that it does not crowd out that work. And it can occur in parallel with, at the same time as, your organization’s growing accomplishments, so they take place in tandem, side by side. This means that you should think about structure from the beginning of your organization’s life. As your group grows and changes, so should your thinking on the group’s structure.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

While the need for structure is clear, the best structure for a particular coalition is harder to determine. The best structure for any organization will depend upon who its members are, what the setting is, and how far the organization has come in its development.

Regardless of what type of structure your organization decides upon, three elements will always be there. They are inherent in the very idea of an organizational structure.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

They are:

Some kind of governance
Rules by which the organization operates
A distribution of work

The first element of structure is governance – some person or group has to make the decisions within the organization.

Rules by which the organization operates

Another important part of structure is having rules by which the organization operates. Many of these rules may be explicitly stated, while others may be implicit and unstated, though not necessarily any less powerful.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Distribution of work

Inherent in any organizational structure also is a distribution of work. The distribution can be formal or informal, temporary or enduring, but every organization will have some type of division of labor.

There are four tasks that are key to any group:

Envisioning desired changes. The group needs someone who looks at the world in a slightly different way and believes he or she can make others look at things from the same point of view.
Transforming the community. The group needs people who will go out and do the work that has been envisioned.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Planning for integration. Someone needs to take the vision and figure out how to accomplish it by breaking it up into strategies and goals.
Supporting the efforts of those working to promote change. The group needs support from the community to raise money for the organization, champion the initiative in the state legislature, and ensure that they continue working towards their vision.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Every group is different, and so each will have slightly different terms for the roles individuals play in their organization, but below are some common terms, along with definitions and their typical functions.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

An initial steering committee is the group of people who get things started. Often, this group will create plans for funding, and organizational and board development. It may also generate by-laws, and then dissolve. If they continue to meet after approximately the first six months, we might say they have metamorphosed into a coordinating council.
A coordinating council (also referred to as a coordinating committee, executive committee, and executive council), modifies broad, organization-wide objectives and strategies in response to input from individuals or committees.
Often, one person will take the place of the coordinating council, or may serve as its head. Such a person may be known as the Executive Director, Project Coordinator, Program Director, or President. He or she sometimes has a paid position, and may coordinate, manage, inspire, supervise, and support the work of other members of the organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Task forces are made up of members who work together around broad objectives. Task forces integrate the ideas set forward with the community work being done.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
For example, from the director of a coalition to reduce violence in a medium-sized city: “Currently, we have three operational task forces. Members of each have an ongoing dialogue with members of the coordinating council, and also with their action committees. The oldest was formed with the goal of eliminating domestic violence about fifteen years ago, when a local woman was killed by her husband. Then, after several outbreaks of violence in the schools a few years back, our group offered to help, and a second task force sprung up around reducing youth violence. We’ve just started a third, with the goal of increasing gun safety.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

“All of it is interrelated, and all of it applies to our mission of increasing the safety of residents of South Haven, as well as that of our visitors. But each task force is contributing to that mission in vastly different ways, with different objectives, and using different strategies. ‘Cause, you know, the strategies you use to stop a ninth grader from bringing a gun to school just aren’t the same as the ones you use to stop a 40-year-old man on unemployment from beating his wife.”Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Action committees bring about specific changes in programs, policies, and practices in the sectors in which they work.
For example, the task force on domestic violence mentioned above has the following action committees:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

A government and law enforcement committee. Members include police officers, lawyers, a judge, and a state representative. Currently, they are trying to pass laws with stronger penalties for those convicted of domestic violence, especially repeat offenders. They are also training officers to be better able to spot an abusive relationship, and better able to inform a victim of his or her options.
A social services committee. Members (who include representatives from most of the service agencies in town) work to assure that staff members know where to send someone for the resources he or she needs.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper They are also trying to increase the number of trained volunteer counselors who work at the battered women’s shelter.
A media committee. Members include local journalists, writers, and graphic designers. They keep the project and the issue in the public’s minds as much as possible with editorials, articles and news clips of events, as well as advertisements and public service announcements.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Support committees are groups that help ensure that action committees or other individuals will have the resources and opportunities necessary to realize their vision. Financial and media committees are examples of committees formed to help support or facilitate your work.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Community trustees, also known as the board of trustees or as the board of directors, provide overall support, advice, and resources to members of the action groups. They are often either people who are directly affected by the issue or have stature in the community. That way, they are able to make contacts, network with other community leaders, and generally remove or weaken barriers to meeting organizational objectives.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Grantmakers are another part of the picture. Grantmakers exist on an international, national, state, and local level and may be private companies and foundations, or local, county, state, or federal government organizations (for example, block grants given by the city would fall into this category).Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Support organizations (not to be confused with the support committees listed above) are groups that can give your organization the technical assistance it needs.
Partner organizations are other groups working on some of the same issues as your organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Although this list is pretty extensive, your organization may only use two or three of the above mentioned roles, especially at the beginning. It’s not uncommon for a group to start with a steering committee, ask others to serve as board members, and then recruit volunteers who will serve as members of action committees. In this broad spectrum of possibilities, consider: Where does your organization fit in? Where do you want to be?

So how can all of these pieces be put together? Again, the form a community group takes should be based on what it does, and not the other way around. The structures given are simply meant to serve as examples that have been found to be effective for some community-based organizations; they can and should be adapted and modified for your own group’s purposes.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Example – The Ste. Genevieve’s Children’s Coalition

The Ste. Genevieve’s Children’s Coalition is a relatively large community-based group. They have a coordinating council, a media committee, and three task forces, dealing with adolescent pregnancy, immunization, and child hunger. Each of the task forces has action committees as well. For example, the adolescent pregnancy reduction task force has a schools committee that focuses on keeping teen parents in school and modifying the human sexuality curriculum. Human Resource Management Assignment PaperA health organizations committee focuses on increasing access and use of the youth clinic. The media committee works to keep children’s issues in the news, and includes professionals from the local television stations, radio stations, newspaper, and a marketing professional. The coordinating council is composed of the executive director, her assistant, the media committee chair, and the chairs of each of the three task forces. A board of directors has been invaluable in helping keep the coalition financially viable.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

In diagram form, a complex organization might look like this:

Image depicting a complex organization showing a large circle entitled Community Trustees. Outside this circle are three smaller circles with bidirectional arrows leading to/from the larger circle: “Community members; Collaborators; Supporting Organizations (funders, TA orgs).” Inside the large circle is a small circle entitled Coordinating Committee. Four other circles connect to this central circle: Support Committees (e.g., financial, media) and three Task Force circles, each with smaller Action Committee circles connected to them.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

And in diagram form:

Image of a diagram depicting Mid-size Structure. A large circle entitled Community Trustees contains three smaller circles: One Coordinating Council and two Action Committee circles connecting to it.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

As smaller size means fewer people, these groups are usually less complex, as they have less need for a formal hierarchy and instead have governance that is consensus-based. A diagram of such a small group might look something like this, with each of the circles representing an individual member:

Image of a Small-size Structure with no text labels, just six circles interconnected to each other.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

First, decide upon the formality your organization will have. The following table, adapted from The Spirit of Coalition Building can help you make this first decision.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Conditions favoring more or less formality in organizational structures
Condition A looser, less formal, less rule bound structure would be favored when… A tighter, more formal, more rule-bound structure would be favored when…Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Stage of organization development The organization is just starting The organization is in later stages of development
Prior relationships among members Many such relationships already exist Few such relationships already exist
Prior member experience in working together Many such experiences have occurred Few such experiences have occurred
Member motivation to be part of the organization Motivation is high Motivation is low
Number of organization tasks or issues (broadness of purpose) There is a single task or issue There are multiple tasks or issues
Organization size The organization is small The organization is large
Organization leadership The leadership is experienced The leadership is inexperienced
Urgency for action There is no particular urgency to take action now There is strong urgency to take action now
Organizational structure is something that is best decided upon internally, through a process of critical thinking and discussion by members of the group.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

In your discussions, your answers to the following list of questions may guide your decisions.

What is your common purpose? How broad is it? Groups with broader purposes often have more complicated structures, complete with many layers and parts, than do groups with more narrow purposes.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Is your group advocacy oriented or service oriented? Service organizations use “top down,” one-person-in-charge structure much more often than do advocacy based groups.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Is your organization more centralized (e.g., through the work of a specific agency ) or decentralized (e.g., different neighborhoods working independently on the same problem)? A decentralized group might find a “top-down” structure inappropriate, as such a group often has several peers working together on an issue.
How large is your organization? How large do you envision it becoming? A very small organization may wish to remain relatively informal, while a community-wide group might require a more formal structure. A related question, with similar consequences, is:
How large is the community in which you work?
How old is your organization? How long do you envision it lasting? A group formed to resolve a single issue might not need a formal structure at all, while an organization with long-term goals may want something more concrete, with clearer divisional responsibilities and authority.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Is the organization entirely volunteer, or are there (or will there be) paid staff? How many? An organization with many paid staff members may find it more necessary to have people “in charge,” as there are generally more rules and responsibilities for paid staff members, and thus, there must be more supervision in carrying out these roles.
Should yours be a new organization, or part of an existing structure? Do you really need to form a new structure, or would it be better to work within existing structures? Sometimes, your goals may be better met if you are part of (or linked with) another organization.
Structure is what ensures that your organization will function smoothly and as you intended. You should think about structure early in the development of your organization, but be aware that the type that fits best may change as your organization grows.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Jenette Nagy
Online Resources

Designing and Developing the Organization, published on August 2008 by Business Excellence. This article focuses on four key areas of the organizational design process, and also describes the procedures as well as practices necessary to successfully design and develop a new organizational structure. The emphasis here is on the corporate sector.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Designing an Effective Organization Structure, by the Bridgespan Group, January 2009. This is a useful, concise resource that covers topics starting from five interrelated components of effective organization design to guidelines for developing effective linkages. The primary focus of this manual is again on for-profit businesses.

How to Develop an Organization Structure, by Tara Duggan, Demand Media, is an informational article on how to develop organization structure with a short step-by-step analysis.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

It’s All About the Base: A Guide to Building a Grassroots Organizing Program from Community Catalyst.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Module 2: Organizational Structure, by Pathfinder International, is a concise manual describing pros and cons, together with suggestions for how one might change the organizational structure one has.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Developing organizational policies, programs and procedures
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A complete strategy to prevent and address human rights issues should include:

A plan for preventing, reviewing and removing barriers
Anti-harassment and anti-discrimination policies
An internal complaints procedure
An accommodation policy and procedure
An education and training program.
An effective strategy will combine all of these elements. For example, while it is an essential part of any human rights strategy, an education and training program on its own will not remove underlying systemic barriers. On the other hand, without education and training, it will be difficult to ensure organizational support for, and compliance with, human rights policies, programs and procedures.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

No strategy will be effective without strong, visible and ongoing commitment from the senior levels of the organization.

It is helpful when designing any human rights plan, policy or procedure, to get input from all parts of the organization. For example, input from employees will be invaluable in developing and implementing workplace anti-harassment and anti-discrimination policies, plans or procedures. In a unionized workplace, the union should be a key partner in developing and implementing any human rights strategies. Housing providers may wish to consult tenants, and service providers to seek the views of their clients.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

In some cases it would also be wise, where feasible, to seek advice or input from community organizations representing certain groups such as racialized persons, women, people with disabilities, etc. For example, public service organizations that are dealing with complex or systemic barriers may wish to consult with the community when identifying strategies and best practices. This step will help identify issues and effective solutions, and will also increase buy-in and commitment to the policy, plan or procedure.

Policies, plans and procedures must consider the size, complexity, and culture of an organization.[9]For example, the complaints procedure for a small organization will probably be simpler than that for a large, multi-site, unionized organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Sound communication strategies are essential to the success of any human rights plan, policy or procedure. Employees, tenants or customers must clearly understand the content of the strategy and their rights and responsibilities, why the strategy was developed and how it will be implemented. Information should be readily accessible and easy to understand.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Identify and address issues or factors that may cause opposition or resistance to the strategy. It is important to regularly remind existing employees, tenants and clients about organizational human rights policies and procedures, as well as to ensure that individuals who are new to the organization receive orientation and training.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

All policies, plans and procedures require regular review and revision to make sure they:

Reflect the current state of human rights law and policy
Take into account changes in organizational structures or resources
Address new human rights issues emerging within the organization
Continue to be effective.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Organizations may want to seek assistance from lawyers or other experts in developing policies, procedures or education programs that will effectively meet their needs. The more complex the organization or the human rights issues, the more likely it will be advisable to seek specialized assistance.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Why Do You Need a Security Policy?

Who is responsible for securing an organization’s information? Perhaps the Research and Evaluation department? Not exactly. The Management Information System (MIS) staff? Wrong again. Ultimately, it is not only individual employees or departments that are responsible for the security of confidential information, but also the institution itself. It is, therefore, incumbent upon top administrators, who are charged with protecting the institution’s best interests, to ensure that an appropriate and effective security policy is developed and put into practice throughout the organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

read closely! (icon) While policies themselves don’t solve problems, and in fact can actually complicate things unless they are clearly written and observed, policy does define the ideal toward which all organizational efforts should point. By definition, security policy refers to clear, comprehensive, and well-defined plans, rules, and practices that regulate access to an organization’s system and the information included in it. Good policy protects not only information and systems, but also individual employees and the organization as a whole. It also serves as a prominent statement to the outside world about the organization’s commitment to security.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

It Really Happens!

Like many people, Fred Jones thought he had a difficult job. As the Information Systems Manager in a small school district, he was responsible for operating a district-wide computer network–everything from installation and maintenance to user support and training. While it was clearly not a one-man job, he was his own one-man staff. Fred had tried to explain to his superintendent that the district’s network was vulnerable to a range of threats because his small budget and non-existent staff prevented him from handling system security effectively, but his warnings had always been ignored.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

One morning at a staff meeting, and much to Fred’s surprise, the superintendent announced that he had read a newspaper article about a student breaking into a neighboring school district’s computer system and changing report card records. The boss proceeded to declare that Fred was now being charged with developing and instituting a computer security policy for the school district.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

As soon as the meeting was over, Fred approached the superintendent to request an appointment for them to discuss a shared vision for development of the security policy. “Effective security policy requires input and commitment from the whole organization, so I think we should sit down and map out a plan for developing our security policy,” Fred asserted.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

But the superintendent declined the invitation to participate in the policy-development process. “Fred, I’m just too busy to get involved in this project. I trust you to do a job that will make us all proud.” When Fred asked about expanding his staff and budget to meet the increased workload, the superintendent again dismissed the issue. “Fred, times are tough and the budget is lean. Maybe next year we’ll be able to work something out. In the meantime, you get cracking on securing our system as if your job depends on it… in fact, I guess your job does depend on it.”Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Fred watched his unrealistic, if well-intentioned, boss walk away, realizing that his job was no longer difficult, but truly impossible. He was now expected to develop, institute, manage, and monitor an organization-wide security policy without assistance, consent, or buy-in from a single employee, much less empowered high-level administrators. He knew that the organizational support he failed to receive meant that there was little chance of his being able to effectively secure the system–and that it was just a matter of time before a significant breach in system security would take place. Fred found himself in the terrible position of being responsible for stopping the inevitable, yet powerless to do so.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Commonly Asked Questions
Commonly Asked Questions
Q. What does this document have to offer that experienced education policy-makers don’t already know?
A. Experienced policy-makers certainly bring a great deal of skill to security policy development. But in many ways, security policy is different from other forms of more traditional policy–it requires policy-makers to think like data entry clerks, MIS staff, research and evaluation specialists, legal counsel, building administrators, teachers, and so on. Many of the procedural guidelines included here will already be appreciated by seasoned policy-makers, but this document tailors the information so that it can be more readily applied to the specific concerns of information and system security–an area of expertise not always held by educational administrators and policy-makers.

Q. Isn’t policy written at the district and state level?
A. Yes, but not exclusively. Whoever is in charge of a site (be it a building, campus, district, or state education agency) must be concerned about protecting sensitive information and critical systems that can be accessed from within that site. This concern is articulated through security policies that are designed to regulate access and protect information and systems as circumstances within the organization specifically warrant.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Q. Shouldn’t expert technology consultants be hired to do the job?
A. There certainly are roles for expert consultants when instituting security policy: they could be hired as general technical support or they might be useful in offering advice about countermeasures (e.g., a password system). But generally speaking, the chief educational administrator and his or her employees need to shoulder the responsibility of protecting their system because, after all, it is their system. They are the people who know it best and they will be the ones who have to implement adopted security policy. Outside contractors, while certainly capable of lending expertise to the process, cannot take the place of committed and informed staff.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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How to Develop Policy
Tenable security policy must be based on the results of a risk assessment as described in Chapter 2. Findings from a risk assessment provide policy-makers with an accurate picture of the security needs specific to their organization. This information is imperative because proper policy development requires decision-makers to:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Identify sensitive information and critical systems
Incorporate local, state, and federal laws, as well as relevant ethical standards
Define institutional security goals and objectives
Set a course for accomplishing those goals and objectives
Ensure that necessary mechanisms for accomplishing the goals and objectives are in place

Effective security policy focuses planning guides activity, and, ideally, permeates an organization’s entire culture In this way, legal and regulatory concerns, organizational characteristics, contractual stipulations, environmental issues, and user input can all be incorporated into policy development. Effective security policy synthesizes these and other considerations into a clear set of goals and objectives that direct staff as they perform their required duties.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

The Logic of Well-Planned Policy

If: Organizational needs define policy
and: Policy guides personnel and technology decisions
then: Personnel and technology serve organizational needs.

If staff have minimal input in policy development, they may show minimal interest in policy implementation. Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Getting Perspective
Although finalizing organizational policy is usually a task reserved for top-level decision-makers, contributing to the development of policy should be an organization-wide activity. While every employee doesn’t necessarily need to attend each security policy planning session, top-level administra-tors should include representatives from all job levels and types in the information gathering phase (just as in the case of brainstorming during risk assessment). Non-administrative staff have an especially unique perspective to share with policy-makers that simply cannot be acquired by any other means. Meeting with staff on a frequent basis to learn about significant issues that affect their work is a big step toward ensuring that there is buy-in at all levels of the organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Reviewing security arrangements in other organizations might uncover information that can contribute to more effective policy development. Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

While it makes sense to get as much input from potential users as is possible, it is also essential that voices from outside the organization be heard during the information gathering stages of policy development. Why? Because decision-makers need to be informed of security arrangements that other organizations are making that potentially impact them and the policies they will be developing. If, for example, every school but one in a district commits to encryption software to protect messages sent over the Internet, the lone school that does not have the encryption key is going to have a very difficult time communicating with its partners. The point is that just as security planning demands coordination internally, it often requires it externally as well–a recommendation that should not be overlooked, especially by those organizations that practice site-based management.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Creating consortia, cooperatives, and other types of associations enables organizations to pool resources and share expenses as they endeavor to devise and implement security strategies.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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What to Include
An organization’s risk assessment, and not this document or any other source, informs policy-makers of their system’s specific security needs. But regardless of those findings, the following general questions should be addressed clearly and concisely in any security policy:9

What is the reason for the policy?
Who developed the policy?
Who approved the policy?
Whose authority sustains the policy?
Which laws or regulations, if any, are the policy based on?
Who will enforce the policy?
How will the policy be enforced?
Whom does the policy affect?
What information assets must be protected?
What are users actually required to do?
How should security breaches and violations be reported?
What is the effective date and expiration date of the policy?
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Writing with Proper Tone
Policy should be written in a way that makes sense to its intended audience. After all, guidelines that aren’t implemented foreshadow objectives that won’t be met. Tips for reader-friendly policy include:10

Be concise–focus on expectations and consequences, but explain the underlying rationale when appropriate
Don’t temper the message–truth is, you’re not asking but telling, so don’t propose, suggest, or insinuate unless that is specifically what you mean to do
Use simple, straightforward language as is possible
Define any term that could potentially confuse a reader–no need to make things more difficult than need be
Be creative–presentation should never interfere with content, but checklists and reference cards increase utility

Rewrite formal policy into a reader-friendly version that is distributed to staff.

Another hint for ensuring appropriate tone is to word policy in a way that makes sense to both developers and users before giving the draft to legal counsel. The purpose for this is to keep clear and meaningful points from being transformed into incomprehensible legal jargon. If the official policy does eventually get transformed into something particularly formal, consider rewriting a distributable version designed specifically for reader-friendliness.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Read Chapters 5-9 for specific security guidelines to support your policies.
From the Board Room to the Break Room: Implementing Security Policy
This document presents a great deal of information for policy-makers to consider.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper The role of an effective administrator, however, is to absorb these recommendations as appropriate and distill the results into a meaningful and manageable set of employee regulations that fit his or her organization. These rules then serve as the mechanisms for operationalizing policy goals and objectives throughout the workplace. Although it might be tempting (and certainly possible) to create an exhaustive inventory of “do’s and don’ts,” formulating a short list of sensible rules that can realistically be implemented is undoubtedly a better strategy.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Policies that are neither implementable nor enforceable are useless–ten security regulations that are implemented are more effective than 110 that are ignored.

If everyone is responsible in general, then no one is accountable in particular. How can policy implementation be made realistic? Aside from keeping regulations clear, concise, and understandable, endeavor to make them as easy as possible for staff to fulfill. Remember, the goal is not to tell staff “how it is” as much as to get everyone to join in the effort. By keeping things as simple as possible, employee participation becomes a realistic aspiration. Specific actions that increase the likelihood of your policies actually being realized in the work environment include: Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
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Specifically assign an empowered and committed administrator to be accountable for security: Someone must make security a day-to-day priority. This designated staff member must be authorized to both reward and reprimand employees, as necessary, at all levels of organizational hierarchy (see Chapter 4, Security Management).

Unless the organization educates its users, there is little reason to expect security procedures to be implemented properly.
Increase security awareness by making security references readily available.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Institute staff training that is specifically tailored to meet the requirements of security policy and the needs of your staff: Recognize that most computer users have never been trained to properly use technology–and what little training they do have was probably aimed at overcoming their fears and teaching them how to turn on their machines. At most, they may have learned how to use a particular piece of software for a specific application. Thus, the majority of your staff have little understanding of security issues, and there is no reason to expect that to change unless the organization does its part to correct the situation. Reluctance on the part of the organization to adequately prepare staff for making security policy a part of the work environment makes the rest of the effort an exercise in the theoretical–and theory won’t protect a system from threats that are all too real (see Chapter 10, Training).Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Because most people are unwilling to act unless they believe they are personally responsible, each user must be held individ-ually accountable for specific security functions.

Communicate organizational needs and expectations to staff in both initial and ongoing ways: Make a serious attempt at getting the word out to staff, but don’t be overly serious in its presentation. Just like in any marketing campaign, creativity and consistency will be rewarded by audience responsiveness. The following examples are recommended as effective strategies for communicating security expectations to staff:Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Hold security refresher workshops.
Create an infrastructure to support staff (e.g., a Help Desk that is staffed with competent and readily available advisors).
Acknowledge exceptional behavior frequently and publicly.
Develop and distribute reference materials (e.g., checklists, brochures, and summaries–remembering that succinct and reader-friendly material is much more useful than an unabridged tome of security obscurities).
Update the employee handbook to reflect security procedures.
Keep security reminders visible throughout the workplace (e.g., posters, FYI memos, and e-mail broadcasts).Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Enforce security regulations equally at all levels of the organization: Each individual in the system must understand that he or she is personally accountable for security. Bosses have to say “get with the system,” mean it, and prove it by doing so themselves. If the rules don’t apply to everyone, then they apply to no one. This is not simply an egalitarian moral–if the system is not secure from top to bottom, then, by definition, it is not secure!

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Expecting every employee to become a security expert is wholly unrealistic. Instead, break down recommended security practices into manageable pieces that are tailored to meet individual job duties. A single, short and well-focused message each week will be better received than a monthly volume of information that is overly ambitious.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Without proof that an employee agreed to abide by security regulations, the sometimes necessary tasks of reprimand-ing, dismissing, or even prosecuting security violators can be difficult to pursue. Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

something you should do (icon) If your institution has several types of work environments or levels of users, consider writing separate security regulations, all of which support broader policy, for each user group. Each policy can then be tailored to the specific needs of the particular environment or user type. To increase involvement and acceptance, have staff contribute to the development of their own policy guidelines and procedures. For completeness and consistency across the institution, each user group may require the services of an expert security coordinator while developing its own subset of guidelines.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Personnel Issues

One aim of successful security policy is that it should limit the need for trust in the system. While this may seem like a terribly cynical philosophy, it actually serves to protect both the organization’s employees and the organization itself. But before the benefits of security can be realized, staff must be properly informed of their roles, responsibilities, and organizational expectations.
Employees must be told in writing: 11
What is and is not acceptable use of equipment.
What the penalties for violating regulations will be.
That their activities may be monitored.
That security will be a part of performance reviews (users who do their share should be rewarded, whereas those who lag behind might be reprimanded or retrained).Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Access without accountability is a recipe for chaos.
Employees should be reminded that:
Organizational resources, including computers, belong to the organization
There should be no expectation of privacy for information stored on or transmitted with the organization’s equipment.
Employees should be required to sign a Security Agreement (see Appendix D for a sample) to acknowledge that they are aware of their responsibilities and verify that they will comply with security policy. This requires that:
Staff should have ample opportunity to read and review all policies and regulations for which they will be held accountable.
Staff should be provided an appropriate forum for clarifying questions or concerns they may have about the organization’s expectations.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Staff should not be given access to the system until a signed agreement is accounted for and maintained in a safe place.

read closely! (icon) All new employees should be expected to meet the organization’s security requirements and procedures as a part of their job description. Once hired, new employees should be informed of, and trained on, security policy as a part of their initial orientation in order to impress the importance of security upon them.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Outside organizations should be expected to guarantee (via binding agreements) that they and their employees will use and secure shared information appropriately.
A Special Note on Outsiders
Outsiders (e.g., repair technicians, consultants, and temporary help) and outside organizations (e.g., other departments, other educational institutions, and contractors) with access to your system should also sign agreements that require them to respect and maintain the confidentiality of your information. But be careful not to share more about your security operation with outsiders than is necessary. Human Resource Management Assignment PaperEven apparently harmless warnings about what to expect of your defenses can give a skilled intruder an edge in tampering with your system. Instead, limit security briefings to those levels required to (1) keep them from breaching your defenses, (2) impress upon them that you are serious about protecting your system assets, and (3) ensure that they handle your assets in a secure manner.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Having said this, sharing general news with the public–parents, local organizations, business partners, and lawmakers to name few–about your organization’s commitment to securing confidential information can instill a feeling of confidence throughout your organization and community. Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Closing Thoughts on Policy

The incredible pace of technological innovations requires that all security policies be reviewed on a frequent basis. How frequently? That depends on your organization’s needs and technological savvy. Generally speaking, however, each new technological change has the potential to necessitate a corresponding policy change–so it is a good rule to review all organizational policies (security or otherwise) annually at a minimum.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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Policy Development and Implementation Checklist

While it may be tempting to refer to the following checklist as your security plan, to do so would limit the effectiveness of the recommendations. They are most useful when initiated as part of a larger plan to develop and implement security policy throughout an organization. Other chapters in this document also address ways to customize policy to your organization’s specific needs–a concept that should not be ignored if you want to maximize the effectiveness of any given guideline.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

If your organization is pursuing growth in new markets, having the right people on the ground is essential. While attracting new talent in chosen markets is vital, leveraging your organization’s internal pool of experienced talent can be one of the best ways to achieve growth through temporary international work assignments and transfers of employees between global subsidiaries and affiliates.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

The 2018 survey allows you to benchmark your organization in relation to other participants on numerous aspects of an international assignment program, including: assignee selection and assessment, assignment preparation and planning, talent and performance management, assignment compensation and allowances, administration and outsourcing, tax reimbursement policies, immigration management and the use of global mobility technology and data and analytics. To date, nearly 250 cross-industry organizations have participated globally.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Key findings:
Automation & robotics: Companies are searching for enhanced program solutions with assignment planning and initiations, cost projections for prospective packages and automating payroll and compensation collection as being top priorities.
Data & analytics: There is an increased focus on predictive workforce analytics to support program success and measure assignee experience.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
Talent management: Companies are taking a more purposeful approach to mobilizing talent globally with developing stronger integration between talent management and global assignments.
Policy: Over half of respondents identify the use of international assignments as being a top program goal for supporting overall global business and talent development objectives.
Flexibility in approach: Many companies are offering greater flexibility in their assignment policy approaches – setting policy frameworks with core and optional provisions and expanding the range of choices for either the business or the assignee.
Future mobility: Over the next 5 years, global mobility professionals expect to rely more on shorter duration assignments such as extended business trips, short-term assignments and development/training assignments.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 2
• Kite: Allows a division to exceed its full time equivalent (FTE) position allotment, as long as the
office above it is within its FTE limit. FTEs are borrowed from another division or office within the
same office with the understanding that if in the future the losing division or office needs the FTE
back, it will be replaced through attrition.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• The objective of an organizational change is to enhance productivity and effectiveness in
accomplishing the current and long-range goals of the organizational component. A proposed
reorganization must be justified on the basis of these considerations.
• Organizational changes must use structures that provide efficient and effective means for
accomplishing assigned functions within the bounds of available resources.
• Personnel impacts on affected organizational components must be considered and evaluated in the
early stages of the organizational change. Adversely affected employees and personnel structure are
the most frequently encountered problems associated with organizational changes. Therefore, it is
important to resolve these issues early on.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Constraints such as budget limitations, position management, and hiring and promotion restrictions
must be considered in proposing organizational changes.
• Even a minor organizational change (e.g., a change in an organization’s functions) requires an
organizational change proposal.
• Excluding immediate offices, all official components must be composed of a minimum of 10 FTEs.
• The supervisor to employee ratio must be 1 supervisor to at least 10 non-supervisory employees (1:10
ratio) in each official component (e.g., branch, division). Exceptions for special cases will be
considered with appropriate justification provided by the affected components.
• The Rockville Human Resources Center (RHRC), Client Services Division, CDER Team, cannot
delay a proposal if there is disagreement with proposed grade levels. Rather, they can note their
concern on the clearance record. However, if current grade levels are adversely affected, RHRC is
not required to concur.
• Information describing and justifying all aspects of proposed organizational changes must be included
in the reorganization package.
• Organizational changes at the office/division level and below can be approved by the Center Director.
• Organizational changes at the Super Office level and above must be approved by the Commissioner,
• The effective date for the organizational change is the date of signature of the approving official.
Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 3

Senior management from the affected component(s) will:
• Consult with RHRC, the Program Management Services Branch (PMSB) of the Division of
Management Services (DMS), and, if necessary, the Director, Office of Management (OM), to
determine the most effective structure for the affected organizational component(s) and to resolve
problems such as adversely affected employees.
The Management Officer or Program Specialist, if delegated as such, of the affected component
• Provide management with staffing information, including the types of positions and number of
employees needed for the most effective operation of the component.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Ensure that proposed grade structures are appropriate and, if necessary, suggest employee
reassignments to ensure that all affected components are able to complete their functions without
causing undue hardship to the employees.
• Develop new or revised position descriptions as necessary.
• Serve as a liaison between the affected component(s) and RHRC and PMSB.
• Alert RHRC and PMSB of anticipated problems, such as adversely affected personnel.
• Provide PMSB with the following information:
1. Documentation stating the purpose of the change, a justification in terms of sound organizational
criteria, and the circumstances which make the change desirable or necessary;
2. Staffing charts depicting the current and proposed location of employees;
3. Organizational charts illustrating the structure of the organization;
4. New or revised functional statements (for division level and above), if functions change as a
result of the reorganization; and
5. If applicable, a brief statement of the impact on other components.
• If necessary, prepare individual or mass realignment documents for personnel changes and to change
SACs once the approved reorganization package is received from PMSB.
• Enter individual actions into the Enterprise Human Resource and Payroll System (EHRP) or forward
Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 4
mass realignment package and any other personnel actions to PMSB for review and authorizing
• Provide PMSB with copies of PHS Form 1662 (Request for Personnel Action — Commissioned
Officer) to realign Commissioned Corp personnel affected by the reorganization.
The Management Officer of the affected component will:
• Review FTE positions allotted to the affected component(s) and inform management if the proposed
staffing requirements exceed the FTEs allotted to that component. At management’s request, the
Management Officer will arrange a kite which allows a division to exceed its FTE allotment, as long
as the office above it is within its FTE limit. The shifting of FTEs is done informally with, at most, a
memo to the Director, OM, explaining the situation.
The Program Management Services Branch will:
• Inform OM of proposed organizational changes in the initial stages of development.
• Meet with management from the affected component(s), the Program Specialist and/or Management
Officer, and RHRC to obtain all necessary information and provide information and advice on
structuring the new or changed component(s).
• Inform RHRC and the Division of Management Systems (DMS), Office of Management Programs
(OMP), of upcoming organizational changes.
• Work closely with RHRC on organizational changes at the office level and above to ensure full
consideration of personnel impact. At the division level and below, preliminary consultation with
RHRC is encouraged but not required.
• If necessary, work in conjunction with management to rewrite functional statements to make them as
general and broad as possible.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Prepare an informal reorganization package for organizational changes at or above the Super Office
level (for submission to DMS, OMP); or prepare a formal reorganization package for organizational
change at or below the Office or Division level (for approval by the Center Director). Formal
reorganization packages must include:
1. A Note to the Director, OM, briefly explaining and justifying requested changes;
2. A Clearance Record (Form FDA 2306);
3. A list of impact statements (i.e., supervisory ratios that may be affected and other impacts
and/or concerns);
4. Functional statements (for division level and above);
Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 5
5. Proposed and current staffing charts;
6. Organization charts;
7. A memorandum to DMS from the Center Director, requesting the change; and
8. A Checklist (Form FDA 2620).
In addition to the information listed above, informal reorganization packages must include:
• A memorandum to the FDA Commissioner from the Associate Commissioner for Management and
Chief Financial Officer describing the reason for the reorganization and indicating that all personnel
issues have been addressed (e.g., supervisory ratios). This memorandum also requires the following
concurrences: FDA, Organization Program Officer; Director, Division of Management Systems;
Director, Office of Management Programs; and Director, Office of Executive Secretariat.
• Route the proposed reorganization package to the affected component(s), the Director, DMS, the
Director, OM, and the Director, CDER, to obtain clearance/approval.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Forward a copy of the reorganization package to RHRC, before the original goes to DMS, OMP, for
clearance of organizational changes at or below the division level. This expedites the reorganization
process by allowing RHRC time to resolve personnel issues while the original package is being sent
through other channels.
• Forward the completed original reorganization package to DMS, OMP, for review and
Agency/Department approval.
• Forward a copy of the approved package to the Management Officer to prepare documentation to
change SACs and process personnel actions.
• Authorize the actions for EHRP and realignment packages for the Director, OM, and forward them
and any other personnel actions to RHRC for processing.
• Maintain a file of all approved CDER reorganization packages.
The Director, Office of Management, CDER, will:
• If necessary, meet with management of the affected component(s), Program Specialists and/or
Management Officers, and PMSB to determine the most effective structure for the affected
organizational component(s) and to resolve problems such as adversely affected employees.
Normally, OM does not get involved until the proposal package reaches the Office for review and
• Review the proposed reorganization package to ensure that issues concerning personnel structure and
Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 6
adversely affected employees have been acknowledged and either resolved or it is noted that they are
being addressed.
The Center Director will:
• Approve or disapprove Center organizational changes at the Office or Division level and below.
Approval or disapproval should be based on whether or not the organizational change enhances
productivity and effectiveness in accomplishing the current and long-range goals of the organizational
component and the mission of the Center.
The Rockville Human Resources Center (RHRC), Client Services Division will:
• Provide managers and PMSB with staffing assistance and work with them to resolve personnel
• Review personnel information contained in reorganization packages.
• Classify new positions.
• Clear proposed reorganization packages at the division level and below before they are forwarded to
DMS and OMP, and clear DMS’s formal reorganization packages at the office level and above,
indicating that personnel issues have been considered.
• Upon final approval of the reorganization package, process realignments and other personnel actions,
if necessary.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
The Division of Management Systems, Office of Management Programs will:
• Provide advisory, analytical, and administrative support for organizational changes in the Center. If
requested, DMS will provide support for analytical studies of organizational mission, structure, and
workload.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Evaluate reorganization proposals to ensure consistency with established FDA structure and sound
organizational and management practices, and to ensure that all unresolved issues are settled before a
formal proposal is forwarded to FDA for approval.
• Prepare a formal reorganization package for organizational changes at or above the Super Office level
(for the Deputy Commissioner’s approval).
• Assign SACs to the reorganized component(s) after the organizational changes are approved at the
appropriate level.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Forward copies of the Notification of Organization Approval and/or Standard Administrative Code
Assignment (Form FDA 2755) to the appropriate Agency and Center components.
• Maintain a file of all approved CDER reorganization packages.
Originator: Division of Management Services, Office of Management
Effective Date: 12/23/96; 4/25/2007 Page 7
• The Clearance Record (Form FDA 2306). The following information must be included on the clearance
record before the reorganization package is forwarded to DMS:
1. The current and proposed supervisory ratio for each Division and Office affected by the
2. A streamlining statement stating whether or not the ratio has improved. If the ratio has not
improved, include a justification (i.e., “Although the Office ratio is not 1:10, it will not affect the
overall ratio of the Center…”); and
3. Clearance signatures of the Chief, PMSB; Director, DMS; Director, OM; Team Leader, RHRC;
the head of the component(s) requesting the change; and at least one hierarchy above all affected
components.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
• Functional Statements. Functional statements should be as general and broad as possible so the need for
future changes is less frequent. Functional statements should be forwarded to the affected Offices and
Divisions for comments and revisions before clearance is obtained. New and revised functional statements
should be saved on a disk in WORD for e-mail and sent to DMS. Functional statements are eventually
published in the FDA Staff Manual Guide.
• Current and Proposed Staffing Charts. Staffing charts in EXCEL table format, showing the staffing
configuration of both the original and the proposed components, are included for RHRC and DMS. A
complete breakdown of the staff must be shown, including groups or teams. The chart should include the
name of each employee, vacancy, proposed position, position title, pay plan, position series, current grade,
proposed grade, and the name or SAC for the organization where the employee is currently assigned.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper
PMSB acquires this information from the Program Specialists, Management Officers, or managers. An
“As of” date should be shown under the title of the chart.
• Current and Proposed Organization Charts. Organization charts are included in the proposed package
to illustrate the complete breakdown of all affected components of the new organization.Human Resource Management Assignment Paper

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