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HME704 Fundamentals Of Health Informatics

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HME704 Fundamentals Of Health Informatics

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HME704 Fundamentals Of Health Informatics

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Course Code: HME704
University: Deakin University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

In 2015 the Australian Government established 31 Primary Hralth Networks (PHNs), Focussing on NSW, you need to compare and contrast the different functions of PHN’s and Local Health Districts (LHDs). You will be expected to address roles, accountability, budgets and other relevant items that you feel are required to distinguish between the two. Identify any difficulties that may emerge from the new arrangements and make recommendations for improvements.

The Australian government established the Primary Health Network (PHN) in 2015 focusing on New South Wale (NSW). PHNs were created with the aim of improving efficiency and effectiveness in medical services which are offered to patients and enhancing the coordination of healthcare. This can only be achieved through the provision of better information, education, and creation of networking opportunities for healthcare professionals so that it can be easy to establish connections across healthcare system in NSW to ensure that patients receive high-quality healthcare services which meets their health needs (Booth et al., 2016). Primary health networks in NSW provides an opportunity to focus efforts at the regional level to achieve a better health care system in the country. PHNs coordinates across the whole healthcare system to ensure that healthcare professionals are offering quality healthcare services to patients.  Local health districts were established in 2011 by the NSW government with the aims of delivering healthcare services across the country. The locals decide LHD, and most individuals who are involved include clinicians and the community. In NSW there are eight local health districts which cover the metropolitan region and seven LHDs covering the rural and regional locations (Joshi et al., 2013). The primary objective of LHD is to enhance unity and cooperation to improve the health and wellbeing of the community. LHD staffs and healthcare professionals strive to provide high-quality healthcare services to patients. This paper focus on comparing and contrasting the various functions of primary health networks (PHN) and local health districts (LHD). 
Compare and Contrast the Function of Local Health Districts (LHD) and Primary Health Network (PHN)
Similarities of LHD and PHN Functions
The tasks of LHD and PHN in offering healthcare services are similar in some ways. LHD and PHN aim at leading and developing primary and community healthcare. These programs aim at ensuring that they continue to produce successful leadership programs which can be able to support the implementation of primary health care reforms which provides patients receive high-quality healthcare services. While delivering health care services, local health districts and primary health networks ensure that they maintain equity (Reyes, Bekemeier & Issel, 2014). Which means they ensure that all patients all treated equally and individuals who are from poor backgrounds are not mistreated, but they are shown love and given the healthcare assistance which they need. This is made possible by the formulation of policies which takes action against any health care professionals who offends patients because of their poor financial status. LHD and PHN also ensure that there is the establishment of programs which offer financial assistance to the poor so that they can be able to seek medical attention when they are sick. Both LHD and PHN ensures the application of informatics and E-health in the provision of healthcare services. Informatics and E-health enhance health operations.
With the use of informatics, healthcare professionals are now able to maintain accuracy and efficiency of the procedures which they perform in healthcare. This is because they can store patients’ information in save databases which they can retrieve in the future while assessing the patient’s health. Informatics has made access to healthcare service easy. This is because with the use of mobile phones patents can trace the best hospitals and healthcare institutions which can meet their needs. LHD and PHN support application of informatics and E-health in health care system because patients with the use of their mobile phones can evaluate the best diets which they are supposed to eat so that they can reduce the risk of been infected by various infections and also reduce complications associated with epidemics such as diabetes and obesity (Polivka & Chaudry, 2015). Use of healthcare software improves the quality of health care services and disease control. Software plays a vital role in tracking procedures and billing methods which reduce paperwork which is tiresome.
Differences between Local Health Districts (LHD) and Primary Health Networks (PHN) Regarding the Roles, Accountability, and Budget
The functions which are performed by primary health networks (PHN) are very much far different from the roles of local health districts (LHD). PHN performs the role of negotiating and advocating for primary healthcare issues which address health inequalities through partnership. On the other hand, LHD ensures that there are effective clinical and corporate governance frameworks established in NSW to support healthcare standards of patients care and services which meets their needs (Beatty et al., 2015). Primary healthcare networks ensures equity of health care services among patients which drives change in healthcare system of NSW including savings and efficiencies, while LHDs provides guides and programs which are used to ensure that all individuals in healthcare institutions of NSW are treated equally with no discrimination, and it takes actions against health care professionals who are charged with the offense of mistreating patients due to their poor financial status. PHNs monitors and evaluate measures which need to be changed in the NSW health care system to enhance healthcare services provided to patients.
On the other hand, LHDs establishes strategic plans which are used to ensure that the health care services which are offered to patients meets their needs. The last difference in the roles of PHN and LHD is that PHN advocates for disinvestments where they are required in the healthcare system of NSW while LHN approves the healthcare system to support efficient and economical operations within the districts so that they can be able to ensure that resources are equally distributed, and they are effectively used (Beck, Leider, Coronado & Harper, 2017). Regarding accountability, LHDs are more accountable for their operations as compared to PHNs because they provide that all the set objectives of the framework are achieved through effective utilization of all the available resources in NSW.Regarding budget, LHDs are more costly to establish and make them operate effectively as compared to PHNs (Caldwell, 2013). This is because LHDs are many and each requires a large amount of capital. On the other hand, PHNs are few in NSW, and thus they do not require a lot of money.
Difficulties Which Emerge From the New Arrangements in the Healthcare System of NSW
LHDs and PHNs in NSW have been facing a lot of challenges. This is because these programs have to work for all the people in NSW even the indigenous communities who live in remote areas which have poor infrastructure making transport hard for healthcare professionals who are sent to attend patients in these areas (Macías-Escrivá, Haber, Del Toro & Hernandez, 2013). NSW does not have enough PHNs which can be used to meet all the primary health care requirements of the citizens mostly in rural and remote areas. The transitions which are made to establish PHNs and LHDs are required to shape the public health care professionals in health institutions (Sturmberg & Lanham, 2014). Therefore these programs are judged because they are not capable of achieving collaborative advantages by working across stakeholder groups. LHDs and PHNs in NSW aim at ensuring a reduction in avoidable hospitalization which is very difficult to achieve. This is because the disconnection between primary health institutions and hospitals as the Commonwealth role has had to change over the past few years. Another challenge which is facing LHDs and PHNs is that the health care services which they have to provide to patients are not reduced to experimentation but is based on the sound evidence. Health literacy is a challenge in the NSW health care system (Alvarez-Rosete, Hawkins & Parkhurst, 2013). This is because we only have a few numbers of educated people in NSW because the majority of people living here are the aboriginals and they value their local education. This makes it hard for healthcare professionals from LHDs and PHNs to communicate effectively with them when offering healthcare services because they only understand their first language.
Recommendations for Improvement of the Healthcare System in NSW
Healthcare system in NSW should ensure that they improve mechanisms for sharing information and innovation must be part of PHNs and LHDs (Meara et al., 2015). Commonwealth should ensure that these programs allow their healthcare professionals to share their best health practices which improves the quality of life. The government of NSW should ensure that bilateral primary healthcare agreements are progressing. The work and roles which are already commenced in the bilateral healthcare are improved to ensure they capture the earliest opportunities (Gilligan, Outram & Levett-Jones, 2014). Stakeholders in LHDs and PHNs should have sufficient skills and abilities so that they can be able to influence and advise the board correctly. The last recommendation which can be used to enhance improvement in the healthcare system in NSW is ensuring that partnership between various healthcare programs is formalized. Formalization of these system improves healthcare service delivery, and they integrate care addressing healthcare service gaps.
The underlying healthcare programs in NSW is equity to universal access to most health care services regardless of the situation and the ability to pay. Which means these programs aim at ensuring that healthcare services are made available to all individuals despite their financial status and indigenous communities who live in rural and remote areas are also supplied with healthcare services. Local health districts (LHD) and primary health networks (PHN) programs were formed so that the quality of health care services is improved and that each person can access healthcare institutions when they are sick.
Alvarez-Rosete, A., Hawkins, B., & Parkhurst, J. (2013). Health system stewardship and evidence informed health policy.
Beatty, K. E., Mayer, J., Elliott, M., Brownson, R. C., Abdulloeva, S., & Wojciehowski, K. (2015). Patterns and predictors of local health department accreditation in Missouri. Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP, 21(2), 116.
Beck, A. J., Leider, J. P., Coronado, F., & Harper, E. (2017). State health agency and local health department workforce: identifying top development needs. American journal of public health, 107(9), 1418-1424.
Booth, M., Hill, G., Moore, M. J., Dalla, D., Moore, M., & Messenger, A. (2016). The new Australian Primary Health Networks: how will they integrate public health and primary care. Public Health Res Pract, 26(1), e2611603.
Caldwell, S. (2013). Public health practice: what works. Oxford University Press.
Gilligan, C., Outram, S., & Levett-Jones, T. (2014). Recommendations from recent graduates in medicine, nursing and pharmacy on improving interprofessional education in university programs: a qualitative study. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 52.
Joshi, C., Russell, G., Cheng, I. H., Kay, M., Pottie, K., Alston, M., … & Wahidi, S. S. (2013). A narrative synthesis of the impact of primary health care delivery models for refugees in resettlement countries on access, quality and coordination. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), 88.
Macías-Escrivá, F. D., Haber, R., Del Toro, R., & Hernandez, V. (2013). Self-adaptive systems: A survey of current approaches, research challenges and applications. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(18), 7267-7279.
Meara, J. G., Leather, A. J., Hagander, L., Alkire, B. C., Alonso, N., Ameh, E. A., … & Mérisier, E. D. (2015). Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. The Lancet, 386(9993), 569-624.
Polivka, B. J., & Chaudry, R. V. (2015). Public health nursing position descriptions congruence with ANA standards, public health essential services, and quad council domains. Public Health Nursing, 32(5), 532-542.
Reyes, D. J., Bekemeier, B., & Issel, L. M. (2014). Challenges faced by public health nursing leaders in hyperturbulent times. Public Health Nursing, 31(4), 344-353.
Sturmberg, J., & Lanham, H. J. (2014). Understanding health care delivery as a complex system: achieving best possible health outcomes for individuals and communities by focusing on interdependencies. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 20(6), 1005-1009.

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