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HLTENN001 Practise Nursing Within The Australian Health Care System

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HLTENN001 Practise Nursing Within The Australian Health Care System

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Course Code: HLTENN001
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia

Question:

1.Choose one of the theories listed below and explain how it would apply to nursing care and nursing practice.

Peplau’s theory
Systems theory
Basic human needs theory
Developmental theory
Psychosocial theory

2.The Australian health care system has evolved over time. (maximum 100 words)
a.Describe the historical origins of the Australian healthcare system and explain how it has evolved into the current healthcare system we have in Australia today.
b.Identify and discuss at least two strengths and two weakness relating to the overall structure of the current Australian Healthcare system.
3.Many countries suffer health inequalities, including Australia. In Western societies, social issues continue to emerge as the gap between those with and those without economic resources grows.
a.In what ways, do you think an individual’s financial status affects their ability to access health resources?
b.Outline the social determinants that you consider disadvantage people and create health inequalities.
c.Explain the healthcare issues and it’s the impacts for healthcare deliver for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
d.Identify one health issue facing people from a non-western country  and discuss the factors that may impact on this health issue (consider culture, environment, resources etc.).
4.Part of your education includes experiences in different types of healthcare settings. (maximum 150 words)
a.How would the role of the Enrolled nurse in the primary care setting be different from their role in the acute care setting? Within your answer discuss the members of the health care team who the Enrolled nurse would most likely be working alongside
b.Discuss the principles and philosophical framework of primary health care. Within your answer explain how the principles of wellness can be incorporated into the nurses care
5.Discuss the following features and roles of the Australian health care system: within your answers cover political and economical impacts on health care delivery
a.State vs Federal health care funding  
b.Provide a brief explaination of how you would explain Medicare vs Private Health Insurance to a family member
c.Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
6.Explain the roles of the following nursing bodies using your own words: (maximum 100 words)
a.Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia
b.Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation
7.Select one current health issue in Australia from the National Health Priority Areas as outlined in the following weblink

Discuss initiatives that are already in place to address this issue.
In your answer identify an appropriate support service in Australia which is available to support people with this health issue.

8.Identify one non-western approach to healthcare
Explain how this could be incorporated into the care provided for people within the Australian healthcare system. (maximum 80 words)
9.Locate the  “DMF A4 nursing summary guide – 2010 – rebranded” document from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Frameworks.aspxto assist you to identify the issues outlined in the following case study:
This evening when you report for your shift on to your general medical ward, the charge nurse tells you that you need to assist on the orthopaedic ward. You have not had any recent experience with orthopaedic patients.  When you arrive on the orthopaedic ward, the charge nurse allocates you patients who require special techniques for getting out of bed and who need to do exercises using specialised equipment during the shift. You are not familiar with the techniques or the equipment. The charge nurse tells you that the patients can explain it to you. (maximum 150 words)
a.Should you accept this assignment and rely on the patients to explain the techniques and equipment to you? provide 2 rationales for your answer  
b.What aspects of the Standard for Practice: Enrolled Nurses (2016) need to be considered in this situation? Please access this document to assist with your answer
c.What action(s) would you take? – provide at least 2 actions
10.Identify one current health promotion strategy in Australia. (Possible examples include: smoking cessation, reduction of binge drinking, skin cancer awareness.)
a.Evaluate the effectiveness of this health promotion strategy (i.e. what is good/bad about it/does it work)
b.Identify any risk factors associated with the health issue targeted by the health promotion strategy and explain which health professional may be able to assist with that health issue and why.

Answer:

Choose oneof the theories listed below and explain how it would apply to nursing care and nursing practice 

Peplau’s theory

Peplau’s  theory focuses on the development of the interpersonal processes as well as therapeutic relationship which develops between the nurse and the client. With this theory it helps the nurse and patients to come together as strangers, and work together in order to recognize facts which are related to need (Nursing Theories, 2013). With this theory the nurses will be able to understand on their own behavior in order to help others to identify felt difficulties and apply principles of the human relations to the issues which arises to all the levels of experience. Additionally, the nurses are able to help patient to recognize and understand their problem and determine the need for help (Pearson, 2013).

Systems theory
Basic human needs theory
Developmental theory
Psychosocial theory

The Australian health care system has evolved over time.(maximum 100 words)
Describe the historical origins of the Australian healthcare system and explain how it has evolved into the current healthcare system we have in Australia today.

The healthcare system in Australia is complex, it entails many fundersand healthcare providers. The responsibilities are usually split between various levels of the government, and between the government as well as the non government sectors. Generalization, the Australian Government has been responsible to funding of the healthcare, through the health insurance arrangements as well as direct payments to the state and the Territoties. The health care system has significantly evolved In the sense that there are many stakeholders currely, which has brought univerals access to most health care regardless of the ability to pay. The revenue for the health care system come from taxation.

Identify and discuss at least two strengths and two weakness relating to the overall structure of the current Australian Healthcare system.

Strengths
Australia Healthcare system provides cover for the primary health care, ambulatory  services and impatient care to the public hospitals. This service is funded by the federal tax revenue.
There is cost improving effectiveness with the health care system.  With this system there is improvement in the cost effectiveness.
Weaknesses
There is pressure to the public system.  With the use of the system there would be increased waiting periods to elective consultations and procedures.
There is increased in the government health spending on the system. This could be evaluated in regards to the relative contribution of the federal government and the health insurance funds.

Many countries suffer health inequalities, including Australia. In Western societies, social issues continue to emerge as the gap between those with and those without economic resources grows. (maximum 120 words)
In what ways, do you think an individual’s financial status affects their ability to access health resources?

When one do not have finances this contribute to greater burden of unhealthy stress, where there is prolonged exposure to the psychological demands and possibilities to control the situation (Australian Government (Department of Health), 2013). Financial status is crucial since without one do not access some health resources.

Outline the social determinants that you consider disadvantage people and create health inequalities.

Racism is one social determinant which is disadvantageous to people. It is a stressor which could be reported to impact mental and physical health. Other social determinants are  removal of children from their families,  and women as victims of crime.

Explain the healthcare issues and it’s the impacts for healthcare deliver for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The healthcare issues which affect health care deliver are as follows; limited availability or affordability of the service. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individual might not have available health care resources or might not afford the services (Australian Government (Department of Health), 2013). Another aspect is racism (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007). This could lead to stress aspect amongst the individuals.

Identify one health issue facing people from a non-western country  and discuss the factors that may impact on this health issue (consider culture, environment, resources etc.).

One aspect is poverty which is associated to poor health.  Poorer income in most of the time reduces on the accessibility of the health care services as well as medicines (Wilkinson & Marmot, 2003). Moreover, poor education as well as literacy has been linked to poor health status, and this impact on the capacity of the individuals to use health information (Australian Government (Department of Health), 2013).

Part of your education includes experiences in different types of healthcare settings. (maximum 150 words)

How would the role of the Enrolled nurse in the primary care setting be different from their role in the acute care setting? Within your answer discuss the members of the health care team who the Enrolled nurse would most likely be working alongside

The enrolled nurses is different in primary care setting from the acute care setting in the population in which they provide care (Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association, 2017). Acute care is offered to the patients who are experiencing chronic complex illness, in comparison to the primary whre there is provision of care characterized by long term relationship with the patient. The enrolled nurse works alongside the regiseted nurse or the nurse practitioner in delivering nursing care and health education.

Discuss the principles and philosophical framework of primary health care. Within your answer explain how the principles of wellness can be incorporated into the nurses care.

Primary healthcare is important to improve everyday living.  One framework would be through education in order to ensure the needs of physical and mental are met. Moreover, it is important to change mental attitude for the positive outcome (Australian Nursing Federation, 2009). Incorporating the principle of wellness to the client life is believed to improve effectively health condition. one of the principles of wellness highlights that wellness is an active process that the patient pursues activities in order to obtain wellbeing.

Discuss the following features and roles of the Australian health care system: within your answers cover political and economical impacts on health care delivery(maximum 200 words)
State vs Federal health care funding

State health care funding is where the state government fund as well as deliver range of other health services which include population healh programs, community health services along with the health and medical research. The state government is responsible for the health service funding. On the aspect of economic impact of the health care system, the state is responsible to deliver and manage of the public health services (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2010). Moreover, there is also regulation of the health care providers along with the private health facilities. These services provided by the health care system assist  to deliver on such as the environmental health programs (Law, 2011). When it comes to federal health care funding is where it is paid by the government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurance plans along with individual person own funds. This funding will have an effect on the health care system in the sense that Medicare offers rebates for the medical and hospital services to all the Australian residents (Law, 2011).

Provide a brief explaination of how you would explain Medicare vs Private Health Insurance to a family member.

Explaining the difference between the two to a family member would be in regards that, Medicare pays for the patients to be treated in a public health system but when it comes to the health insurance pays for the patient to be treated in the private health system (Australian Law Reform Commission, (n.d).

Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme

When it comes to the PBS it is a scheme which shows lists to all the medicines which is available to be dispensed to the patients particularly at government subsidized price (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). This scheme is part of the wider Pharmaceutical benefit which is managed by the Department of the Health and at the same time administered by the Department of the human services.

Explain the roles of the following nursing bodies using your own words:(maximum 100 words)
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia

This body usually undertake functions of protecting the public, through the development of registration standards, professional codes, guidelins as well as standards for the practice that establishes the requirements for the professional and safe practice of the nurses and the Midfrey (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016).

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation

This is organization of the workers which purpose is to protect and advocate to its member  interest. Most of the advocacy entails collective bargaining aimed to improve on the workers wages, hours, along with conditions and benefits (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2010).

Select one current health issue in Australia from the National Health Priority Areasas outlined in the following weblink

The current health issue in Australia is mental health. It is one of the National Health Priority Areas which has been recognized of its huge social as well as public significance.  

Discuss initiatives that are already in place to address this issue.

The initiative in place to address on the issue is community based system which is part of the National Mental Health Strategy, for the treatment and support within the national framework of the mental health reforms (Australian Nursing Federation, 2009). This initiative aims to address on the key issues such as the consumer rights, provision for the integrated mental health services , and mainstreaming of the mental health services.

In your answer identify an appropriate support service in Australia which is available to support people with this health issue.

One such service is the contact services such as lifeline, centrelink also could be important since they offer financial support to individuals with health issues.

Identify onenon-western approach to healthcare

Explain how this could be incorporated into the care provided for people within the Australian healthcare system.(maximum80 words).
One non western approach involvement of the community in the planning and delivery services. This is done through building of trust, understanding of the mutual respect which is the fundamental step in making of the service accessible (Commonwealth of Australia, 2017). This could be incorporated into care offered in Australian healthcare system through implementing culturally acceptable services since it empower the communities to make decisions in regards to the provision of appropriate health services

Locate the  “DMF A4 nursing summary guide – 2010 – rebranded” document from

to assist you to identify the issues outlined in the following case study:
This evening when you report for your shift on to your general medical ward, the charge nurse tells you that you need to assist on the orthopaedic ward. You have not had any recent experience with orthopaedic patients.  When you arrive on the orthopaedic ward, the charge nurse allocates you patients who require special techniques for getting out of bed and who need to do exercises using specialised equipment during the shift. You are not familiar with the techniques or the equipment. The charge nurse tells you that the patients can explain it to you. (maximum150 words)

Should you accept this assignment and rely on the patients to explain the techniques and equipment to you? provide 2 rationales for your answer  

To rely on the patient the framework to use is the critical thinking which is an essential skill. As much as the patient explain it is important to use cognitive tools  such as interpretation, analysis and evaluation (Australian Government, 2016).
The charge nurses believes that the tasks at hand are easy to comprehend provided one has the necessary skills to address on the issues affecting the  patients. There is principle of accountability, since the charge nurses believe that one has the competent against the NMBA standard for practice and thus any task assigned is easy to accomplish.

What aspects of the Standard for Practice: Enrolled Nurses (2016) need to be considered in this situation? Please access this document to assist with your answer https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards/enrolled-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx

In this case the standard for practice is providing skilled and timely care to people whilst promoting their independenc and involvement in the care decision making (Australian Government, 2016). The charge nurse has issued directive for being assigned duties in that ward, thus one should offer care to people who are unable to meet their own physical and mental needs as in the case of the patients.

What action(s) would you take? – provide at least 2 actions

The action would take demonstrates currency and competency in the safe use of the healthcare technology.
I would also recognize on the physical health of persons who are receiving care and provide the necessary appropriate assistance in way I could.

Identify onecurrent health promotion strategy in Australia. (Possible examples include: smoking cessation, reduction of binge drinking, skin cancer awareness.)
Evaluate the effectiveness of this health promotion strategy (i.e. what is good/bad about it/does it work)

The health promotion strategy helps to enhance the quality of life to all individuals in Australia. The strategy focus on prevention, and it helps reduce on the costs which is both financial and human which individuals spend on the medical treatment (Australian Government, 2016). Yes, it does work since there it entails combination of the people and social actions  that are usually designed to commitment, and policy support (Australian Government, 2016).

Identify any risk factors associated with the health issue targeted by the health promotion strategy and explain which health professional may be able to assist with that health issue and why.

Risk factors example which is associated to the health issue is behavioural risks which are associated to actions which individual has chosen to take. Example of this risk factor is smooking tobacco, physical inactivity, and drinking too much of alcohol (Australian Government, 2016). Health care provider to assist with this issue could be advanced practice registered nurses who would guide these individuals on the best practices.
References
Australian Government. (2016). A healthy and active Australia. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://www.healthyactive.gov.au/
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). Health care delivery and financing (Catalogue No.
1301.0). Retrieved March 20, 2017 from
https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/1301.0~2012~Main%20Featu
res~Health%20care%20delivery%20and%20financing~235
Australian Government (Department of Health). (2013). The social determinants of health.
Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/oatsih-healthplantoc~determinants
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007, April). Social determinants and the health of
Indigenous peoples in Australia – a human rights based approach. Paper presented at the
International Symposium on the Social Determinants of Indigenous health. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/social-determinants-and-health-indigenouspeoples-australia-human-rights-based
Australian Law Reform Commission. (n.d.). Overview of the Australian healthcare system.
Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/19-gene-patents-andhealthcare-system/overview-australian-healthcare-system
Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association. (2017). What is primary health care nursing?
Retrieved August 24, 2018 from https://www.apna.asn.au/profession/what-is-primary-healthcare-nursing
Australian Nursing Federation (2009). Primary health care in Australia: A nursing and
midwifery consensus view. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://anmf.org.au/documents/reports/PHC_Australia.pdf
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Standards for practice: Enrolled
Nurses. Retrieved August 24, 2018  from  https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/CodesGuidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx
Commonwealth of Australia. (2017). About the PBS.  Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://www.pbs.gov.au/info/about-the-pbs
Law, I. (2011). Markets and medicine: Financing the Australian healthcare system. Australian Medical Student Journal, 2(2). https://www.amsj.org/wp-content/uploads/files/articles/amsj_v2_i2/pg76-79.pdf
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2010). Nursing practice decisions summary guide.
Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Search.aspx?q=Nursing%20practice%20decisions
Nursing Theories. (2013). Retrieved August 24, 2018 from
https://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/
Pearson, A. (2013). Nursing models for practice. In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G. Rebeiro
(Eds.). Potter and Perry’s fundamentals of nursing (4th ed., pp. 39-54). Sydney, NSW: Elsevier.
Wilkinson, R., & Marmot, M. (Eds) (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nd ed.).
Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization. Retrieved August 24, 2018:
https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf

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