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HLSC122 Evidence For Practice And Nursing Research

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HLSC122 Evidence For Practice And Nursing Research

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HLSC122 Evidence For Practice And Nursing Research

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Course Code: HLSC122
University: Australian Catholic University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

1. Identify the components of a clinical question using PICO/PICo2. Identify and describe key health databases and where they are located on the ACU Library website.3. Explain why you would choose a particular database 4. Demonstrate the initial search process (include the headings:
search ID#; search terms; search options; actions)5. Demonstrate refining the search for evidence using a variety of strategies (Boolean operators, truncation, wildcards, limiters)6. Demonstrate reducing the number of search results to a significantly smaller number after refining the search using the strategies in L.O. 57. Identify the best available sources/journal articles found in the final search (These should answer the clinical question/PICO components)8. Describe tips for searching

This article talks about the benefits of the Paleo diet for health by thoroughly comparing the metabolic and physiological improvements of participants who were on Paleo Diet (PD). Twenty participants with BMI 26±1kg/m2 and aged 43±3 years were considered for this study (Martin & Akers, 2013). The outcome of the study was measured on the basis of several parameters, which included: 

Insulin sensitivity
Body composition and weight
Blood pressure and
Lipid profiles

The study proved that people who were on Paleo Diet for 5-weeks resulted in significant reductions in their body weight, fat mass and percent body fat.
The ideas and opinions of this paper were quite unique. The researchers reported the case study methods elaborately and have given the detailed structural framework that went into designing the report. They maintained the randomized control of the study by selecting the subjects according to a set parameter. Only people who are overweight and belong to a certain age group were considered as subjects (Manheimer et al., 2015). This minimised the probable bias that may had taken place if the subjects differed in their age groups and BMI, since any certain diet has significantly different effect on people belonging to different age groups and possessing different body mass index. The importance of this article is that it includes both metabolic and physiologic data which helped establish the results. It has provided a comparative study that helped establishing the data. Along with the expected outcome of weight loss, it also talks about the beneficial metabolic changes that happen as an added advantage of following the Paleo diet plan. The study has been done on subjects who are overweight according to their age and BMI structure. Therefore, the given case study can easily be answered based on this research study. 
The second research paper that have been found to be one of the best is as follows: 
This article assesses both the beneficial and the controversial aspects of the Paleolithic diet plan. It talks about the benefits of Paleo diet in weight loss and its proven improvements in metabolic dysfunction. On the contrary, the study also provides information about individuals who consume Paleo diet, tend to become deficient in calcium. Therefore this study suggests, that the General Practitioners (GP) should advice people to intake adequate calcium in order to avoid further complications such as osteoporosis.
Unlike the other articles found on the database, this is the only one that has not only provided with the beneficiary factors but also has discussed the negative side effects of following the Paleo diet plan. The benefits include the expected outcome of weight loss, along with several metabolic improvements (Darmasseelane et al., 2014). But the study also warns about the possible side effects regarding the diet. Such as it talks about the fact that the Paleolithic diet does not contain any significant element that can help retain calcium in body. Therefore, people who strictly follow this diet plan, tend to lack calcium in their system. This paper has also given suggestions regarding the required steps to be taken into consideration in order to stay healthy while following the Paleo diet plan (Masharani et al., 2015). Such as the researchers have suggested the use of calcium tablets to avoid further deterioration of health. The unconventional approach of discussing both the positive and negative aspects of Paleo diet, have made this paper one of the best published article on the effectiveness of Paleolithic diet.  
Both of the evidences have proven to be sufficient in addressing all the PICO elements of the clinical question. Each of the article has talked about the patient problem of being overweight (P) and intervened the Paleolithic diet plan (I) as a solution. All the two evidences have ultimately established that following a Paleo diet plan is better than a normal diet (C) in order to effectively lose weight (O).
From the first article it was found that Paleo diet helps in the maintenance of the lipid profile and blood pressure in individuals with a BMI that is considered as overweight. Such patients often need to take special care of their blood pressure since most of the times they suffer from hypertension (Quick et al., 2013). Also the overweight individuals possess high level of cholesterol in their blood and their lipid profile is also quite high above the normal range. Many of such patients are also diabetic and suffer from insulin sensitivity. Paleo diet can help to overcome all these issues together. Therefore, application of the evidence in clinical practice will definitely be helpful in obtaining a positive patient outcome (Greenhalgh et al., 2016).
The second article tells that patients who suffer from metabolic dysfunction and are overweight get benefitted from following the Paleo diet plan (Pitt, 2016). But they often tend to become deficient in calcium in their body, since this diet does not contain much foods that are rich in calcium. This information is a prerequisite for medical practitioners who can suggest intake of calcium tablets and therefore prevent development of osteoporosis in their patients (Boers et al., 2014). 
Boers, I., Muskiet, F. A., Berkelaar, E., Schut, E., Penders, R., Hoenderdos, K., … & Jong, M. C. (2014). Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study. Lipids in health and disease, 13(1), 160.
Darmasseelane, K., Hyde, M. J., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., & Modi, N. (2014). Mode of delivery and offspring body mass index, overweight and obesity in adult life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(2), e87896.
Greenhalgh, T., Bidewell, J., Crisp, E., Lambros, A., & Warland, J. (2016). Understanding Research Methods for Evidence-Based Practice in Health 1e.
Manheimer, E. W., van Zuuren, E. J., Fedorowicz, Z., & Pijl, H. (2015). Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis, 2. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 102(4), 922-932.
Martin, C. A., & Akers, J. (2013). Paleo Diet Versus Modified Paleo Diet: A Randomized Control Trial of Weight Loss and Biochemical Benefit. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(9), A35.
Masharani, U., Sherchan, P., Schloetter, M., Stratford, S., Xiao, A., Sebastian, A., … & Frassetto, L. (2015). Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes. European journal of clinical nutrition, 69(8), 944.
Pitt, C. E. (2016). Cutting through the Paleo hype: The evidence for the Palaeolithic diet. Australian family physician, 45(1/2), 35.
Quick, V., Wall, M., Larson, N., Haines, J., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2013). Personal, behavioral and socio-environmental predictors of overweight incidence in young adults: 10-yr longitudinal findings. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 37.

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