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H402 Food And Nutrition Management

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H402 Food And Nutrition Management

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H402 Food And Nutrition Management

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Course Code: H402
University: George Brown College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Canada

Literature review:- information on consumption status of the carrot as well as frozen carrot in australia.
Could its consumption be improved?
Is frozen carrots an innovative food product in any way?
Botanical nomeclature and discussion of edible parts of the fruit and vegetable.
Biochemical and nutritional information about the carrot plant related to its preparation in the food industry and its consumption.
Frozen sliced carrots (including orange and heirloom varieties):- its nutritional content, availability in australia, transportation, storage, Quality Assurance steps, preparation, marketing and distribution.

Food Nutrition
Much debate has been ongoing on whether some food preservation methods such as freezing and canning reduce the nutritional content of fruits and vegetables. With an oblivious lack of information, individuals are continuously reluctant to consume frozen food products thereby subjecting themselves to health risk factors such as obesity (Garcia & Barrett, 2012, p. 2). With reference to frozen shredded carrots particularly grown and distributed in Australia, this paper aims to review the available literature detailing the nutritional value of carrots. In doing so, the paper details the botanical and biochemical information associated with this plant, consumption levels, its nutrient content disparities, and its availability in Australia.
Literature Review
Consumption Status of Carrots
Around the globe, China, USA and Australia are among the largest producers and consumers. Specifically in Australia, carrots are grown on a large scale and its consumption levels have continued to improve since the 1990s. The serving of frozen shredded carrots in Australia is estimated to be half a medium sized carrot per day or alternatively half a cup of the chopped carrot in a day. Evidence also indicates that young people are fully aware of the importance of taking fruits and vegetables in a day. This population is also well educated on the nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables such as carrots (Qadri et al, 2015). However, although equipped with such knowledge, there is need to encourage them to up their intake of these foods an aspect which will critical in improving the consumption of frozen shredded carrots in Australia.
Studies also indicate that improvement of consumption can also be achieved by changes in perceptions of parents concerning the nutritional value of carrots. For instance, a recent study by Nepper & Chai (2017) indicates that parents determine their children’s dietary intakes. In such cases, therefore, parents may choose family based interventions to improve the health conditions of their children by encouraging their little ones to consume more fruits and vegetables (Nepper & Chai, 2017). Similarly, when parents in Australia decide to use fruits and vegetables such as carrots to bolster their children’s health, then the consumption of carrots and precisely the widely preserved frozen shredded carrots can also be improved.
Frozen Carrot in Australia
In Australia carrots are harvested when they are tender and fully formed as depicted by their bright orange color. For frozen shredded carrots, they are washed, trimmed, peeled and blenched before they are frozen. These processes are highly essential in the preservation of the vegetable from the time of its harvest to the time of reaching the consumer (Rickman, Barrett & Bruhn, 2009, p. 931). Despite the nutritional value associated with the food, producers of carrots have historically found it difficult to preserve the vegetable in a high quality state until the time it reaches the end consumer. Hence, the pre-freezing methods of peeling and blanching have illustrated the innovativeness of frozen shredded carrots in Australia. As an innovative product, frozen carrots have managed to maintain the nutritional content of carrots for lengthy periods of time before they are used as food by the consumers of this product (AFGC, 2017, p. 14). In addition, studies have also indicated that such product innovations stand to increase the overall consumption of carrots as a frozen food product (Heinrichs & Ellison, 2016, p. 4).
Botanical Nomenclature and Edible Parts of Carrots
Carrot, Daucus carota is an herbaceous root vegetable that belongs to the parsley family as well as parsnip. Carrots are normally orange in color although some carrots are white but with similar woody texture. They have a complex taxonomy since they comprise of two separate species namely wild and cultivated carrots. Nonetheless, the species is subdivided into 13 subspecies for the wild taxa and one for the cultivated carrots. Daucus carota is a biennial plant which grows an emblem of leaves throughout the spring and summer periods as it builds up its stout taproot. The taproot is specifically designed to store high levels of sugars that will flower the plant towards the end of the year (Xin et al, 2014).
The tapering taproot is the edible part of carrots and can be used in a variety of ways. For instance, carrots can be eaten in its raw form or chopped and grated for making salads (Xin et al, 2014). For frozen shredded carrots in Australia, they can be used to make salads or cooked in soup and stews. They can also be used to make carrot cakes and carrot pudding, or be used as ready to eat snack foods (AFGC, 2017, P. 5).
Biochemical and Nutritional Information
Available studies indicate that cooking and storage practices significantly determine the loss nutritional value in fresh products. Nonetheless, freezing and canning products may substantially reduce the loss of nutrients in vegetables and fruits. As mentioned earlier, frozen shredded carrots in Australia are blanched and drained before freezing them. Ideally, during these processes, the frozen carrot will lose fewer nutrients since less time is spent on heating thereby preserving the nutritional value of carrots (Santosa & Umam, 2016, p. 121). However, contradicting studies have indicated that during these processes, the initial thermal treatment of such products may result in loss of oxygen labile nutrients such as vitamin B and vitamin C nutrients. Likewise, leaching also occurs during blanching and it subsequently results in loss of nutrient contents in carrots. Furthermore, frozen products such as frozen sliced carrots are subject to oxidation a process which may make the products to ultimately lose more nutrients (Vergeldt et al, 2014, p. 42).
Similarly, studies have also indicated that frozen fruits and vegetables lose a substantial amount of nutrient contents as a result of peeling and trimming prior to freezing the products. During peeling of carrots, mechanical peelers, hot water or hot sodium hydroxide are used to remove the outer covering of carrots. These processes of peeling may remove nutrients from the plants when the removed portions are discarded. Moreover, peeling also exposes the phloem or the flesh of the carrot to the atmosphere thereby facilitating oxidation in the process enabling the loss of carotenoid activity (Patras, Tiwari & Brunton, 2011, p. 301).
Nutritional Content
Frozen sliced carrots are a good source of fibers as well as other vitamins such as vitamins C, E and B6. This vegetable is also lowly saturated in fats and cholesterol but it’s highly enriched in antioxidants and minerals such as iodine and selenium. The most dominant nutrient in carrots is β-carotene which is a dimer of vitamin A. This component gives the carrot its orange color. However, carrots are largely comprised of calories that primarily emanate from sugars which essentially diminishes the nutritional value of the plant. In the case for frozen sliced carrots, available studies have illustrated that the processes involved in the pre-freezing period diminishes the aforementioned nutritional content of carrots (Arscott & Tanumilhardj, 2010, p. 224).
The widely used pre-freezing process is blanching and this process is the chief factor that deteriorates the nutritional contents of carrots. Notably, blanching is done so as to inactivate enzymes thereby preventing carrots from detrimental effects of changes in color, nutritive value and flavor during the storage. As studies indicate, these effects are conversely recreated instead of being eliminated. Ultimately, carrots are subjected to loss of vitamins and other water soluble minerals ((Patras, Tiwari & Brunton, 2011, p. 301). Thus, unlike unfrozen and fresh carrots, the contents of minerals in frozen sliced carrots are minimal. Nonetheless, such losses in nutritional content can be rectified by limiting the time taken to heat the carrots during blanching.
Availability in Australia
In Australia, wild carrots have been naturalized in all the states and as such, they are taken as cultivated carrots that are consumable. They are widely distributed in stores across the country with most of the distributors applying the technique of snap freezing in order to lock in the freshness and flavor of the product. Some consumers also prefer to purchase the fresh carrots and freeze the raw carrots without blanching by packing them in zip lock bags and storing them in a freezer (Tattersall, 2016).
On a large scale basis, the Australian cold chain system is applied. In this program,  specific set of standards are used to determine the desirable temperatures to store the food, the length of time for refrigeration and stock rotation options that designate the time to discard products that are about to expire. Transportation of carrots is done by vehicles as well as use of other specialized equipment such as corrugated floors to facilitate even air circulation, trailer insulation, door seals, and insulated walls to create barriers to heat. As such, during transportation, focus is put on air circulation and maintenance of storage temperatures at slightly above 5 degrees Celsius (AFGC, 2017, p. 28). The transported carrots are stored in warehouses where the primary focus is kept on maintain temperatures using data loggers. In this case, freezers are maintained at -18°C in order to maintain the quality of the product.
In conclusion, there is need to improve the level of intake of fruits and vegetables such as carrots. Although available studies have indicated the benefits of vegetables and fruits in reducing the risk to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, there is lacking evidence on the obstacles that hamper the intake of vegetables such as frozen sliced carrots. Even so, limited research have indicated that the nutritional levels of frozen food products is equivalent to fresh foods and are subsequently cheaper for consumers (Heinrichs & Ellison, 2016, p. 2). Equipping consumers with such vital information could be pivotal in promoting the consumption of frozen fruits and vegetables such as frozen shredded carrots in Australia.
Arscott, S. A., & Tanumilhardjo, S. A. 2010. Carrots of Many Colors Provide Basic Nutrition and Bioavailable Phytochemicals Acting as a Functional Food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9(2), pp. 223-239.
Australian Food and Grocery Council (AFGC), 2017. Australian Cold Chain Guidelines. Available at: <>
Garcia, E., & Barrett, D. M. 2012. Preservative Treatments for Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables. Available at: <>
Heinrichs, P. A., & Ellison, B. 2016. Fresh or Frozen? Consumer Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Vegetables. Available at: <>
Nepper, M. J., & Chai, W. 2017. Parents Views of Promoting Fruits and Vegetable Intake among Overweight Preschoolers and School-Aged Children. Global Qualitative Nursing Research. Available at:
Patras, A., Tiwari, B. K., & Brunton, N. P. 2011. Influence of Blanching and Low Temperature Preservation Strategies on Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Content of Carrots, Green Beans and Broccoli. Food Science and Technology, 44, pp. 299-306.
Qadri, O. S., Yousuf, B., Srivastava, A. K., & Yildiz, F. 2015. Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Critical Factors Influencing Microbiology and Novel Approaches to Prevent Microbial Risks – A Review. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 1(1).
Rickman, J. C., Barrett, D. M., & Bruhn, C. M. 2008. Nutritional Comparison of Fresh, Frozen and Canned Fruits and Vegetables: Part 1, Vitamins C and B and Phenolic Compounds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, pp. 930-944.
Santosa, M. H., & Umam, K. 2016. Influence of Temperature and Blanching Duration on Quality of Minimally Processed Carrot (Daucas Carota) During Freeze Storage. International Food Research Journal, 23, pp. 119-123.
Tattersall, Z. 2016. How to Freeze Fresh Raw Vegetables without Blanching in Three Easy Steps. Available at: <>
Vergeldt, F. J., Dalen, G., Duijster, A. J., Voda, A., Khalouffi, S., & Van Der Sman, R. G. 2014. Rehydration Kinetics of Freeze-Dried Carrots. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 24, pp. 40-47.
Xin, X., Cheng, Y., Li, S., Zhu, Y., Xu, X., & Zheng, X. 2014. Dietary Carrot Consumption and the Risk of Prostate Cancer. European Journal of Nutrition, 53(8).

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