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FIR 3302 Building Construction For Fire Protection

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FIR 3302 Building Construction For Fire Protection

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FIR 3302 Building Construction For Fire Protection

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Course Code: FIR3302
University: Columbia Southern University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:1. Describe building construction as it relates to firefighter safety, building codes, fire prevention, code inspection, firefighting strategy, and tactics.2. Classify major types of building construction in accordance with a local/model building code.3. Analyze the hazards and tactical considerations associated with the various types of building construction.4. Explain the different loads and stresses that are placed on a building and their interrelationships.5. Identify the function of each principle structural component in typical building design.6. Differentiate between fire resistance and flame spread, and describe the testing procedures used to establish ratings for each.7. Classify occupancy designations of the building code.8. Identify the indicators of potential structural failure as they relate to firefighter safety.9. Identify the role of the Geographic Information System (GIS) as it relates to building construction.

Building construction refers to the industry and techniques that are involved in the erection and assembly of building and other structures, mainly those are used in offering shelter. The construction of shelters is an ancient human activity, which started with the only functional requirements for a controlled setting to regulate the impact of climate. The constructed structures were one of the ways that ware one of the methods by which people were able to familiarize themselves to a extensive range of climate conditions and become a universal species (Chudley, 2016).
Building construction types
Buildings are categorized into five groups ranging from the stoutest of construction in the kind of structure which is likely to fail rapidly when it is exposed to fire conditions (Steadman, 2014). The type of building construction includes;
Fire-Resistive building construction (type 1)
This Type of buildings are usually high-rise buildings, and they are considered to be the firmest type of buildings when they are open to fire conditions.
Non-Combustible Building construction (type 2)
The type 2 of the buildings are usually found in the new models and buildings .The roofs and walls of this type of buildings are constructed of materials which are non-combustible (Cobeen, 2014).
The ordinary Building construction (type 3)
This type of structures can be of old or new buildings, and they usually have walls made of materials that are non-combustible and the roof is made of wood.
Heavy timber Building construction (type 4)
This type of buildings is typically found in older structures, and they utilize huge dimensional timber for interior elements and structural members.
Wood-framed building construction (type 5)
The type 5 of buildings is found mostly in current homes. Walls and the roof are made out of flammable materials mostly wood.
Designs of structures
Structural designs are the systematic investigations of the strength, stability, and rigidity of structures. The main aim of the design of structures and analysis is to produce a structure which has the ability to resist all applied loads without failure during its lifespan. The primary function of a structure is to support or transmit loads. In the situations where the structure is poorly done, the building will properly fail to function as intended during its design, that will follow serious consequences (Cobeen, 2014).
Application of Building and fire codes
 Building and fire codes refer to a set of rules which specify the standards for structures such as building and other engineering and architectural structures. All buildings must conform to the building and fire codes in order to obtain planning permissions, mostly from the authorities from the local councils (Ogunsemi, 2012). The main goal of having fire and building codes is to protect public safety, health and the overall wellbeing as they relate to the occupancy and construction of structures and buildings. The fire codes, advanced life, and fire for first responders and the public as well as the property protection by offering a broad, cohesive approach to fire code guideline and management of hazards (Lataille, 2013).
Hazards associated with the various types of buildings
Fire resistive structures are made of protected steel and concrete. They are designed in such a way to grip fire for a lengthy time with the aim of keeping the fire at bay in the floor or room where it originated from. As far as the usual ventilation operations in type 1 buildings are involved one reaching on the roof and making a hole is the best option (Steadman, 2014). Even the plane ventilation becomes puzzling because the windows are dense and not be able to ventilate the structure. The main hazard-exposed to this type of buildings is the content, whereby the stuff that is put in place as insulation is knocked out in the action of fire thus exposing the structural steel to the heat resulting to collapse (Geren, 2016).
Type 2 buildings are having their tops usually roofed with light foam, concrete, an illustrated membrane or an arrangement of both. Since of these type of the building are modern builds, they are regularly up to the expected codes, and they include all the fire destruction systems. And due to that, the metal roofs may collapse with the heat and not with the fire, with that expect a prompt collapse, mainly in some of the large buildings that might be having a considerable fire load (McGrail, 2017).
Type 4 buildings having most of their components made of heavy timber can be easily affected by the direct fire. Having the heavy timber as the major structural elements the likelihood of the structure failing after the incidents of fire is very high. The fire hazards associated with this type of buildings includes the collapse of the structure.
Type 5 buildings include the wood frame construction which includes structures of balloon-frame structures, post-and-frame, and the log cabins. With the nature of the materials that are used in the construction, it is very easy for the fire to spread from the floor or the room of origin to other parts of the structure (McGrail, 2017).
Effects of Building construction in relation to the firefighting operations
Type 1, the fire resistive construction has numerous factors which can assist firefighters. In this type of construction, the floors and walls tend to compartmentalize the fire thus holding it within one area.
Type 2 of the buildings having the same materials as fire resistive construction, the buildings have the ability to hold fire within one area, thus limiting the spread of the fire from one point within the building to another. In this type of the building since the steel is not protected more elongation is expected which results to further elongation and collapse. In this type of construction, the contents are still the main problem (Delmar, 2014).
Once the fire has entered into ordinary buildings, it takes control of the spaces of the building very fast. Most of this buildings can be aerated straight up, although it may take time due to the many sheets of roofing materials or the rainwater on the roof.
Building collapse
Building collapse can be defined as the incapability of the building components to perform what they are usually to perform. The building phenomena is a common occurrence in most parts of the world mostly in the cases related to fire firefighting (Ogunsemi, 2012). The collapse of buildings due to fire can be attributed to the weakening of the structural components of the building thus resulting in an inability to hold the structural loads.
Awareness, the firefighters, should maintain on the fire ground
Some of the awareness the firefighters should maintain the include;
Constant communication, the firefighters should ensure that there is constant communication with the team to ensure that there is no confusion between then to avoid further accidents.
Adhering to the objective measures. All the firefighters who are present at the foreground must be working restrict themselves with their main aim at the foreground in order to control and tame the fire from spreading.
Avoiding succumbing to tunnel vision. The firefighters must practice staying relaxed to control the entire surroundings and not succumbing to a narrow vision that can make them forget the surroundings which can be very dangerous (Delmar, 2014).   
Chudley, R. (2016). Building Construction Handbook. London: Routledge.
Cobeen, K. (2014). Design of Wood Structures. Texas: McGraw Hill Professional,
Delmar, A. (2014). Firefighter’s Handbook: Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. London: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Geren, R. L. (2016). Applying the Building Code: Step-by-Step Guidance for Design and Building Professionals. Paris: John Wiley & Sons.
Lataille, J. I. (2013). Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
McGrail, D. M. (2017). Firefighting Operations in High-Rise and Standpipe-Equipped Buildings. Berlin: PennWell Books.
Ogunsemi, A. (2012). Building collapse: causes, prevention, and remedies. Abuja: Nigerian Institute of Building.
Steadman, P. (2014). Building Types and Built Forms. Chicago: Troubador Publishing Ltd.

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