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ENT20005 Innovation Management

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ENT20005 Innovation Management

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Course Code: ENT20005
University: Swinburne University Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Question:
A major challenge in the management and strategy literature is to understand why firms lose their innovation engine and stall over time. Most organisations gradually consume all their growth potentials, fail to renew their innovation capabilities and eventually decline.
The assignment will involve three tasks: explore why firms fail to innovate continuously. Second, explore organisational design characteristics that enhance a firm’s innovation capabilities and help it re-generate its growth potentials. And, third, explore key innovation strategies a firm may pursue to maintain its growth potentials. The analysis must be richly informed by theory and well documented historical cases.
Answer:

Introduction
The innovations that are undertaken by the organizations help in maintaining the sustenance of the same while operating in the offshore markets. Continuous innovations in the context of the organizations help in upholding their competitive advantage over the other players in the markets. The key changes that are undertaken by the businesses are based on the changing market trends. However, at different points of time the organizations fail to undertake the innovative approach due to resistances from the employees or insufficient resources, which affects the sustenance of the businesses while operating in the offshore markets (Cantarello,   Martini  and Nosella 2012). The different issues that are faced by the organizations while implementing the innovative strategies affect their sustenance objectives. However, the implementation of different strategies by the management of the organization helps in upholding the firm’s innovation capabilities and thereby regenerates the different growth potentials.
The purpose of the discussion is to witness the reasons for the failure of the firms to undertake continuous innovations. On the other hand, the different strategies that are undertaken by the organizations in order to facilitate the continuous innovations in their systems are being emphasized as a part of the research. The identification of the organizational design and their relative contribution to the innovative approach of the organization is being enumerated as a part of the study. The research also emphasized on the study of different historical cases of organizations where the firms faced different innovation failures and the strategies the firm implemented in order to succeed in the competitive markets. It will be helping in devising the different innovative strategies that are undertaken by the businesses in order to suffice to the needs of the organizational growth. 
Theoretical framework
Wei,   Zhao  and Zhang (2014) stated that the application of  Ambidexterity in an organizational contexts depends on identification of different activities that are undertaken by the businesses through exploration and exploitation in order to maintain sustenance. The exploration helps the organizations in upholding the proficiency of innovative approach, whereas the exploitation helps the organizations in adapting to the different market trends, which will be helping the business in making a faster growth. Pellegrinelli,   Murray-Webster  and Turner (2015) stated  that exploration includes a huge amount of risk taking which might affect the smooth functioning of the venture and the objective of maintaining the sustenance in the markets. However, Gedajlovic,   Cao  and Zhang  (2012) argued that exploration helps businesses in creating a competitive advantage over the other players in the market. Moreover, Cantarello,   Martini  and Nosella (2012) stated that unlike the exploitation or adaptation of the old trends the innovativeness of the organization through exploration create new opportunities for the business.
Wei,   Zhao  and Zhang (2014) stated that the application of the open innovation model in the organizational contexts as it helps in maintaining the efficacy of the functions  through knowledge sharing. The main concept of the Open innovation is based on the fact that most of the companies are unable to cope up with the changing trends and thereby rely on their own research of the market attributes. Therefore, in order to make the research more viable for the organizations a system of buying licenses or patents were introduced. It helped the organizations in making use of the inventions and thereby adapting them to the different changes as per the trends in the markets. It has helped in maintaining the standards of the offerings that are presented by the organizations as per the study of the market demand. Pellegrinelli,   Murray-Webster  and Turner (2015) stated that the process of open innovation has mostly helped in upholding the efficacy of the business processes while operating in a globalized scenario.

Figure 1: Open Innovation Model
(Source: Reed,   Storrud-Barnes  and Jessup 2012)
Jurksiene  and Pundziene (2016) stated that the  introduction of the open innovation model has helped  maintaining the efficacy of the functions through knowledge sharing on the different processes. It has helped organizations in undertaking different innovations while adapting themselves with the market changes as per the reports.  The open innovation model of the organizations helps in maintaining the efficacy of the functions of the firms as per the market trends. The adaption of the open innovation model has helped in enriching the knowledge of the organizations relating to the changes in the systems as per the changes in the offshore markets.
Corporate Design solutions
The R&D (Research and Development department) of the organization helps in maintaining the efficacy of the innovation that is planned by the businesses. The application of the contingency theory in an organizational context is based on the identification of the different situations through which the risks that are faced by the business might be mitigated. The decision making system of the organization are mainly based on the study of the diversified situations that are faced by the organizations while operating as per the objectives of the business expansion. The multi- tasking attributes of the organizational management is based on the Asset management and the Growth centered activities (R&D departments) in an organization (Birkinshaw  and Gupta  2013). The issues that are faced by the organizations while undertaking innovations are based on the exposition of the same to organizational ambidexterity. The identification of the needs of the organization to adapt and explore the opportunities of innovation as per the market trends has helped the organizations in maintaining their growth objectives. Lack of suitable R&D functioning of the organizations affect the organizational capabilities of undertaking innovation as per the objectives of growth of the businesses.
Pellegrinelli,   Murray-Webster  and Turner (2015) stated that the lack of proper analysis of the organizational growth perspectives as per the different market trends affects the capabilities of the organizations to bring in changes in their market situations. Setting up proper R&D systems will be helping the organizations in maintaining their competitive advantage and the innovative approach resulting to sustenance of the businesses. The design of the organizations plays a major role in the decision making attributes as per the objectives of the business. Decentralization of the organizational hierarchy affects the decision making systems through even distribution of power. On the other hand, Wei,   Zhao  and Zhang (2014) stated that the centralization of the organizational hierarchy helps in instilling a sound decision making system as per the needs of the business organizations. For an instance, the centralized decision making system that is utilized by Microsoft has minimized the engagement of the employees in the innovative practices which is planned by the business.  It affected the smooth functioning of the organization as per the organizational growth objectives. On the other hand, Toyota motors encourage the involvement of the employees in the decision making systems of the organization which has contributed to the rapid growth of the business in a short span.  Li (2013) also added that the bottom line mentality, relating to the short term profitability of the firm,  affects the innovative approach and thereby results to failure of the innovation that is planned by the businesses. Therefore, the application of decentralized decision making of the organizations helps in encouraging the involvement of the employees in the innovative strategies planned by the businesses. 

Figure 2: Organizational design plan
(Source: Gedajlovic,   Cao  and Zhang  2012)
The theory of Complementarity acts as an innovative tool, which focuses on different patterns and strategies that are undertaken by the organizations in order to sustain as per the demands faced by the same in the offshore markets. The corporate failures are dependent on the issues relating to multitasking and the high powered incentives that are required to be provided by the organizations as per the measurable performance. On the other hand, Cantarello,   Martini  and Nosella (2012) stated that the lack of proper knowledge of the processes often acts as an catalyst for the organizational innovative approach. Diverse technological changes in the organizational context affect the smooth performance of the business. Therefore, the design of the organizational models is based on the objectives of the business and the type of activities that are undertaken by the same. The R&D systems of the organization help in maintaining the efficacy of the functions as per the needs of maintaining the business performance. Internal innovations that are undertaken by most of the organizations are based on the different needs of change in the structure and the processes in order to support the sustainability (Cantarello,   Martini  and Nosella 2012).
Historical cases
The introduction of Blackberry’s iconic qwerty keypad model fascinated the users since their ability to connect to internet, email sending options and other modes of communication. By the year 2011 the organization sold around 50 million of the devices. However, the introduction of the android technology in the markets affected the demand for the devices that were designed by the organization, which stubbornly stuck on to the physical keyboard as their watermark. The sales volume of the organization diminished by the year 2016 to 4 million devices annually (Nosella,   Cantarello  and Filippini  2012). It affected the sustainability of the organization largely. Failure to adhere to the technological change has affected the functioning of the organization. On the other hand, the lack of R&D department of the organization affected the innovative approach of the organization, which resulted to a diminishing demand for the products in the market.
On the other hand, the introduction of the Google Glass in the year 2012 failed due to the concerns of privacy as the glass made an attempt to record discretely in different bars, restaurants and movie theatres. It affected the privacy concerns of different people and associations who disliked the idea of being recorded without their knowledge (Felin  and Zenger  2014). The idea of the Google glasses failed due to the lack of inspection of the needs of the customers as per the utility that might be derived from the product. The lack of decision making systems of the organization through minimization of engagement of the employees in the processes has affected the proper functioning of the business organization.
The different cases of organizational failures is relevant to the failure of the same while  adapting the new technologies and thereby explore their capabilities in order to bring in changes in the market structure. The lack of proper understanding of the needs of the customers and the manner in which the needs might be supported has affected the organizational functioning. On the other hand, the lack of R&D departments in the organizations has affected the proper functioning of the processes as per the needs of the organizational growth objectives. The key elements of the change in the systems of the business are based on the decision making structure and the organizational design, which judges the capabilities of organizations to undertake continuous innovations.
Critical analysis
Chen  and D. C. Hambrick (2012) stated that the organizational changes are supported by the involvement of the employees in the processes. The involvement of the employees in the organizational decision making systems clearly denotes the smooth functioning criteria and change readiness. On the other hand, Barbero,   A. Ramos  and C. Chiang (2017) argued that the organizational decision making systems and the design of the organizational processes helps in identifying the capabilities of organizations to bring in innovation in the processes. Technological innovations create a challenging situation for the organizations to sustain in the globalized scenario. Therefore, Reed,   Storrud-Barnes  and Jessup (2012) stated that the application of organizational ambidexterity in the processes of the business helps in maintaining the efficacy of the firms to sustain in the competitive business environments. On the other hand, West  and Bogers (2014) argued that the exposition of the explorative mentality of the businesses might affect the organizational performance due to different risks relating to the refusal of the business offerings in the wider competitive markets. For an instance, the innovative approach that was undertaken by Google while designing the Google Glasses failed due to its wider rejection based on the lack of defining the utility that might be derived from the product. However, Chesbrough (2012) stated that exploration helps in underpinning the competitive advantage of the organizations while operating in the diverse competitive markets. Mendes et al. (2016) noted that the adaptability of the organizations through the utilization of the open innovation model will be helping in making a strong coalition with the innovative approach and thereby manage the knowledge of global trends. Hameed,   Counsell and Swift (2012) argued by stating that the R&D department of the organization helps in upholding the uniformity of the innovation that is undertaken by the businesses as per the capabilities of the same while operating in the offshore globalized scenario. Tohidi  and Jabbari (2012) stated that the smooth operations of the business processes are based on the involvement of the employees in the processes through decentralized decision making system. However, Anderson,   Poto?nik  and Zhou (2014) argued that decentralization of power and decision making system of the organization might bring chaos in the organizational model, which might affect the objective of the business to undertake continuous innovations.
Strategy lessons
The strategic planning of the organization depends on the vulnerability of the position of the organizations while operating in the diverse markets. The critical nature of the organizational design and the induction of the value based learning of the businesses through the application of the open innovation model helps in enhancing the knowledge of market trends. The identification of the demands of the customers and thereby standardization of the products as per the changing market trends helps in maintaining the efficacy of the business performance.  Jarle Gressgård et al. (2014) stated that the merger and acquisitions helps organizations in maintaining their proficiency of adapting the different technological changes in the market.  For an instance, Pebble, the smart watch developing company sold their patented ideas to Fitbit and the like in order to maintain their efficacy of the operations due to the introduction of players like Apple inc. in the electronics market. 
Denti  and Hemlin (2012) supported the view by stating the frequent innovation that might be undertaken by the organizations are dependent on the adaptability of the same as per the market demand. The identification of the market demand through the utilization of Big Data and the open innovation model will be helping the organizations in upholding the innovative approach. Renewal of the strategic position of the businesses is chiefly based on the innovation as per the capabilities of the businesses. For an instance, the renewal of Nokia in the global market after being undermined due to the development of the android technologies is supported through the continuous innovative approach that was undertaken by the business to launch android devices of its own. The organizational sustenance in the market is dependent on the study of the market trends and the applicability of the same in order to gain a competitive advantage over the existing players.   
Conclusion
Therefore, from the above discussion it can be stated that the sustenance of the organizations are based on the continuous innovative approach of the same while operating in the globalized scenario. Innovation in the organizations is supported through the organizational ambidexterity, which is based on the adaptability of the organization and exploration of the new ideas in order to bring in changes in the processes of the business. However, there are different issues that are faced by organizations while undertaking innovations due to the divergent capabilities and lack of proper knowledge of implementation of the innovative technologies as per the market trends. The discussion analyzes the different strategic business failures and renewable in the light of strategic fit and the organizational capabilities. On the other hand, the discussion also enumerates the different key theories that help in judging the position of the business while investing innovations in the systems.
References
Anderson, N., Poto?nik, K. and Zhou, J., 2014. Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of management, 40(5), pp.1297-1333.
Barbero, J. L., A. Ramos, and C. Chiang, 2017. Restructuring in dynamic environments: a Dynamic Capabilities Perspective, Industrial and Corporate Change, drw042.
Birkinshaw, J. and Gupta, K., 2013. Clarifying the distinctive contribution of ambidexterity to the field of organization studies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), pp.287-298.
Cantarello, S., Martini, A. and Nosella, A., 2012. A multi?level model for organizational ambidexterity in the search phase of the innovation process. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(1), pp.28-48.
Chen, G. and D. C. Hambrick, 2012, CEO Replacement in Turnaround Situations: Executive (Mis)Fit and Its Performance Implications, Organization Science 23:1, 225-243.
Chesbrough, H., 2012. Open innovation: Where we’ve been and where we’re going. Research-Technology Management, 55(4), pp.20-27.
Denti, L. and Hemlin, S., 2012. Leadership and innovation in organizations: A systematic review of factors that mediate or moderate the relationship. International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(03), p.1240007.
Felin, T. and Zenger, T.R., 2014. Closed or open innovation? Problem solving and the governance choice. Research Policy, 43(5), pp.914-925.
Gedajlovic, E., Cao, Q. and Zhang, H., 2012. Corporate shareholdings and organizational ambidexterity in high-tech SMEs: Evidence from a transitional economy. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(6), pp.652-665.
Hameed, M.A., Counsell, S. and Swift, S., 2012. A conceptual model for the process of IT innovation adoption in organizations. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 29(3), pp.358-390.
Jarle Gressgård, L., Amundsen, O., Merethe Aasen, T. and Hansen, K., 2014. Use of information and communication technology to support employee-driven innovation in organizations: a knowledge management perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(4), pp.633-650.
Jurksiene, L. and Pundziene, A., 2016. The relationship between dynamic capabilities and firm competitive advantage: The mediating role of organizational ambidexterity. European Business Review, 28(4), pp.431-448.
Li, C.R., 2013. How top management team diversity fosters organizational ambidexterity: The role of social capital among top executives. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(5), pp.874-896.
Mendes, M., Gomes, C., Marques-Quinteiro, P., Lind, P. and Curral, L., 2016. Promoting learning and innovation in organizations through complexity leadership theory. Team Performance Management, 22(5/6), pp.301-309.
Nosella, A., Cantarello, S. and Filippini, R., 2012. The intellectual structure of organizational ambidexterity: A bibliographic investigation into the state of the art. Strategic Organization, 10(4), pp.450-465.
Pellegrinelli, S., Murray-Webster, R. and Turner, N., 2015. Facilitating organizational ambidexterity through the complementary use of projects and programs. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), pp.153-164.
Reed, R., Storrud-Barnes, S. and Jessup, L., 2012. How open innovation affects the drivers of competitive advantage: Trading the benefits of IP creation and ownership for free invention. Management Decision, 50(1), pp.58-73.
Tohidi, H. and Jabbari, M.M., 2012. Innovation as a success key for organizations. Procedia Technology, 1, pp.560-564.
Wei, Z., Zhao, J. and Zhang, C., 2014. Organizational ambidexterity, market orientation, and firm performance. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 33, pp.134-153.
West, J. and Bogers, M., 2014. Leveraging external sources of innovation: a review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), pp.814-831.

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