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ENCOR 4010 Research Methodology

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ENCOR 4010 Research Methodology

1 Download15 Pages / 3,622 Words

Course Code: ENCOR 4010
University: Federation University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Describe what you intend to achieve. What do we expect to see actually done so we do not hold you accountable for things you haven’t said you were going to do?
Under the WHS Legislation, there are 5 situations when a person conducting a business or undertaking (employer) must consult with workers. Name 3 of them.

The identification of hazards and assessment of risks arising from the work already undertaken or to be undertaken.
The making of decisions on ways of eliminating and minimizing the risks.
The making of decisions on consultation procedures with workers, resolving of issues regarding workplace health and safety, monitoring the workers’ health, monitoring workplace conditions and the provision of training and information for the workers.

List 4 ways you can provide staff with workplace health and safety information.

Training staff on safe work practices
Provide an effective system to identify and control hazards
Compliance with OSHA regulation
Provide open communication and caring in a conducive climate to safety

An emergency evacuation plan is one example of a WHS procedure which helps to keep people safe. List 4 others relevant to your industry.

location of the fire escape, fire exits, and points
location of first aid supplies
specific procedures which deal with the injury of workers.
Medical emergency response procedure

List 2 methods of monitoring that staff are following WHS procedure.

Collect data of incidents in the organizations and compare with previous records
Review feedbacks from the staff.

List 5 types of document that would act as evidence of your company’s compliance with WHS laws.

WHS Policy
Psychological Health & Wellbeing Policy
WHS Objectives and Targets
WHS Responsibility Statement
WHS Management Review Guidelines

List 4 possible steps you could take if you observed a staff member not complying with your company’s WHS practices or a hazard control measure was not working properly.

Communication with staff about the importance of complying with WHS


Applying consulting procedures
Dealing with issues raised during the consultation that makes employees not to comply
Recording and consulting with work team regarding outcomes and encouraging comply with WHS practices for their personal safety.

List 5 WHS issues or potential hazards you need to monitor in your department/ industry on a daily basis.

Psychological – stress, constant low-level noise, the threat of danger, discrimination, harassment
Physical – slippery floors, fire, poor lighting, excessive noise, misused or unsafe machinery, objects in walkways.
Chemical – liquids, vapors, fumes, dust, gases
Biological –fungi, virus, infection by bacteria
Ergonomic – poor equipment design, repetitive movement, manual handling,
Radiation – ultraviolet, infra-red, microwaves

List 3 matters you might discuss as part of making consultation arrangements.

Changes needed to take place within the organization

The decision to be implemented.
Organisation structure.

Name 3 methods you can use to provide staff members with the opportunity to contribute their views on WHS issues

contributing to team meetings
talking with your workgroup
giving feedback on policy and procedures when asked

If you cannot resolve a staff member’s WHS issue or control a hazard yourself, name 3 people you might refer the issue to in order to find a resolution.

Health and safety representatives
Crisis manager
Associate Director of WHS

A staff member has raised WHS issues in the workplace which now have been resolved. Why is it important to communicate the result back the staff member who raised it?

Communicating back the result back to the employee who raised the issue is important as it is a way of letting the employee know that the company has considered their concern. Additionally, its an opportunity for the organization to assess the satisfaction of the employee with the solution.

Safe Work Australia’s Code of Practice “How to manage work health and safety risks” lists the instances when risk management must occur and hazard controls must be used. List 5 instances when this needs to occur in an organization.

In a situation where new employees have been recruited in the organization and they are not aware of risks.
In a situation where there is increased of risks and many employees have been involved
When the organization has been accused by the government for not complying with WHS procedures
When there is the possibility of occurrence of risk in the future and its impact is likely to be high
In a situation where new resources like machinery and equipment’s have been introduced into the organization.

List 4 different types of WHS training methods.

Instructor-Led Training

· Interactive Techniques
· E-Learning
· Computer-Based Training
· Hands-On Training

Give 2 examples of when you must provide WHS training to your staff.

When employees are not complying with WHS procedures in their workstations.
When they are increased in accidents and incidents in the organization.

Give 4 examples of training you might organize with a specialist WHS training provider

Technology-based learning
Tutorials and group discussion

Give 3 reasons you should monitor the effectiveness of training programs

To make sure employees and all participants have thoroughly understood the concepts that they are trained.
In order to make sure that the training has developed professionalism and brainstorm employees on basic knowledge
To identify key areas that need improvements.

Where should Safety Data Sheets (SDS) be kept>

Safety data sheets should be kept current and in an area which is accessible and readily available in the workplace for easy location during an emergency, like fire (Suleiman & Svendsen 2014).

List 4 pieces of information you can find on an SDS.

Potential hazards
Control measures
Management of hazards
Safety precautions

What information can you get from a completed risk assessment document?

Identification of hazards
Potential people who can be harmed
Risks assessment and action is taken
A record of the findings

List 4 pieces of information that should be recorded as a training record for a staff member who has undertaken WHS training.

Emergency procedures
Actions plans

How can you minimize the environmental impacts of storing documents and files>

Trying to use both sides of papers for drawing, writing, copying, and printing.
Reusing papers already printed on one side by manually feeding into printers and copiers.
Properly disposing of used papers in bins for recycling or proper disposal

Under the WHS legislation, what is an employer’s duty of care in relation to providing a safe workplace>

Employee duty care is making workplace safety by preventing health risks and making sure that substances that may cause damage to health are controlled.

If a business chooses to have direct, regular contact between employer and employees instead of appointing a WHS committee or appoint WHS Representatives, have they failed to meet the requirements of the WHS act? Why/ Why not?

The business has not failed to meet the requirements of the WHS act since contact between the employer and the employees is critical for a safe work environment and in the maintenance of WHS.

If a WHS committee raises a WHS issue with an employer, and the employer does not consider the issue in a timely fashion, has the employer failed to meet their legal requirements?

Yes-the employees have failed considering that WHS issues might endanger the healthy lives of others in the organization.

What is the role of a WHS committee?

A health and safety committee’s function include:

Facilitation of cooperation between workers and PCBUs
Assistance in the development and reviewing of WHS systems, policies and procedures, and ensuring PCBUs meet their duty of care obligations (Hughes & Ferrett 2011).

List 2 penalties a judge may impose on you if you fail to meet your duties under the WHS act.

Fine of up $150,000.
Imprisonment of up to 20 years

Assessment 2

Evacuation of staff and customers
Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people
Handling chemicals and hazardous substances



Duration from…to…

Tasks to be completed
What will be observed?

Selection 1:
a. Evacuation of staff and customers


From: 1/11/2018
To: 7/11/2018

Consultation with staff on their feedback on the training process
Risk Assessment to ascertain the level of risk being faced due to improper evacuation techniques
Implementation through the training of employees and enhancing their knowledge and practice on evacuation drills
Monitoring of process- periodical review of the level of employee understanding
Identification of Training Needs-employees should be physical present
Evaluation-simulating a disaster incidence to check whether the employees have understood the evacuation procedure.
Recording of documentation





Selection 2:
1) Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people


From: 8/11/2018
To: 15/11/2018

Consultation with finance manager and relevant employees
Consulting with the storekeeper
Risk Assessment to define the rules of proper storage of keys, equipment, and cash
Implementation by ensuring that all employees are trained on the proper handling of company equipment and ensuring responsibility for damages, and training on the proper following of protocol
Installing video surveillance in the premises and especially in sensitive areas like cash reserves.
Monitoring of process to ascertain how employees are understanding their training process
Identification of Training Needs-employees to be physically present during training and to assume responsibility of assigned equipment
Evaluation-evaluating the process of implementation to assess how employees are adapting to the procedures.
Recording of documentation to ensure that there is written evidence on the training and implemented processes.





Selection 3
1) Handling chemicals and hazardous substances


From: 16/11/2018
To: 23/11/2018

Consultation with managers and employees
-consultation with manufacturer
Risk Assessment-ascertaining which types of employees are at risk of chemical harm
Implementation-training the employees and ensuring that they understand first aid techniques and how to handle chemicals
Monitoring of process to check if employees have understood the implementation process.
Identification of Training Needs-proper protective clothing to be provided by employees and need for an experienced trainer
Evaluation-review of the process to ascertain its effectiveness
Recording of documentation









Once your situation have been selected, you need to access the relevant codes of practice from the Safework website or the website governing WHS relevant for your state.


Code/ legislation/factsheet


a. Evacuation of staff and customers


b. Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people

Code of Practice

c. Handling chemicals and hazardous substances

Code of Practice

After you have identified the specific requirements for each situation you will need to plan, develop and implement consultation processes with your staff/ colleagues.



Evacuation of staff and customers

Describe the legal requirements set out by the relevant code/ legislation that applies to this situation

a. PCBUs must ensure that an emergency plan
b. An emergency plan should be a written set of instructions that outlines what workers and others at the workplace should do in an emergency
c. The types of emergencies to plan for may include fire, explosion, medical emergency, rescues, and incidents with hazardous chemicals, bomb threats, armed confrontations and natural disasters.
d. Emergency plans do not necessarily have to be lengthy or complex.
e. Higher-risk workplaces may require additional information in their emergency plans.
f. Emergency plans, or a summary of key elements of emergency plans, should be readily accessible by workers or on display in the workplace, for example on a notice board.
g. Workers must be adequately trained in emergency procedures.

Consultation Requirements: Where, when what

In case of an emergency workers and customers should assemble at one point so that an head count can be done to know if there are any missing persons.

Who is involved:

All people in the organization including employees, and customers

Risk assessment including Hazard Analysis- what will need to be assessed

a. The probability of the occurrence of the risk
b. Procedures to be followed in the event of the risk occurring
c. Mitigation measures
d. Follow up

Complete the risk assessment template market “Situation ___________________”



a. Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people

Describe the legal requirements set out by the relevant code/ legislation that applies to this situation

a. Cash, documents, equipment, keys should be handled by authorized personnel
b. There should be authority over the handling of cash, documents, equipment, keys and correct process must be followed
c. In case of cash, safes should be used and keys kept secure

Consultation Requirements: Where, when what

PCBUs must consult, cooperate and coordinate activities with all other persons who have a work health or safety duty in relation to the same matter, so far as is reasonably practicable.

Who is involved:

a. Employees in general
b. Risk management committee

Risk assessment including Hazard Analysis- what will need to be assessed

a. Probability of the occurrence of losses
b. People/departments to be affected
c. Type of risk which can occur
d. Risk prevalence
e. Mitigation measures
f. Risk control review

Complete the risk assessment template market “Situation ___________________”



Handling chemicals and hazardous substances

Describe the legal requirements set out by the relevant code/ legislation that applies to this situation

· obtaining the current Safety Data Sheet (SDS) from the manufacturer, importer or supplier of the chemical
· controlling ignition sources and accumulation of flammable and combustible substances
· provision and availability of fire protection, fire fighting equipment and emergency and safety equipment
· preparing an emergency plan if the quantity of a class of hazardous chemical at a workplace exceeds the manifest quantity for that hazardous chemical
· stability and support of containers for bulk hazardous chemicals including pipework and attachments
· decommissioning of underground storage and handling systems
· notifying the regulator as soon as practicable of abandoned tanks in certain

Consultation Requirements: Where, when what

The company should consult with the manufacturers of the chemicals to get the safety use of the chemicals and process to follow in case of accidents

Who is involved:

Chemical manufacturers, the customers, the management, and the employees.

Risk assessment including Hazard Analysis- what will need to be assessed

· identifying risk of physical or chemical reaction of hazardous chemicals and ensuring the stability of hazardous chemicals
· ensuring that exposure standards are not exceeded
· provision of health monitoring to workers
· provision of information, training, instruction and supervision to workers
provision of spill containment system for hazardous chemicals if necessary

Complete the risk assessment template market “Situation ___________________”


 Part B
Implementing, Monitoring and Evaluating WHS Systems
The implementation of health and safety programme started by briefing the staff about procedures to be undertaken in an organization to ensure the staff is compliant. The procedures included identification of risk, reporting risks, concern department assess the risk and take action. For effective briefing, the explanation about work team regulation, code of practices and the relevant provision of WHS act is defined. All processes should be monitored to ensure that breaches are promptly identified.
Evacuation of staff and customers on fire breakouts will require the right procedures to be followed in order to avoid casualties.  To achieve effectiveness and prevent deaths, employees should be properly trained on the methods to follow in order to avoid breaches and ensure complete evacuation of all personnel from the premises in case of risk, for example, a fire breakout. Employees will require hands-on training.
Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people requires proper protocol to be followed in the custody of keys especially to cash reserves as it is a sensitive area which is most likely prone to theft. Proper procedures should be followed and authorization processes to be observed to avoid breach and shortfall and ensure responsibility of company property. Employees require interactive techniques type of training.
Handling chemicals and hazardous substances is a risky undertaking and requires employees to be trained by instructors who have deep knowledge on the type of chemicals and safe interaction with hazardous substances. Proper procedures should be followed from consultation with employees to the implementation of the procedures to reduce casualties. Employees interacting with chemicals should have proper protective clothing to minimize the risk.
During the identification of hazards, it is clear that activity from evacuation of customers and staff has a high probability of endangering lives and the impact is catastrophic. Security management of cash, keys, people and equipment has a medium likelihood of causing risks although the impact of risk is low.
Chemicals have a low probability of causing an accident but once risks occur its probability is a catastrophe as well as biological agents. In order to minimize all the risks, the organization must provide effective control measures including training of employees, provision of safety essentials like helmets and dust coats.
WHS Risk Assessment Template-1

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Existing risk score is relevant

Step 5 Action required  Hierarchy of Controls

Risk Score




Potential Risks

Existing Controls

Action by

Due Date

Date Completed

Describe/ name the activity, task or process with the associated risk)

(Describe the hazard)

(Describe consequences and impacts of the risk)

(Describe existing risk control measures in places)

Evacuation of staff and customers on fire breakouts

Some customers and staff may be left behind especially the physically challenged and those caught unaware by the crisis.

Risk of casualties and even death of staff and customers in the premises

-Assembling in a fire assembly point for physical headcount to ascertain missing people
-Proper training of staff on disaster/risk evacuation, for example, avoiding using the elevators


Administrative Controls
-Contact the fire brigade for assistance
-install fire alarms and extinguishers for fire control
-install video surveillance to identify any fire incidents and their causes

10/ Catastro phic

Crisis manager

1 month








Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people

Loss of cash, documents, equipment, due to theft

Financial loss to the organization

Authorized personnel keep the keys to cash and important equipment
-installed video surveillance to monitor organizational activities


Engineering controls
Identification of security loopholes
-proper authorization on access to safe house
-heavy punishment to perpetrators



24 hours


Handling chemicals and hazardous substances

Chemical- burns


Trained staff and customers on the safe use and handling of chemicals.


Personal Protective Equipment
identification of hazardous chemicals which require special handling
-management to provide employees and customers with protective wear and relevant training


Risk manager

1 month


Risk Analysis Matrix – Level of Risk

Identified Hazards

Risk Assessment

Risk Score

Risk Level


Likelihood (L)

Consequences ( c)


Security management of cash, documents, equipment, keys or people

Rare               1

Medium    5

1 X 5=5


Identification of security loopholes
-ensuring safe custody of office keys
-heavy punishment to perpetrators

Evacuation of staff and customers on fire breakouts

Moderate  2

Major   6 

 2 X 6=12


Contact the fire brigade for assistance
-install fire alarms and extinguishers for fire control
-install video surveillance to identify any fire incidents and their causes

Handling chemicals and hazardous substances

Rare 1 

 Major 10

10 X 1=10 


identification of hazardous chemicals which require special handling
-management to provide employees and customers with protective wear and relevant training 















Likelihood L




Risk Score (LXC)

Hierarchy of Risk Controls



Minor-e.g. Small cut, first aid treatment only



Elimination is a permanent solution and should be attempted in the first instance










Moderate- e.g.



Substitution involves replacing the hazard or environmental aspect by one of lower risk



Sprained ankle, one day off required






Major- E.g. Loss of limb or bodily function



Engineering controls involve physical barriers or structural changes to the environment or process










Administrative controls reduce hazard by altering procedures and providing instructions.



Catastrophic-e.g. Fatality



























Personal Protective equipment last resort or temporary control






































* Minor/ no risk (risk score 1-22) – is acceptable. No further action on risk control measures is necessary

*Moderate risk (risk score 3-4) -indicates conditional acceptability. Further risk control measures should be considered and existing controls monitored

* Major risk (Risk score 5-6) – indicates unacceptable level of risk. Controls and measures must be developed and implemented in the short to medium term.

Hughes P, Ferrett E. Introduction to health and safety at work: The handbook for the NEBOSH national general certificate. Routledge; 2011 Dec 31.
Suleiman A, Svendsen K. Are safety data sheets for cleaning products used in Norway a factor contributing to the risk of workers exposure to chemicals?. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. 2014 Oct 1;27(5):840-53.

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