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EMPL3270 Negotiation Theory And Practice

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EMPL3270 Negotiation Theory And Practice

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Course Code: EMPL3270
University: The University Of Western Australia

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Country: Australia

Question: 

Describe any issues that have arisen since the last status report. Also, highlight any potential problems that may arise that should be considered. Also, provide potential solutions for your client to consider where possible.

Answer: 

Introduction:
Negotiation is considered as a specialized as well as formal version for managing conflicts most frequently employed when vital issues must be agreed upon. It is an essential when a party needs agreement of the part to achieve the aim. On the other hand, the aim of negotiation is developing a shared environment leading to have long-term trust. Negotiation theory includes decision analysis, game theory and behavioural decision-making. Clarification of the theories makes differences between structural analysis, process analysis and integrative analysis. On the other hand, individuals need to be separated, makes interactive decisions, and consider the process of making collaborative decisions. In the present study, the case studies are related European telecommunication company and the airline negotiations. The study highlights the decision activities taken by the organizations. In addition, comparisons of the activities between the selected case studies and critically analysis have been made that are helpful to understand and apply negotiation theory in projects.
The scope of negotiation
Negotiation theories share notion of negotiations as a procedure. However, they differ in explanation of the procedure. Structural, strategic as well as procedural analysis develop rational actors, able prioritizing clear goals and able to receive uncertainty into account. In the present context, the grand vision of the airline is recovering from 9/11, the Sars can outbreak and general uncertainty that is surrounding the Middle East of the world (Clegg et al. 2015). An industry responded to the challenge was looking for scope in order to rationalize as well as develop by alliances. The other case study in negotiation is related to a telecommunication company. Thus, a strong country, it is important to have an explanatory approach to the process.
Gelfand and McCusker (2017) stated that strategic analysis generally starts with assumptions that the parties include a veto. Hence, negotiation of the parties cooperate the process. On the other hand, strategic analysis can assess the possible results of making negotiations through assigning the values to every possible result. Hence, the parties are coordinating incentives in order to cooperate the process. The project teams are developed based on the negotiation process. It is important to have positive outcome and relationships that include the negotiators developed proper working relationships between the projects. However, it is essential for the organizations to make confidential agreement. In addition, it continues to make the negotiations as well as signed a confidential agreement. It is also important for the organizations to make the agreement and commercially sensitive information technical as well as financial information (Walker 2015). The project teams returned to the organizations as well as reported favorable results to CEOs. The team sets working regarding the practicalities of the system. In the airline industry, it is important to uphold by complicated as well as rigorous systems.
In the present case, the project teams developed negotiation relationship as they spent time informally on social gatherings as well as in meetings that are more formal. The possibilities offered through making cooperation and in broad terms. There are two results in the approaches. The negotiators developed effective working relationships among the members of the teams. On the other hand, they obtained clear comprehension of potential nature along with advantages of the proposed joint project.
The factors required into account
The European project team has developed a project where it is required to compliance with safety standards in documentary systems. It is also important to benefit the negotiation process and develop the process that could be helpful for the system. In addition, recognizing reality of negotiation is important to recognize the process of negotiation. The negotiators agree on rounding the meetings to close the process.  The project teams are returned to respective organizations as well as reflected upon experience (Fischer 2016). In addition, it is important to make the issue remained high and negotiating the teams that could meet the relationship. The negotiators help to develop the process reliable. Hence, the negotiators agreed that it is important to bring meetings to close the process before getting any worse. In addition, there was any agreement on the particular issues. The high level of making cooperation was not materialized. Hence, the project are important for the organizations that could be evaluated.
The negotiation script for each negotiation party
The main sector that is seen in the meeting is both the parties who were in the aspect of the negotiation were convinced with their individual as the offer they were negotiating into. The main sector that is taken into consideration in any type of process of negotiation is that both the parties should have faith in each other. Nelson and Staggers (2016) mentioned that the sector of faith is the most important aspect because there are many critical documents which should be taken into consideration. This majorly result that if they do not have a sense of faith it would be directly affecting the critical data of the organisation. Both the parties wanted to alter their internal working which directly result in the aspect of increasing their business area. It can be stated here most importantly there can be different issue which can be faced so in most of the situation it should be taken into consideration that conflict situation does not take place. Conflict can overall decrease the efficiency of the system. It can be stated that negotiation should be one of the most important aspect in the sector of the working between two organisation. The sector of faith that the sectors which are taken into consideration into the working of the negotiation (Binder 2016). Offence sector is another sector, which is, should be taken into consideration that would be hampering the sector of negotiation. Justification in the sector of implementation would be directly affecting. As seen in the case study the agenda of the negotiation is one of the most sectors, which is critical so that there are no wastage of the time in the sector of fixing of the agenda. Mostly the organisation set a plan before the actual negotiation is conducted.
Succession of meetings and the negotiators developed important progress on the proposal. The discussions are engaged periods at the time of working to find the ways in making differences. It is important to develop problem-solving skill that helps to solve the ways that are helpful to achieve the solutions. The parties are comfortable with negotiation teams and respective organizations with agreement.
Options might be considered
The content of the negotiation is majorly seen in the sector of building a negotiation which majorly implement safe and strategic working of the organisation. Building a team would be directly helping the organisation to enhance their internal as well external working with emphasis on the sector of working. People should be very much indulged in the aspect of the working of the negotiation and in most of the cases it should be seen that negotiation should be focused on improving the sector of working into the organisation. People should be more towards the friendly nature in the working of the organisation. People have a clear idea about the agenda of the negotiation and there should not be much conflict in the internal working of the organisation (Bolman and Deal 2017). Should there be any type of problem in the aspect it should be seen working. Organisation should always allow the employee to respond directly into the working of organisation. Enhancing the working should be one of the most important aspect in the sector of working within the organisation.
In order to get a clear idea of the working it should be taken into consideration that the members should be active and should input their own idea into the negotiation and it should not be a alone task (Roberts and Siemiatycki 2015). In most of the time, the project manager is one of the most important member in the negotiation as there are many area which need expertise area. Project manager should take into consideration that they directly help in the sector of input about the idea onto how the internal as well as external working of the organisation could be changed and how the organisation can increase their internal strength and increase their own working area. It should be one of the most important area is the teamwork in these type of activity.
Development of a strategic analysis
In case of the problem the negotiators were set to form a project team and the team from the Europe flew to Asia for further process of the negotiations. The two project team’s collaboratively and slowly made the negotiation plans. The team member used the technique of meeting in the social and the informal gathering for making the bond between them stronger. The way toward adding components to a transaction which encourage one or the two sides to acquire, a fundamental assignment in making arrangements more integrative. These are generally components, which are esteemed diversely by each gathering, and frequently they have the trademark that one side will pick up a bit, surrender nothing or endure just a little misfortune as an end-result of extraordinary pick up to the next. These components can as a rule be added to any arrangement regardless of how distributive the transaction at first gives off an impression of being (Gelfand and McCusker 2017). As illustrations: the vender of a house may not think about taking the drapes or the grass furniture. The purchaser may extraordinarily esteem these courtesies since they will spare a considerable measure of time in moving in. Consequently, the vender may would not fret if the purchaser sends heaps of books that will be put away in the carport months before exchange happens. Both purchaser and dealer may appreciate acquainting the purchaser with the neighbours. Both may extraordinarily esteem aware and decent treatment from the other, which for the most part costs nothing.
 One of the major advantages that the team gained with the meeting in the informal way is that the team members had more and more interpersonal relationship (Brown et al. 2015). It made them understands each other in a better way. Other than this, the team members understood the importance of the joint venture of the project and the process that it can be beneficial for them in the future. In addition, the team understood the issues that may came up with the project in the recent future. Because of this, both the team agreed to sign the memorandum of the understanding that had to sign by the CEOs of the organisations as an agreement. The Telco being one of the most reputed industry in the world had to make some of the most important decisions to make the deal the best one.
The terms of the negotiation was made in such a way that the European head would work and develop the proposal of the systems while the Asian part would take care of the proposals of the operating systems (McIver et al. 2016). The decisions were made in such a way that the expectation of both the teams became high in after meetings. In the first meeting that the teams had earlier, both teams presented the documents of the plans that the teams. As both the teams wanted to get their own proposal to be followed, tension rose in between them. This created chaos among the team members of the teams. Both the teams tried to defend the policies that were written in the document and make it prove right but the main problems arise when maximum of the points in the proposals came out to be faulty of both the teams. Summing up the entire process of the negotiation, the result came out to be both the teams did not wanted to work with the other team and the European team had to fly back disappointed with the negotiations being failed.
The air transportation system is considered as an important infrastructure enabling economic development. It provides important social benefits. Technology innovation may play an important role in the process. A game theory analysis can demonstrate the process of incentives in order to innovate, altered through subsidies, regulations forcing by technology, and increased effective fuel cost. Threat of new entrants as well as long-term competitive strategies may have outcome in incumbent manufacturers. It increases the process by optimal strategies delaying entry of single aisle aircraft.
Companies in the joint venture have to be accounted with certain agreement that might help in imagining a proper business deal in the market.  The use of this theory can be regarded as the end game for the market scenario that helps in providing technical and cost arrangements to the company (Koskela-Huotari et al. 2016).  The use of the theory is maintaining financial arrangements in the market. The use of financial scenarios in the market has been creating various opportunities in the market.  The use of joint venture in order to provide return investment has been agreed on their market share. The negotiating term is companies in the European countries have created specific opportunities in the market. The use of internal discussion in the organization has been helping in maintaining the joint venture in the market.  The market analysis of companies have been maintaining the financial aspects of the companies in the market.  
Compare the negotiation from Airline
 Pawlowski and Bick (2015) commented that a strong focus has been placed on developing trust as well as professionalism. In addition, the relationship and the issues are making trouble for the management. It quickly brought up a broad level that is simmering the issues for making larger concerns. The team of negotiation would meet a large room that helps to increase the process.  With wide concurrence on the manner by which the joint wander would work, each organization at that point assessed the circumstance it wound up. The transactions had come to the ‘end amusement’. The specialized and cost courses of action had been worked out and every one of that was left to do was finish the monetary game plans (Page et al. 2015). Expansive money related situations had been under exchange all through the transaction however the time had come to make these particular; specifically, the two organizations needed to focus on their separate speculations into the joint wander and concede to the fine detail of the benefit share plans. As laid out above despite the fact that the arranging groups from the two organizations had accomplished understanding this was just conceivable at all since one gathering (for this situation the delegates of the Asian aircraft) had made a critical concession. While the European organization respected the substance of the assention as tasteful as was in a situation to go into the transactions on the financials, the Asian organization was not prepared. Assist inner talks were important to address the worries yet being communicated inside the carrier over having consented to work with the European framework. It was against this foundation that the carrier finished up it was ready to proceed with discourses on the money related parts of the game plan. It was essential to choose another administration group rapidly (Butler et al. 2015). This included making another full-time part in the Asian nation to show to the two gatherings that there would be close checking of the assertion’s execution and that the understanding was not just an open door for ‘facilitate transaction’. Asiatel’s position was observed through month-to-month audit gatherings and quarterly executive gatherings. Its own particular arranging group additionally connected such carefulness to Eurocom’s execution of its own duties. The European agents to ensure that nothing was done against the soul of the understandings effectively followed ensures of administrations, staff and aptitudes.
Conclusion:
The negotiation theory can be explained as analysis of behaviour decision making for any deal.  It considers that how a group of people reasonably make a bright decision. The different types of negotiation practices that are very common in the business world are the competing or the aggressive process of the negotiation, the collaborating or the cooperating process of the negotiation and the avoiding style of the negotiation. Most of the negotiators use more than one technique of the negotiations. It is also agreed that the organizations need to be delegate in the process of negotiating the teams in order to explore potential to cooperate. It would be helpful to take the form of European purchasing part. The critical issues would be helpful to engage the subsequent operation of the organization.
Bibliography:
Binder, J., 2016. Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. Routledge.
Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E., 2017. Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, R.A., Wolski, M. and Richardson, J., 2015. Developing new skills for research support librarians. The Australian library journal, 64(3), pp.224-234.
Butler, W.H., Monroe, A. and McCaffrey, S., 2015. Collaborative implementation for ecological restoration on US public lands: implications for legal context, accountability, and adaptive management. Environmental management, 55(3), pp.564-577.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T., 2015. Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage.
Fischer, S.A., 2016. Transformational leadership in nursing: a concept analysis. Journal of advanced nursing, 72(11), pp.2644-2653.
Gelfand, M.J. and McCusker, C., 2017. Metaphor and the cultural construction of negotiation: A paradigm for research and practice. The Blackwell Handbook of Cross?Cultural Management, pp.292-314.
Gelfand, M.J. and McCusker, C., 2017. Metaphor and the cultural construction of negotiation: A paradigm for research and practice. The Blackwell Handbook of Cross?Cultural Management, pp.292-314.
Koskela-Huotari, K., Edvardsson, B., Jonas, J.M., Sörhammar, D. and Witell, L., 2016. Innovation in service ecosystems—Breaking, making, and maintaining institutionalized rules of resource integration. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), pp.2964-2971.
McIver, D., Fitzsimmons, S. and Flanagan, D., 2016. Instructional design as knowledge management: A knowledge-in-practice approach to choosing instructional methods. Journal of Management Education, 40(1), pp.47-75.
Nelson, R. and Staggers, N., 2016. Health Informatics-E-Book: An Interprofessional Approach. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Page, S.B., Stone, M.M., Bryson, J.M. and Crosby, B.C., 2015. Public value creation by cross?sector collaborations: A framework and challenges of assessment. Public Administration, 93(3), pp.715-732.
Pawlowski, J.M. and Bick, M., 2015. The global knowledge management framework: Towards a theory for knowledge management in globally distributed settings. Leading Issues in Knowledge Management, Volume Two, 2, p.134.
Roberts, D.J. and Siemiatycki, M., 2015. Fostering meaningful partnerships in public–private partnerships: innovations in partnership design and process management to create value. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 33(4), pp.780-793.
Walker, A., 2015. Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

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