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CPPSEC2101 Apply Effective Communication Skills To Maintain Security

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CPPSEC2101 Apply Effective Communication Skills To Maintain Security

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CPPSEC2101 Apply Effective Communication Skills To Maintain Security

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Course Code: CPPSEC2101
University: Victoria University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Skada system(oil and gas),

Analyse and discuss security strategy and the mistake the company did.
As a cyber security officer, you want to present a business to CEO of an organisation, what terminology would you use? For example White hat, Black hat module. 
Social Engineering

How are harsh passwords been stored for example how Microsoft stores passwords on windows
What can you say about a friend who is sharing a vulnerability report with you (Ethical aspect)
Session hijacking and IP spoofing
Firewalls Limitations
Dot net, Linus kernel vulnerabilities and counter measures (build a story about it)
Process and flow of incident response (Engineering response)


Analysis and discussion of security strategy and the mistake SCADA system made
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition or SCADA Systems in Oil and Natural gases have so far been considered as one of the strongest hardware and software systems that help organizations in the Oil and Natural Gases industry to keep up with their day to day operations (Baudoin 2016). However, in recent times, it has been found in reports that the SCADA system is not that secured when it comes to the reporting of these organizations.
Security mistake that SCADA committed: The reports have revealed that there has been much vulnerability based on this system where several attacks were made on the SCADA systems and eventually to the organizations utilizing them. The SCADA Systems for Oil and Natural gases have been designed to take account of the Gas and Oil reporting for the different organizations but reports have suggested that in spite of this, there have been several attacks on the security systems in the industry due to the SCADA Systems and has been increasing at an exponential rate every year (Knapp and Langill 2014). The reports have also made it clear that these attacks were increasing in number with each passing year, especially in countries like the United Kingdom, Finland and some parts of the United States (Kashubsky 2015).
The probable reason that the findings have put forward is that these countries have been using internet much more than the rest of the world. SCADA, as an infrastructure provider for these organizations in Oil and Gas industry based on the Industrial Control System or ICS have been developed decades ago. At that point of time, cyber security was not considered to be a huge issue in the industry, therefore, the security systems were obviously vulnerable to the outside connectivity that were exposed to the internet. It was due to this adversary that the organizations and their oil and gas reporting information were vulnerable to the malicious attackers in the industry.
Presenting a business module to the CEO of an organisation
As the Cyber security officer, it needs to be suggested that the business module should follow the White-hat hacking module to stay steer clear of any security vulnerabilities that might jeopardize the system. A brief detail about the White Hat hacking module would be provided for the CEO as below:
White Hat hacking module: It has been noticed that normally business systems do not possess integrated security systems in them, and this is why it is required that the robust cyber security controls be able to separate the internet and corporate network. Even if the systems be connected to the network, it should be made sure that these be protected with strong firewall systems. Again, the systems should possess an intrusion detection system like the White Hat hacking module, which helps in the detection of any unauthorized intrusion and reports any security vulnerabilities in the hardware, software or networks.
Social Engineering
Microsoft has the passwords stored in a secured way within the hash files in the directory c:WindowsSystem32Config directory. To access the stored passwords, it is required that the user has access to the SAM and System files. Microsoft always has a backup of these files stored within the Windows repair folders at the location c:WindowsRepair (Boonkrong and Somboonpattanakit 2016). SAM usually consists of the hashed passwords, although they are kept as encrypted files using a boot key within the system files.
The Codes of Ethics and Business Information sharing has a legal law for the propagation of any kind of information called the ‘Confidential Information Obligations’. This law states that the sharing of any kind of information, like vulnerability reports are an obligation if the person with whom the vulnerability report is being shared with has an authorized access over the reports.
Speaking of the ethical aspects of the entire situation, it is not considered to be morally correct if the action of sharing vulnerability report is with an unauthorized person who does not have permission to view the vulnerability report.


Session Hijacking

IP Spoofing

Session hijacking is often confused with IP spoofing. IP Spoofing is utilized for various types of attacks that also include session hijacking. Session hijacking is the process of hacking into a system without the requirement of passwords with just hacking the sessions by the users.

In the similar way it can be said that both Session Hijacking and IP Spoofing are almost the same, which can be put as the following statement:
All Session Hijacking are IP Spoofing techniques but all IP Spoofing attacks are not Session Hijacking.


Session Hijacking

IP Spoofing

Session hijacking mostly occurs at the TCP level when a hacker tries to get their hands on the TCP session between two machines.

IP spoofing is generally the way by which IP addresses are forged within an IP packet (Manivannan and Sathiyamoorthy 2017).

4. Firewalls Limitations
Although Firewall is expected to secure the network in a system, but they also have limitations, which would be listed as follows:

Firewall is not capable of preventing a user or an attacker with modems from dialing in to or out of the internal network, thus bypassing the firewall and its protection completely (Vichare 2017).
Firewalls fail to enforce misuse of passwords.
Firewalls cannot ensure protection against nontechnical security risks like that of the means of social engineering.

The security firm of Qualys had discovered the first vulnerability to be as CVE-2018-14634. This flaw is located in create_elf_tables() function in a Linux kernel and has a potential to be exploited on 64-bit systems with the help of local users. This is heightened with having access to the SUID binaries (Xu et al. 2015).
CVE-2018-17182 has been tracked as the second vulnerability. It has been a flaw where the vulnerability has a potential to be exploited on kernels without a configuration of heightened security systems. The vulnerability has the potential to achieve an arbitrary code execution after exploitation as root. This affects all kernel versions since 3.16.
6. Process and flow of incident response (Engineering response)
Incident response is specifically a business process that mostly aims at investigating, identifying and responding to the specific potential security incidences in a business process that minimizes the chances of the incident in having a strong impact within the organization (Webb et al. 2017).
The flow of incident response should be as follows:

Developing a list for the top tier applications, databases, users and networks and other assets on the basis of the impact of these affecting the business organization.
Quantifying accurate asset values.
Capturing of traffic patterns and baselines.

Baudoin, C.R., 2016, September. Deploying the Industrial Internet in Oil & Gas: Challenges and Opportunities. In SPE Intelligent Energy International Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Boonkrong, S. and Somboonpattanakit, C., 2016. Dynamic salt generation and placement for secure password storing. International Journal of Computer Science, 43(1).
Kashubsky, M., 2015. Offshore Oil and Gas Installations Security: An International Perspective. Informa Law from Routledge.
Knapp, E.D. and Langill, J.T., 2014. Industrial Network Security: Securing critical infrastructure networks for smart grid, SCADA, and other Industrial Control Systems. Syngress.
Manivannan, S.S. and Sathiyamoorthy, E., 2017. A Prevention Model for Web Application Session Hijack Attacks in Wireless Networks Using MAC Appended Session ID.
Vichare, S.S., 2017. Comparative Study on Firewall and Intrusion Detection System. International Journal of Engineering Science, 13716.
Webb, J., Ahmad, A., Maynard, S., Baskerville, R. and Shanks, G., 2017. Organizational Security Learning from Incident Response.
Xu, W., Li, J., Shu, J., Yang, W., Xie, T., Zhang, Y. and Gu, D., 2015, October. From collision to exploitation: Unleashing use-after-free vulnerabilities in linux kernel. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (pp. 414-425). ACM.

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