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CH6061 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

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CH6061 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

0 Download6 Pages / 1,345 Words

Course Code: SMCH6061
University: The University Of Manchester

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:

Describe the physical process occurring in each of the following processes;
i) Atomic Absorption,
 
ii) Atomic Emission,
iii) Atomic Fluorescence.
2.The statistical weight of a level can be calculated by multiplying the subscript by 2 and adding 1 e.g. 2P1/2 has a statistical weight of 2 x ½ + 1 = 2.
Using the energy level diagram provided, calculate, for sodium, the following parameters.  

a) The relative intensity of the emission lines corresponding to the transitions

(4p) 2P3/2 >  (3s) 2S1/2  and (3p) 2P3/2 >  (3s) 2S1/2  in an atom cell at a temperature of 2000 K.

b) Given that there are 1010 sodium atoms in the ground [ (3s) 2S1/2 ] state, calculate the population of the (4s) 2S1/2 level in a system in thermal equilibrium at a temperature of 2500 K.

Excited CaOH species (CaOH*) emit at 554 nm.

Excited state CaO species (CaO*) emit at 606 and 622 nm
Note that red colour for calcium actually comes from CaO species formed in the flame.
These are the strongest lines – there are (lots of) others.

A plasma is a highly ionised (and high energy) gas.

This can be created and sustained by the continuous input of energy.
Can use an electrical discharge or couple in the energy by a variety of mechanisms.

Answer:

Introduction
The atomic emission spectroscopy has become the most commonly used method in the analytical chemistry. The ingredients are seriously chosen, processed and mixed in a precise manner to get the final product that has the target characteristics. The vitamin supplement too is a formulated product since more than two ingredients including zinc, copper, Iron among others have been carefully selected in the right proportions to obtain the quality vitamin supplement. These products exist in either solid, liquid, or powder form depending on the market requirement. Formulated materials possess market values and are either meant for direct utility or use in the industrial requirement. This paper will highlight the measurement techniques of AES in the supplement of the vitamin (Li et al., 2013).
Numerous varied techniques have been established and utilized in the industries that are responsible for the production of vitamin supplement. This paper section provides a review of the most commonly used methods for measuring parameters including size, flavor, texture, crystallization, the content of moisture and viscosity (Nelson et al., 2015). This section shows a precise view of each of the methods as opposed to a characteristic of particular equipment that is applied in the various steps of taking measurements.
 The supplement quality will greatly be affected by the content of water or moisture of the supplement. This characteristic will establish the way of wrapping of the final output be it likely be compact, semi-solid or form of liquid (Iwai et al., 2014).
Method
The flask on the hot plate was heated for about 30 minutes. The heating was done with a lot of precaution so as to ensure that there were no dynes. The deionized water was added as had been previously indicated. The flask was then removed from the burner after the required duration elapsed. This was then followed by the addition of 25cm3 of the deionized water in each of the flask while allowing time to cool (Maryutina & Musina 2012)
After the content had been allowed to cool, it was filtered using the fluted filter paper into a    volumetric flask of the capacity of 25cm3. The contents of the volumetric flasks were then marked using the deionized water as TS1 and TS2 (Maryutina & Musina 2012).
The particles used in vitamin supplement manufacturing packed very tightly together in a way that the other measuring systems would be unable to distinguish between the numerous various particles (Shkirskiy et al., 2015). The chosen dispersion liquid should have no effect on the particles chosen. This means the liquid should not should not contain even the least amount of water which would dilute and finally dissolve the minerals in the supplement mixture.  In a bid to separate the particles, thorough mixing is needed a procedure which must not be very difficult that can change the structure of the particles (Nelson et al., 2015).
Results
Other supplement preparation depends on laser light scattering. In the laser light scattering process, the process of dispersion is moved circularly via a sample cell with the beams of laser pointed through it. The laser beam is extended to a diameter that is roughly five and twenty millimeters and then passed through a solution. The application of this equipment does not have any means of measuring the size of each particle, however, the patterns of the dispersion (Chung et al., 2015).
 This pattern remains of utmost importance for application despite all particles in the beam being in continuous motion. A combination of all scattering steps is reflected by a lens and analyzed with a photodiode array. By constantly altering the focal length of the lens in use, a variety of particle sizes can be easily put under check (Volkov, Proskurnin & Korobov 2014).
A comparison is made between the recorded patterns of refraction and the targeted combination of larger particles and minute particles in the spectrum of light. The particles must distinguish the light while not indicating characteristics as agglomerates (Li et al., 2015). The smaller particles are brought together thereby creating a signal to the larger particles when the dispersion is of significant strength. Improvements must be made to the dispersion so as to generate the correct signals when this measuring tool is being used. The results obtained are as tabulated (Meyer et al., 2012).

 

 

 

Cu

m2/g

Fe

Um

m2/g

Zn

Sample

21.00

1.14

12.52

21.10

1.14

12.52

TS1

20.36

1.56

10.56

24.01

1.51

12.42

TS2

21.48

1.63

11.362

22.28

1.46

11.69

TS1

19.79

1.81

11.349

24.01

1.41

12.59

TS2

21.45

1.58

11.43

17.56

1.75

 

Exercise
When the consumed mass is at 360mg, using the multiplication factor of 10 with the above results would mean 107.66mg for Fe, 141.34mg for Zn and finally 111.0mg for the Cu. The same ratio is used for the division of the 1370mg sample (Chung et al., 2015).
Discussion
This technique can as well not be capable to notice small alterations. Manufacturers may alter the ingredients of the vitamin supplement or the stages of processing to establish the impact it would impose on the final texture. Under such circumstances, analytical strategies may be helpful owing to their ability to evaluate a sample easily that is large in size with a high level of accuracy (Meyer et al., 2012). Zinc, copper, and iron tend to be the ingredients that are most important in the supplement. Instruments used in the detection of minerals may be used in the analysis of these components. Such instruments are able to probe into the given sample at a relatively constant speed while taking the records of the resistant force the results from the chosen sample at the same time.
The nature of the condition of the final vitamin supplement will be playing a major role when it comes to finding the taste of the vitamin supplement. The values that have been obtained indicates a close relationship with the given samples though not exact. This variation could be attributed to the errors (Meyer et al., 2012).
Conclusion
The outcomes of emission of diffraction are often expressed in the form of the diameter of the resultant sphere which only enables the use of a categorical value of the nature of the particle. In cases where the particle is not of a spherical shape, the AES technique will not offer guidance on the specific outlook.
The AES technique is unable to clearly differentiate between the discrete particle and the particle aggregates which are often of immense significance. One of the properties of the technique is its simplicity in understanding hence famously applied. It can be applied in handling all the three various states of matter.
References
Chung, I.M., Kim, J.K., Lee, J.K. and Kim, S.H., 2015. Discrimination of geographical origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by multielement analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Journal of Cereal Science, 65, pp.252-259.
Iwai, T., Okumura, K., Kakegawa, K., Miyahara, H. and Okino, A., 2014. A pulse-synchronized microplasma atomic emission spectroscopy system for ultrasmall sample analysis. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 29(11), pp.2108-2113.
Li, W., Simmons, P., Shrader, D., Herrman, T.J. and Dai, S.Y., 2013. Microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy as a tool for the determination of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in animal feed and fertilizer. Talanta, 112, pp.43-48
Maryutina, T.A., and Musina, N.S., 2012. Determination of metals in heavy oil residues by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Journal of analytical chemistry, 67(10), pp.862-867
Meyer, C., Demecz, D., Gurevich, E.L., Marggraf, U., Jestel, G. and Franzke, J., 2012. Development of a novel dielectric barrier micro hollow cathode discharge for gaseous atomic emission spectroscopy. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27(4), pp.677-681
Nelson, J., Gilleland, G., Poirier, L., Leong, D., Hajdu, P. and Lopez-Linares, F., 2015. Elemental analysis of crude oils using microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Energy & Fuels, 29(9), pp.5587-5594
Shkirskiy, V., King, A.D., Gharbi, O., Volovitch, P., Scully, J.R., Ogle, K. and Birbilis, N., 2015. Revisiting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of magnesium with online inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. ChemPhysChem, 16(3), pp.536-539
Volkov, D.S., Proskurnin, M.A. and Korobov, M.V., 2014. Elemental analysis of nanodiamonds by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Carbon, 74, pp.1-13.

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