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CEBN0906 Psychoactive Drugs Brain Body Society

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CEBN0906 Psychoactive Drugs Brain Body Society

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CEBN0906 Psychoactive Drugs Brain Body Society

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Course Code: CEBN0906
University: Brown University

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Country: United States

Question:

Is Marijuana Gateway Drug?
Marijuana decreases the brain activity rate.
 
Increases vulnerability rate to developing other disorders.
 
Large percentage of people involved in the use of marijuana ends up using hard drugs.
Answer:

Introduction
Marijuana is a psychoactive drug from the cannabis plant. It has become one of the most commonly used drugs for both recreational purposes and also medical-related needs. Like any other drug, marijuana has its side effects. These effects will depend on the way the drug has been used and also the amount used. In some cases, one may consider marijuana as a soft drug, and as a result, they find it’s as harmless. On the other hand, other people believe that the drug cans may result to other adverse effects which will substantially have negative impacts on those using them. There is a lot of debate related to whether marijuana is a getaway drug or if it acts as a gateway drug. A gateway drug can be considered as one that is supposed to lead a particular individual that uses them to drugs that are more addictive and dangerous.
In consideration to this case, I firmly believe and support that marijuana is a gateway drug. Typically, people who uses this drug and particularly in high levels tend to be affected negatively through additions. Other than that, the drug can also result in an individual having the need and quest of getting to use drugs that are addictive and those that may even result in strong addictions in general. Some researchers suggest that marijuana has a high probability to precede the use of substances that can either be illicit or licit. This will result in the development of addition to other drug substance that is generally not good for the health of any individuals.
Marijuana decreases the brain activity rate
The use of cannabinoids particularly in adolescence individuals tend to decreases the rate of activity of their brains dopamine reward center afterward in their adulthood, and as a result, it generates to these individuals thus explaining the vulnerabilities for addition to other drug substances that these people will misuse later in life. However, in most case, people tend to use the drug not as a gateway drug but for recreational or even medical-related purposes (Nkyi, 2015). Marijuana will prepare an individual’s brain to response to other substances which are considered as cross-sensitization. It tends to heighten activities that the brain engages in and as a result, it results to its users having a higher probability of seeking substances that are much strong in one way or another (Volkow, Baler, Compton & Weiss, 2014).
In general, drug use behaviors are mainly contributed by some factors which can either be genetic or environmental.  These factors contribute to the genetic makeup of people, lining environmental, family history and community effects in consideration to their likelihood of getting to try a particular drug. Marijuana is one of the common factors that will significantly affect an individual’s risk of getting to work substance which may be having dangerous effects in general (Kandel&Kandel, 2015).
Increases vulnerability rate to developing other disorders
Marijuana use is related with an increased vulnerability rate to developing other disorders even to those individuals that have no any history. Like most commonly abused drugs, marijuana alters people’s attention, motivation, ability to learn and also their memories.  There are a large number of people that have been reported using marijuana and later making it one of the most commonly used illicit drug, particularly in the United States (Sarkar, Nebhinani, Gupta, Parakh&Basu, 2016). Marijuana creates an individual’s tolerance to active medications. A study that was published mainly in the international journal of drug policy found that approximately forty-five percent of an individual that uses marijuana tend to use another illicit drug later in their lives.  One of these common drugs, in this case, is heroin. Studies have a theory that most of the heroin users began either with two drugs. These drugs are marijuana or alcohol (Clark, Folk & Perry, 2015, May). Those who use marijuana have a seventy-five percent probability more like than non-users to start abusing heroin. Other than that, adolescents that use marijuana are suggested to more likely getting into the use of harder and dangerous drugs in consideration to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (Kleinig, 2015).
Large percentage of people involved in the use of marijuana ends up using hard drugs
In most case, people tend to use marijuana mainly as a recreational purpose in general. They get used to this drug which later results besides and the need of using other harder drugs in general. In this regard, it is clear that marijuana is commonly used among people who then affect them in a negative way and in a way that would lead to the use of other harder drugs (Hasin, Saha, Kerridge, Goldstein, Chou, Zhang & Huang, 2015). The need to consider the application and mainly the reason for these drugs in an entail element when it comes to ensuring effectiveness and most importantly that people will not be affected negatively and in any way.  
A large number of individuals who start with the use of marijuana have no plan of ending up as hard drug users. There is a great need for people make safe use of these drugs without getting in any case of either being hooked or even having to suffer due to an overdose (Nkansah-Amankra& Minelli, 2016). This drug is also purported to be having medical effects that are long lasting depending on the way they are being used and mainly the quantity of their use in general. In some cases, people may gateway with the use of marijuana without ending up with being addictive to these drugs, but on the other hand, most of them do not get away with it in general.
Other factors like social anxiety, parental conflict and also depression have minimal impact when it comes to influencing people to start using other harder drugs in general. It is clear that small uses particularly in medical-related purposes will not have negative impact and influence to the use and most commonly influence to other stronger drugs (Chou, Zhang, Jung, Pickering &Ruan, 2015). It is evident that the use of these drugs in large amounts has a significantly negative influence to those that make use of these drugs. As a result, there is a great need to consider mainly the use of these drugs and particularly in the case that is only required in one way or another.
Conclusion
The use of marijuana is not wrong and may not have any negative impacts mainly when used in the right amount and for the proper purpose. Due to its impact and influence on the usage and consumption of other hard drugs, there is a great need to consider the use of marijuana.  It is evident when considering its impacts that marijuana has become one of the most common drugs that can result in the use of other stronger drugs. In this regard, it is essential for people to avoid depending on this drug unless under a doctor’s prescription and medical considerations which will in turn help to prevent further use of other strong and harder medications in general. It can result in health issues, and also use of a lot of capital with a primary aim of satisfying the quest and use of marijuana and other drugs which will affect an individual negatively. In this regard, the government has a responsibility to control the purpose of this drug and others which have no benefits when used in large amounts (Bell & Keane, 2014).  
References
Bell, K., & Keane, H. (2014). All gates lead to smoking: the ‘gateway theory’, e-cigarettes and the remaking of nicotine. Social Science & Medicine, 119, 45-52.
Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., Jung, J., Pickering, R. P., &Ruan, W. J. (2015).Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States. JAMA, 72(12).
ClarkC., Folk, J., & Perry, J. (2015, May).The Role of Gateway Drugs among Adolescents.In INTERNATIONAL INTERDISCIPLINARY BUSINESS-ECONOMICS ADVANCEMENT CONFERENCE (p. 421).
Hasin, D. S., Saha, T. D., Kerridge, B. T., Goldstein, R. B., Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., …& Huang, B. (2015). Prevalence of marijuana use disorders in the United States between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. JAMA psychiatry, 72(12), 1235-1242.
Kandel, D., &Kandel, E. (2015). The Gateway Hypothesis of substance abuse: developmental, biological and societal perspectives. ActaPaediatrica, 104(2), 130-137.
Kleinig, J. (2015). Ready for retirement: the gateway drug hypothesis. Substance use & misuse, 50(8-9), 971-975.
Nkansah-Amankra, S., & Minelli, M. (2016). “Gateway hypothesis” and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood. Preventive medicine reports, 4, 134-141.
Nkyi, A. K. (2015). Adolescents’ use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: The gateway to other drugs. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 158-168.
Sarkar, S., Nebhinani, N., Gupta, S., Parakh, P., &Basu, D. (2016). From one substance dependence to another: Are gateway violations common?. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry, 32(2), 171.
Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(23), 2219-2227.

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