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CAPP6004 Capstone Project

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CAPP6004 Capstone Project

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CAPP6004 Capstone Project

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Course Code: CAPP6004
University: Greenwich School Of Management

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:
A Capstone Project synthesises a student’s learning in a single project that demonstrates their fulfilment of the programme learning outcomes. It also includes a student’s reflection in writing on his or her experience in relation tothe material. It integrates academic knowledge with experiences beyond the classroom and combines developing knowledge, skills, and personal interests.The project is conceived, designed, and carried out independently, with support and supervision. 
 
To produce a research paper, article and documented action project,presentation of a body of visual / literary work, written project, dissertation or combination thereof.A 500 word reflective log and 500 word professional statement should be placed within the appendix as a formative assessment. 
Answer:

Managing of risks and safety in an event is one of the most important things, as it helps in planning out the event in a proper manner. This helps the event management team to meticulously plan out the structures so that any type of risks can be mitigated when the event is being held on a particular date (Glendon, Clarke and McKenna 2016). The United Kingdom holds many events in a particular year through different event management companies so that it can help the programs to be successful in nature. This has helped the country to draw more number of audiences towards the programs so that the ticket sales can be increased thereby increasing the level of profit as well (Kristiansen 2013).
During my stint in a renowned event management company known as UKME, I was able to understand that the organization takes utmost measures so that it can address the issues that are related to risk and safety. It is done by involving different parties so that the main areas can be investigated on a priority basis. However, from the work within the organization, I have seen that there are no specific tactics or minimum requirements that can help in mitigating the risks that may take place during an event. The organization keeps everything in place so that on the outbreak of a risk, it can be managed in a proper manner (Modarres 2016).
1.1 Event management introduction
            The concept of festivals and events within a country helps in promoting the factor of tourism along with the development of the region since the period of 1990. This is due to the fact that the event industry is global in nature and acts as a generator for tourism between the countries and the place where the event is being held (Van Der Wagen ad White 2018). In the recent times, it can be seen that most of the events are being held by the skilled and trained professionals so that any kind of risks can be mitigated within the event. The use of extensive research has helped in developing this particular field along with the use of the technological advancements.
The development of knowledge along with the infrastructural facilities has led to the enhancements and better evaluation of the events that are taking place within the countries. The start of the festivals help in generating better revenue, as many tourists are attracted due to its occurrence (Haddow, Bullock and Coppola 2017). Examples of this would be the Glastonbury Festival, which draws people from all over Britain in to a particular place, which results in boosting the level of revenues as well. Therefore, it can be stated that this industry has grown to a great extent and has helped in attracting a large number of tourists as well.
1.2 Problem Statement
            Safety, security and managing the risks of an event are a collaborative and complex process that needs to be done with the combination of different experts belonging to various fields so that the environment where the event will be help can be safe and secure (Haimes 2015). The legislation known as Occupational Safety and Health Act does not provide any safety guidelines regarding the issues that are associated with events. Therefore, it is necessary for the organizations to understand the importance of the awareness so that the event planners along with the venue managers can act in the best interest to safeguard the audience who are coming for the event.
            From the above scenario, it can be stated that managing the risks of the events in an inadequate manner may become a major problem for the project to take place within a particular place and there may be a huge loss of profits as well. 
1.3 Purpose of the study
            The primary purpose of this research would be to understand the safety and risk issues with the perspective of the venue managers and event planners that are present within the British industry and particularly in UKME.
1.4 Aims and objectives
            The study will be based on the following aims and objectives:

To get a better understanding on the concept of risk and risk perception so that it can be adapted within the field of event management
To examine the various perceptions of the managers present in Britain regarding the issues of safety and risks in managing and planning the events
To examine and identify the various types of risks that are related to the employees and attendees for the event
To provide different typologies of categories of risks by identifying the factors that are faced by the practitioners within the event management industry in Britain

1.5 Research questions
            The research will be based on the following questions:

What is the concept of risk and the risk perception that needs to be adapted within the event management?
What are the different perceptions of the managers with respect to the safety and risks in managing and planning the events?
How to identify and examine the different type of risks that are related to the attendees and employees of the event?
What are the different typologies and the risk factors that are faced by the practitioners in the event industry located in Britain?

1.6 Structure of the Study
            The research will be divided in to five chapters where the first chapter is the introduction that will contain the research objectives and the questions based on which the research will be done. The second chapter will consist of the review of literature where the important variables and factors will be discussed so that previous researches can help in understanding the topic in a better way. The third chapter consists of the method through which the research will be conducted so that it can help in identifying the different tools that are present and select the right options.
The fourth chapter consist of the analysis and findings based on the interviews that will be conducted of the managers. This chapter will shed light on the present day scenario hat is present in the event industry so that the research can be done on the recent incidents. The fifth chapter consists of the conclusion and recommendation part where the recommendations will be provided based on the findings of the research. The conclusion will help in providing the analysis in a brief and the objectives that have been taken up for the study will be linked as well.
Chapter 2: Literature Review 
2.0 Overview 
2.1 Event management
            The traditional form of event management is a predecessor of the tourism that takes place in the modern world and can be traced back to the time in Rome as well. However, after 1960, this industry started to grow as the rise of the events and festivals has led to attract more number of tourists so that it can lead to the generation of revenues (Masterman 2014). As commented by (Atkins and Moyer 2013), events can be described as the fastest and the most exciting form of leisure that can be related with the tourism business. The field of event management is growing on a rapid scale, which has helped in transforming the world and in the past decades it can be seen that organizations are taking more professional workers instead of the amateur ones.
However, as argued by Bhatt, Manadhata and Zomlot (2014), this is due to the fact that the work related to managing the events can be conducted in a proper manner and the resources can be used in a successful manner as well. The use of event management in the recent period has helped in understanding the foundation that has been laid with respect to the festivals that needs to be organized. Different authors have also suggested that there needs to be an approach that is formal in nature with respect to the management and planning of the event.
            It is the process through which a particular event is planned, prepared and produced so that it can be successful in nature. The job of the event manager is to look after the overall things that are present in the event, which is inclusive of researching, organizing, planning, implementing and evaluating the various aspects of the event such as design, activities and the production (Pearcy et al. 2014). It is a very complex field that involves the application of various practices of management so that different festivals can be created and developed as well. The events that are special in nature comprises of the non-routine occasions so that the objectives that are cultural and personal can be different from the activities that take place on a daily basis.
With reference to the impact of tourism, it can be stated that the use of the special attraction in the event industry helps in spreading awareness among the people so that more number of audiences can be drawn towards the event. The use of the events help in enlightening, celebrating along with entertaining the people who wants to come and enjoy and the festival (Sopovitz 2013).
            According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), a special event is where the activities are not followed in a routine manner and it is within the community that helps in gathering more number of people. With respect to tourism, it can be stated that these special events help in increasing the revenue of the place, as it attracts large number of visits such as Commonwealth games and Olympics.
2.2 Event and Project management
            Planning and managing an event is a complex process that may require the coordination of various experts such as the knowledge of a construction people is needed so that the infrastructure can be built in a proper manner along with the information technology that will help in advertising the event in a better manner (Marchewka 2014). The methodologies of project management needs to be mastered by the event managers so that it can help in organizing the activities in a proper manner by developing properties that will help in managing the risks in a proper manner.
Project management is also a process through which the planning and the coordination of the project from its beginning till the end is done in a proper manner. There is a direct relation between event management and the practices that are present in project management so that it can help in the creation and development of the festivals along with the events (Larson et al. 2014).
            The nature of event management is also very similar to the practice of project management, as it helps in the development and creation of the festivals and events in a proper manner. The beginning of the project along with its implementation till the closing down of the event needs to be managed in a proper manner so that it can help in attracting more number of audiences towards the event program.
Safety is a major aspect that needs to be taken up by the organizations so that it can help in managing the event in a proper manner (Braglia and Frosolini 2014). This will help in mitigating any kind of risks that may arise during the festival so that the audience along with the performers can be safeguarded in a proper manner. The organizers of the event needs to make a routine check before the start of the festival so that they can understand the extent to which the risks can be protected.
2.3 Risk, assessment and management
            Risk is a term that is used very commonly and can be applied at different times to different people as well. It can be defined according to its level of complexities and multidimensionality, which makes it difficult to operate with various fields and dimensions. It can also be defined as the systematic way through which the hazards can be dealt along with the insecurities that are introduced in the modern world. It also helps in calculating the level of probability along with the severity that can be created due to its effect (Lave 2013).
            The risks are also the immediate dangers that are being faced by the organizations and there may be different combinations of the consequences as well as the uncertainties that may take place in an event in an adverse manner. It also refers to the possibility of the various actions of the humans along with the events that may affect the value of the humans in different aspects. It can also be defined as the perception of the individual towards different uncertainties that may result in the loss or the injury of the human lives (Haimes 2015). There are three components that helps in the identification of risks such as the construction of risk that may result in a loss, the significance of the loss that has taken place and the nature of uncertainty that is associated with the loss. The main focus of this study will be on the aspect of safety risk so that the probability and the impact can be measured.
            Risk can also be referred as the dangers that is sought actively so that it can help in identifying, confronting and controlling the hazards in a systematic manner. A proper definition of risk is that the management needs to be in an integral manner so that the different kinds of risks such as price, volume, and supply, financial and operational risks can be reduced. It can also be defined as the systematic and logical method through which the identification, evaluation and monitoring along with the proper communication will help in associating the risk with activities that may enable the organization in reducing its losses and increase the opportunities as well. To put it simply, it can be stated that managing the risks helps in increasing the level of opportunities in the organization by reducing the losses as well (Merz et al. 2014).
            Managing the risks is an important part, as it helps the organization in understanding the primary reason that the events are surrounded by various uncertainties that may result in the loss with respect to human lives as well as financial losses. There are two different approaches in assessing the risks that are known as probability theory and the methods that help in identifying the link between the effects and the activities that are hazardous (Covello and Merkhoher 2013).
Therefore it can be stated that the risks can be assessed. The starting process of assessing the risk is an important step, as it will help in the identification of the hazards that are potential in nature so that the safety management can be done in a proper manner. The management and assessment of risk will help in actively identifying and controlling the threats so that it does not harm the festival that is taking place in a particular location. Risk can also be stated as the concept and the construction, which cannot be quantified. The concept of risk is more of a personal judgment that is infinite in nature and cannot be measured in a proper manner (Rausand 2013).
            The event managers as well as the venue planners cannot ignore the incidents of safety that may result in getting the attention of the media, which might result in the catastrophe of the event. An example of this would be any incidents that are related with crowds, which may lead to a loss of many lives. This may result in demanding equal compensation from the managers and the planners who were responsible for making the event successful. It is therefore necessary for the event practitioners to understand the level of risk that may take place when the event is functional so that the risks can be understood and mitigated at a faster manner as well (Zio 2016).
Their knowledge and understanding regarding the proper handling of event is necessary, which would result in planning out the event in a proper manner. However, the planners and the managers also need to be aware of the fact that reducing the errors is an important factor that will result in assessing the impact of risk on the event that is taking place. This process is iterative and cyclical in nature, which depends on the effectiveness and the flexibility as well as the anticipation with respect to the changes that can be done so that the risk can be averted (Aminbakhsh, Gunduz and Sonmez 2013). This study is being made so that the event managers and the venue planners that are present in the United Kingdom can mitigate the threats in a proper manner that are related to the management and planning of the event.
2.4 Event risk and safety
            Different types of events are being held on a constant manner where the risks also varies from event to event. The impact of the risks in some of the events are less and in some of them it poses greater risks. Most of the events are speculative in nature and its level of production consists mostly of liabilities that may have a potential impact on the economy as well. The planners and event managers need to take in to consideration the safety environment under which the event needs to be performed so that it is protected from any harm or hazards that may take place during the event.
The management of risk within the event industry is considered to be the core competency due to the training and other educational programs that are given to the volunteers regarding the safety issues that needs to be incorporated within the program (Illiyas et al. 2013). Most of the organizers of the event are basically lacking the tools that may enable them in handling the risks in a proper manner so that the the stakeholders of the event can be kept safe.
            Risk management is considered to be the process where the anticipation, prevention and minimizing the cost of the risks may result in the happening of the event in a smooth manner. It also addresses the issue of future incidents that may play an influential part in the event in a negative manner. It can also be defined as the condition or the occurrence, which may affect the event outcome and expose the organization to a short or long-term loss and other probable consequences (Grote 2015).
            The events are also inclusive of the social gatherings, which may contain significant challenges with respect to safety. The practitioners of the events need to consider the security and safety of the industry so that the risks can be observed and controlled in a proper manner. The managers and the event planners need to have a better sense of the familiarity with respect to assessment of risks and management of risks as well.
The major requirement among the planners and the venue managers is that they need to operate within a safe venue failing which may lead to risky consequences. An example of this would be hat to avoid the calamities that are related with the crowd, it is important for the managers to conduct a safety assessment with respect to crowd control. This can be done based on the feedback from the previous operations that were conducted in the particular place (Getz and Page 2016).
            In a short manner, it can be stated that risk management is the way in which the risks and the hazards can be identified, assessment and proper strategies can be taken up so that it can be reduced. It also helps in providing better solutions regarding the methods through which the possibility of the risks can be reduced or diminished. The identification of the process of risk can be said is the first step that helps in planning the outcome in a better way (Francis and Bekera 2014).
2.5 Risk perception
2.5.1 Insights
            The study that is based on perception of risk is an individual psychology, as it helps in the process to continue so that it can be developed with the help of various mental models along with the processes that are affective in nature. The researchers who are an expert in the social science have stated that the study related to risk perception is very wide and can be linked with different hazardous events such as the risks that are associated with health and safety hazards of the environment. The perception of risk may also vary based on the information to which they are exposed so that the attitude of the people can be instrumental in developing the perceptions and attitudes that are present among the people (Maguire and Hardy 2013).
            The theories that are based on psychology lays the basic foundation based on which the research regarding perception of risk is carried out. Most of the previous studies had been done based on using the psychometric paradigm that was designed by Starr in the year 1969 and further improved by Fischhoff in the year 1978. This approach was based on providing justification regarding the analysis of risk-benefit and the assumptions were done through a process of trial and error. These studies led to the introduction of different mental strategies, which can be employed on the people so that it can be sensible to the people (Mahmoudi et al. 2013).
2.5.2 Risk perception within the event industry
            It is one of the most important areas that helps in understanding the relation between the security and safety that is present within the event industry. It can be stated that the perception of risk within the event industry has never been studied in the previous researches, which will help the modern researchers in getting the empirical studies so that proper insights and assessments can be created within the event organizations that are present in the United Kingdom (Wachiger et al. 2013).
            There is still a lack of the tools of standardisation, which will help the event organizations in reporting the procedures that are necessary so that the decisions by the planners and the managers can be taken in an informed manner. It can be stated that one of the major weaknesses is to identify in a proper manner the perception of the event practitioners and the visitors along with their safety concerns. Perception can be defined as the level of awareness regarding the elements that are present within the environment so that it can create a physical sensation. To put it simply, it is the way through which the individual is able to analyse and interpret the information that is incoming so that it can help in creating sense within the individual (Reason 2016).
            The perceptions that are subjective in nature are derived through the interpretation of data and helps in assessing the probability of the event through its seriousness. The event planners need to develop strategies regarding the perceptions that are associated with risks so that it can lead to the creation of a safe and secure environment where the event can take place.
To put it generally, it can be seen that the dramatic accidents increases the risk of memorability and imagination regarding the hazard so that the risk perception can be increased. In a shorter manner, it can be stated that when the risk perception is greater with respect to the consequences, there is a higher chance of taking action so that the risk can be reduced. On the other hand, the events that are familiar in nature has a less perception regarding the risks that are associated with it (Slovic 2016).
2.6 Legislation and legal aspect
            There are different legislations that helps in mitigating the risks of the undesirable liabilities that are present among the event planners and the managers. The major legal compliance among the event organizers are the litigations regarding risks, sanctions of the funds and the fines that they need to pay if the standards are not met in a proper manner. The main legislation that helps in laying the rules regarding the health and safety aspects in the United Kingdom is Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974 that covers the occupational health and safety rules in the country (Holt and Allen 2015). This act lays the foundation for all the event planners and the managers to identify and carefully assess the risks so that it can help in minimizing the risks in a proper manner.
            The Social Security and Compensation Act, 1992 in the United Kingdom also helps in safeguarding the employees within the country. This is due to the fact that it helps in checking that the rights of the employees are safeguarded and that they get a better rate of compensation based on the work that they are doing for organizing the event. The Act also sees that the employees are not exploited within the work place that may lead to external or internal injuries or accidents while working within the organization (Cane and Atiyah 2013).
2.7 Chapter summary
            The review of literature has helped in providing better resources regarding the risks that are present in the event industry, which may lead the event to turn in to a catastrophe. The event planners and the venue managers need to make sure that the risk within the event industry can be mitigated in a proper manner and that they have a proper knowledge regarding the type of risks that may arise within the happening of the event. It also provides insight regarding the perception of risk, as it may be higher with the level of event that is being organized. There are different legislation bodies that help in looking after the employees so that they do not face any unfair treatment while working in an event organization.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
            In this chapter, the researcher discusses about the distinctive methodological tools that can be used while proceeding out a research successfully. Additionally, the researcher rationalizes the election of the specific research methodologies that has been selected for this research along with highlighting the accessibility issues and the ethical considerations for this research.
3.1 Research outline
            For this research, the researcher has used positivism philosophy, deductive approach, and descriptive research design and interview research strategy. The researcher has used convenience sampling technique for selecting 3 event managers of UKME as interviewee. Considering the above-mentioned methods, the researcher has used primary data collection technique and qualitative data analysis techniques.
3.2 Research philosophy
            Positivism, pragmatism and interpretivism are the known research philosophies that are used while carrying out a research. Pragmatism has the combined characteristics of positivism and interpretivism philosophies. The use of positivism philosophy allows the researcher to use scientific approach thereby, enabling data accuracy and validity (Mackey and Gass 2015). On the other hand, interpretivism philosophy highlights the concept of considering the viewpoints and perception of other individuals and supporting own findings.
3.2.1 Justification of choosing positivism philosophy
            Positivism philosophy has been used for this research that is justified for this work. The use of positivism philosophy has enabled the researcher to implement a scientific approach in analyzing the risk perception among event planners and venue managers in UKME thereby, ensuring data accuracy and validity (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015).
3.3 Research approach
            Deductive and inductive approaches are the two types of research approaches that can be used while carrying out a research. In the case of inductive approach, the researcher has to develop new theories and concepts according to the observations that have been made. On the other hand, the use of deductive approach allows the researcher to refer to already existing pieces of literatures, theories and concepts and support the observations that has been made (Lewis 2015).
3.3.1 Justification of choosing deductive approach
            Deductive approach has been used for this work that is justified. This is because the use of this approach allowed the researcher to refer to already existing pieces of literatures in terms of potential risks while organizing events and risk perception among event managers and venue managers in UKME thereby, aligning and supporting with own findings and observations (Violeti 2016).
3.4 Research design
            Explanatory, exploratory and descriptive are the three types of research designs. Exploratory research design aim towards exploring the potential issues in the research and explanatory research designs explains the potential reasons of the issues. Descriptive design has the combined characteristics of both exploratory and explanatory research designs (Flick 2015). 
3.4.1 Justification of choosing descriptive design
            Descriptive research design has been used for this research that is justified. This is because the use of descriptive research design allowed the researcher to explore potential risks and explain the perception from the viewpoint of the event planners and the venue managers in UKME.
3.5 Research strategy
            Action research, case study, interview and survey are the four types of research strategies. Case study strategy refers to the use of relevant secondary resources, action strategy refers to predict the future occurrences of the phenomenon and interview and survey allows collecting data from a large population ensuring relevancy (Panneerselvam 2014).
3.5.1 Justification of choosing interview strategy
            Interview research strategy has been used for this work that is justified. This is because interview allowed the researcher to communicate personally with the interviewees and analyzing the risk perception that exists while organizing an event among the event planners and venue managers (Smith 2015).
3.6 Sampling technique and sample size
            Out of the various types, probability and convenience sampling techniques are widely used while selecting samples for the research work. Probability sampling technique allows equal chances to all the participants within a population to be a part of the data collection process whereas non-probability restricts that. In this case, the researcher itself selects the samples based on their suitability (Bauer 2014).
3.6.1 Justification of choosing convenience sampling technique
            The use of convenience sampling technique has been has been justified for this work. This is because the researcher has been able to select the interview by judging their suitability according to the research topic (Ledford and Gast 2018). Thus, the researcher in this case has selected 3 event managers to interview by using this sampling technique.
3.7 Data collection technique
            Primary and secondary are the two types of data collection technique while conducting a research work. Secondary data collection technique refers gathering of data from various secondary resources such as books, journals and other internet facilities. On the other hand, primary data collection technique highlights gathering raw data from participants physically (Roberts 2013).
3.7.1 Justification of choosing primary data collection technique
            Primary data collection technique has been used for this research that is justified. This allowed the researcher to collect data from event planners and venue managers in UKME and analyze the risk perception of organizing an event. Additionally, the use of primary data collection technique allowed the researcher to collect recent data thereby, providing updated information in the work as well (Humphries 2017).
3.8 Data analysis technique
            Qualitative and quantitative are the two types of data analysis techniques that are used while carrying out a research. Quantitative data analysis technique highlights the use of numbers in terms of averages and percentages for analyzing the collected data whereas qualitative analysis emphasizes on interpreting the verbatim that has been recorded (Neuman 2013).
3.8.1 Justification of choosing qualitative data analysis technique
            Qualitative data analysis technique has been used that is justified because this allowed the researcher to interpret the interview verbatim of the 3 event managers of UKME and analyze the risk perception in detail while organizing an event (Dang and Pheng 2015).
3.9 Accessibility issues
            The researcher faced certain accessibility issues while gathering the data. As the researcher selected interview as the research strategy, the process turned out to be extremely time-consuming. Though the researcher was able to analyze the risk perception among event planners and the managers, it was difficult to interpret the transcript as well.
3.10 Ethical considerations
            One of the most important ethical considerations while conducting a research is ensuring and maintaining data confidentiality. The researcher had to ensure that the collected data and the identity of the participants are kept confidential and not disclosed without their consent (Faden et al. 2013). In addition to, the researcher has to avoid forceful participation of the respondents in the data collection technique. One of the best methods to ensure that is signing the consent forms by the respondents that participated in the data collection process. Moreover, data manipulation, using data for commercial purpose and collecting data from unauthentic sources are strictly prohibited and are against the research ethics (Harris, MacSween and Atkinson 2017).
3.11 Summary
            Thus, in this chapter, it can be summarized the methodological tools selected by the researcher for this research are justified and has helped in analyzing the risk perception among event planners and venue managers in United Kingdom Mission Enterprise (UKME). Thus, this has helped the researcher to collect data successfully and prove the research aim and objectives.
Chapter 4: Data Analysis
            In this chapter, the researcher analyzes the data collected and recorded from three event managers of UKME in order to determine the potential risks that are involved while organizing an event. This provided an opportunity for the researcher to develop a deeper understanding of the risks and the safety measures that can be taken to avoid the risks in terms of safety and security of the individuals attending the event.
4.1 Interview
What kind of risk incidents have you encountered as event planners in your career?
Interviewee 1: “I have been working as an event planner for more than 6 years. During my career span, I have encountered several risks out of which one of the incident left me shocked. I cannot recall the name of the event but I remember a boy rigged the spotlights without wearing proper a harness. All of a sudden the boy plunged to the floor with his head bumped on the floor of the venue and died instantly on the spot.”
Interviewee 2: “I have been working in this industry for just 3 years but I have also encountered incidents that were risky that led to loss of life as well as resulting in physical deformities. I was organizing a large scale event in Malaysia when an experienced guy was setting the electrical without appropriate safety measures. Upon asking he said that he has been doing this for years like this but nothing happened. But unfortunately that was not his day. He was electrocuted so badly that it left him brain dead for the rest of his life with very little chance of recovery.”
Interviewee 3: “I have been in this industry for more than 10 years and I have encountered several incidents both big and small over the years due to lack of appropriate safety and security measures. I have seen people getting cuts due to lack of safety whereas i have also seen people losing lives due to the casualness. Considering the list of accidents that I have seen, I can only say that having appropriate safety and security measures is significant during organizing events.”
How important is safety for you while you organize an event?
Interviewee 1: “I think safety is the absolutely important while organizing an event. Safety is one aspect that should not be compromised while organizing an event as it involves individuals that are organizing the event as well as the audiences. Lack of safety results in loss of lives as well as finances both of which as irreplaceable and incalculable. I would also like to share my views on the significance of having risk assessment standard and following it while organizing an event.”
Interviewee 2: “I think the concept of safety and security in the event industry is new for the people, as they fail to determine and judge the level of risk that is involved. People feel that safety measures are more significant in other industry such as construction. Though I am just 3 years old in this industry, I feel safety is one aspect that should not compromise at all. As event planners, it is my duty to ensure the safety of the people who are working hard for organizing the event as well as for people who are attending the event.”
Interviewee 3: “With the personal experience that I gathered over the years, I can say safety is crucial for the event planners. As event planners, it is one of our core duties and responsibilities to ensure the safety of all the surrounding people as we are dealing with lives that are irreplaceable.”
What are various types of safety and security arrangements you keep while organizing an event?
Interviewee 1: “At UKME, ensuring safety and security is the main responsibility. As an event planner, I personally emphasizes on arranging the medical facilities at the venue from the first day itself. This helps in providing instant help to emergency situations thereby, providing the individuals with preliminary medical facilities. This has helped us to save the loss of lives and saving the accident chronic.”
Interviewee 2: “If my opinion is to be considered, I would suggest that the people associated with organizing the event needs to be educated regarding the significance of taking and following necessary safety protocols while working in the field. This is the best safety measure that can be taken because I feel majority of the accidents occurs due to the reluctance of the individuals.”
Interviewee 3: “For my personal opinion, I feel safety is absolutely crucial and significant for the people organizing the event. At UKME, I emphasize on arranging adequate security forces, medical facilities and volunteers so that emergencies can be handled.”
4.2 Summary
            Thus, it can be summarized that accidents are common phenomenon in the event industry due to the existing reluctance among the people and ignorance regarding the potential risks that are involved and its impact on them and their family in the long-term.
Chapter 5: Results and findings
5.0 Overview
            Previously significant risk and safety issues in terms of venue and event managers have been discussed but in this chapter different aspect to this examination is highlighted. This chapter present the core findings of this work and develops an event safety risk typology in UK context.
5.1 Event safety risk typology (Part 1)
            Crowd control and crowd safety is considered as the most important and foremost aspect towards formulating event safety risk typology from the UK context. The risk issues includes the well-being of the individuals that attend the event in large numbers need to be controlled.
The Prominence of VIP safety
            A difference has been noticed in the safety of ordinary and elite people in the UK. The VVIP’s and and the VIP’s are given better security and ensured better safety while they attend an event in order to save them from the existing crowd.
Crowd management
            Planning and managing the existing crowd is also essential for which the event planners and the venue managers have to consider the sociological behaviour of the crowd along with emphasizing on the seating arrangements, time, transportation and demographics.
Stampede
            Crowd control is considered as the steps that need to be undertaken once the crowd loses the control.
5.1.2 Technical and logistics hazards
Construction risk
            Certain event production requires manufacturing works that may impose severe dangers. Thus, before organizing an event the required manufacturing and construction works needs to be done in terms of stages, pavilions and electrical items.
Logistics and transportation hazards
            Large scale events involve the incorporation of different kinds of event stakeholders such as employees, contractors, suppliers and volunteers. Thus, logistics and transportation often becomes a threat if not handled appropriately.
5.1.3 Fire and electrical risk
Fire risk
            Fire related risk is a major safety issue while organizing events because it results in severe loss in terms of revenue and human fatalities that are potentially incalculable and irreplaceable to both the venue planners and the event managers.
Electrical risk
            A lot of electrical equipment are used while organizing an event that needs to be well-equipped. Failure to secure these electrical equipments results in fatal electrical hazards.
5.1.4 Event venue and location
Height risk
            Height related risks are also prevalent while organizing events in terms of construction works in preparing for an event. This is because organizing an event requires a lot of technical works that includes installation of lights and audio-visual system.
Minor injuries from slips and falls
            Organizing an event requires lot of out of the office work or fieldwork in order to execute the event successfully that involves various minor safety incidents such as falls and slip that requires small medical treatment or first-aid treatment.
The Police Forces
            Enforcement of relevant agencies is essential for organizing an event safely. The involvement of necessary policy forces and departments are required for ensuring the safety of the event. For instance, the police forces help in handling the necessary threats to the respective event thereby, emphasising on the safety of the work.
The Fire Brigade
            Managing the risk of fire outbreak is also crucial while organizing an event but fire outbreak results in both human and financial loss that is irreplaceable and incalculable. The fire brigade needs to be at the venue of the event so that they are able to take spontaneous action and steps during a sudden outbreak.
The Medical Services
            The arrangement of medical services is also necessary at the venue of the event because sudden medical conditions might arise that requires instant action and delay might result in fatal results.
Other Emergency Services
            Apart from the aforementioned facilities, other emergency facilities are also required at the venue of the event such as the search and rescue team, security consultants and defence agencies.
5.2.2 Security risks and issues
            Though the aim emphasizes on the risks related to the safety of organizing an event, it is essential to include the security measures that needs to be undertaken while organizing an event. Security in terms of the crowd and equipment needs to be handled in order to prevent theft, bombings and terrorism in the venue.
Weather hazards and natural disasters
            The risk in this category belongs to the weather hazards and natural disasters that cannot be controlled. Weather hazards and natural disasters include heavy downfalls, floods, tsunami, storms and typhoons. These natural disasters are uncontrollable and the event planners need to be prepared to withstand such scenarios.
Epidemic and outbreaks
            Risk related to safety while organizing event is also considered in terms of epidemic and global outbreaks. The event organizers need to be prepared from beforehand to withstand epidemic and global outbreak, as the audiences include various national and international that may get highly affected.
Other environmental hazards
            Other environmental hazards include sulphur forth that the event managers and the venue planners need to be prepared for in order to ensure safety at the venue.
5.2.4 Financial risks and insurances
            Financial or business risk is also a risk in terms of safety of organizing an event and financial loss is not considered as a direct loss but considered as consequential loss.
5.2.5 Other safety risks
Food safety
            Beverages and food are known as catering management are crucial as this deals with edible materials during events such as meetings, festivals and weddings. This factor cannot be compromised as food-borne illness can be fatal and are irreplaceable.
Human factor
            Compared to other risks that have been discussed above, human related risk refers to the nature of the individuals that are responsible for specific jobs that can become dangerous under certain circumstances.
5.3 Summary
            Thus, in this chapter, it can be summarized that the potential risks of organizing an event has been discussed with the potential approaches that can be arranged or used in order to ensure safety.
6.0 Conclusion
            Thus, in this chapter, it can be concluded that risk while organizing events are very common and safety and security measures need to be undertaken appropriately for mitigating the potential risks. This research aim towards recognizing the present practices conducted in the event industry in terms of safety and security. Understanding the phenomenon provides an opportunity for the event planners to set necessary benchmarks to risk and safety aspects followed by determining appropriate risk assessment and risk management strategies later on. As a result, the event planners are able to minimize the hazards and threats posed by the event management organizations in UKME. This study aimed towards examining the impact of inadequate risk and safety planning and recognized by the event planners that is a liability risks pertaining to safety.
6.1 Linking with objectives
Objective 1: To get a better understanding on the concept of risk and risk perception so that it can be adapted within the field of event management
            Literature review section 2.4 highlights the concept of risk and risk perception. The information provided highlights that risk and safety in the event industry is a major concern, as the loss incurred cannot be replaced. Also, the first interview question highlights the potential risks in the event industry in Britain.
Objective 2: To examine the various perceptions of the managers present in Britain regarding the issues of safety and risks in managing and planning the events
            Literature review section 2.5 highlights the perceptions of the managers present in Britain regarding the issues of safety and risks in managing and planning events. In addition to, interview question 2 highlights the significance of safety among the managers and the event planners.
Objective 3: To examine and identify the various types of risks that is related to the employees and attendees for the event
            Literature review section 2.3 highlights the various types of risks that are related to the employees and the attendees for the events. Additionally, interview question 1 also highlights the potential risks as well.
Objective 4: To provide different typologies of categories of risks by identifying the factors that are faced by the practitioners within the event management industry in Britain
            Chapter 5 highlights the various typologies of categories of risks by recognizing the factors that are encountered by the practitioners within the event industry in Britain.  
6.2 Recommendations
            Based on the identified issues, the potentials recommendations include:
Educating the people regarding the severity of the risk:
            It is important for the event planners to educate and cascade the severity of risk the individuals can face if they show casualness and reluctance in terms of taking appropriate and suitable safety and security measures.
Strict monitoring: The event planners need to keep an eye strictly so that they can ensure that the people working in the field are taking appropriate safety and security measures.
Having a standard risk assessment: It is important for UKME to have a standard risk assessment protocol and policy that needs to be followed while they are working including required having necessary emergency services.
6.3 Future scope of the study
            Insights have been gained from this study that might provide an opportunity for the event planners and the venue managers with relevant data while developing and implementing benchmarks for the event management practices in UKME in United Kingdom. However, further studies can be conducted in terms of the risk factors specifying the particular venue of the events such as sports events and music concerts that are organized at large scale. In addition to, future study can be conducted by re-visiting the informants those have significant experiences dealing with alcohol intoxicated related issues that is not at all investigated in this current study. Future study on alcohol management practices can be identified followed by creating industry benchmarks that plays a crucial role determining the appropriate practices in the industry.
            Furthermore, the findings from this study can be used in developing new policies or strategies that will affect alcohol and crowd management practices for years to come. Thus, enforcing these policies in future will help in promoting the safety of the crowd followed by maximizing the revenue generation for the event planners as well as restricting potential litigation. Also, this study can be replicated in other domains or geographical locations such as the entire United Kingdom.
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