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C500 : Microbiology

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C500 : Microbiology

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C500 : Microbiology

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Course Code: C500
University: The University Of Manchester

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:

1. Select one current peer-reviewed, research article about adopted pathogen. Peer-reviewed articles are available through the Learning Resources Center (LRC). Also, many articles and / or topics can be found by browsing the journals and/or web links found within the “Adopt a Pathogen” folder in Blackboard. Summaries of papers that are not primary, research articles WILL NOT BE GRADED!
2. Produce summary for peer-reviewed article. The summary should be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. DO NOT QUOTE FROM THE ARTICLE. The purpose of this assignment is to read, synthesize, and summarize information in a research article. Write the summary in paragraph form. The summary should include the following: 

Answer:

Summary of the paper including the main  hypothesis :
The paper Ismail  et al. (2018), emphasizes the association of the Escherichia coli ST131 lineage with the risk of urinary tract infection reoccurrence amongst young women. Urinary tract infection is the second common bacterial infection and proved to be the prime r4sason behind the antibiotic therapy. Women aged 18 to 24 are at higher risk of the urinary tract infections (Harbinger et al., 2018). However, the study , Ismail  et al. (2018) , suggested that certain lineage of E.coil are more likely influence the occurrence of the urinary tract infection compared to the other lineage of the E. coli. The test hypothesis of the paper is that ST131 lineage of E.coli is more likely associated with the reoccurrence of the urinary tract infection compared to the other lineage of the E.coli in the younger women. It was observed that the uropathogenic E.coli is antibiotic resistant compared to other lineages of the E.coli (Foxman, 2014). The study,  Ismail  et al.( 2018) , suggested that this lineage of E.coli contain the extended spectrum of beta-lactamase, which made them multidrug resistant. Therefore, this paper will illustrate the summary of Material and Methods, review of the Results and conclusion in following paragraphs.
The summary of the materials and methods:
The study Ismail et al. (2018), conducted a randomized trial control where Escherichia coli isolated from the women who are participating in the 2007- 2005. The randomized trail control was placebo control trials in order to obtain the therapeutic efficacy of the cranberry juice in preventing the reoccurrence (Ismail et al., 2018). The study included the 221 women aged in between 18 to 40 with symptoms of the urinary tract infection symptoms and positive uropathogenic E. coli in the urine. The study excluded participants who received the antibiotics prior to the infection (Ismail  et al. 2018). Antibiotic sensitivity was examined for these samples considering the few antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cefalexin. The data analysis was conducted using the chi-square test for differentiating the reoccurrence and monitored for 6 months. The CH typing was also conducted but the isolation was not successful (Ismail et al., 2018).
Summary of the result:
The result of the study was obtained through the statistical analysis and analysis suggested that statistically there are no demographic differences between e.coli linage of ST131 compared to the non-ST131 lineage. However, the antibiotic sensitivity test indicated the resistance of fluoroquinolones in the E.coli linage of ST131 was higher compared to Non-ST131. The culture study of the E.coli indicated reported that out of 221 women only 24 cases exhibited reoccurrence (Ismail et al., 2018).
Conclusion:
The author conducted an investigation whether Urinary tract infection caused by lineage type ST131 or not. The obtained resulted showed that amongst 221 women, 131 women were diagnosed with the reoccurrence of urinary tract infection (Ismail et al., 2018). Although there is no significant difference in the statistics of the ST131 linage of E.coli compared to other lineages of E.coli, the primary study exhibited the difference. Reoccurrence is the major cause of morbidity in solely in younger women and the risk of second urinary tract usually occurs within six months (Foxman, 2014). A study by Wagenlehner et al. (2015), although the epidemiology of the reoccurrence of E.coli  by ST131 lineage is poorly understood accumulated evidence suggested that the antibiotic resistance and presence of virulence factor are the prime reasons behind the reoccurrence of UTI. women with UTI are usually treated empirically with the combination of two or three antibiotics which has been consumed before (Ismail et al., 2018). Consequently, the resistance developed to these combinations of antibiotic.  Reoccurrence also associated with virulence factors such as Dr. Adhesions, which make them persistent in the bowel cavity and vaginal cavity (Ismail et al., 2018).
To conclude, Urinary tract infection is the second common disease observed in women, which increases the morbidity rate. Urinary tract infection is more common to women due to shorter urethra compared to men. Consequently, even after successful cure of the infection through antibiotic therapy, the higher prevalence observed in women compared to men. The reoccurrence of urinary tract infection can be prevented by cranberry juice, practicing healthy habits and consuming Vitamin C.  
References :
Foxman, B. (2014). Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 28(1), 1-13.
Harbinger, H. A., & Women, D. T. D. E. Y. (2014). Urinary tract infection. US Pharm, 39(8), 17-18.
Ismail, M. D., Ali, I., Hatt, S., Salzman, E. A., Cronenwett, A. W., Marrs, C. F., … & Foxman, B. (2018). Association of Escherichia coli ST131 lineage with the risk of urinary tract infection recurrence among young women. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance, 13, 81-84.
Wagenlehner, F. M., Umeh, O., Steenbergen, J., Yuan, G., & Darouiche, R. O. (2015). Ceftolozane-tazobactam compared with levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections, including pyelonephritis: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ASPECT-cUTI). The Lancet, 385(9981), 1949-1956.

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