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C04235 Architecture

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C04235 Architecture

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Course Code: C04235
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

Question:
1.Established unilaterally in 1836 by the South Australia Company on the place known to its traditional owners as Tandanya, the City of Adelaide and its suburbs is, today, an expansive urban ‘space’ that has incorporated, subsumed, and sometimes concealed many different ‘places’ in the course of its short historical development, With reference to the rich visual and archival records of early cultural encounters between Aboriginal Australians and European colonists preserved in the collections of the Art Gallery of South Australia and the South Australian Museum, and associated literature, discuss this contested ‘spatial history’.         2.Discuss the types and designs of buildings provided by government in early SA (1836-1880) for education, police, courts, post-offices, etc… Discuss style, precedents, local variations and construction method. How did these ‘public works’ contribute to the building of a new society, and/or reproduce the norms and forms of the ‘Old World’, or ‘other’ colonial societies from which they could  borrow?   3.Examine three early construction types/methods in Colonial Adelaide. Locate local examples, describe and document each construction method, materials used and where these were sourced. What networks of technological dependency and/or economic exchange between this new world and the old did these methods sustain?   4.Discuss the terms Gothic Revival and Italianate, and associated debates about morality and regional identity in architecture, as these styles were adopted in the architecture of early colonial and Victorian South Australia. Use examples to illustrate your argument and reference origins overseas and local variations. 5.How have South Australian planners from 1900 onwards approached the idea of suburbia? What are the key planning theory influences? Who were the key protagonists? Illustrate by comparing/ contrasting suburbs of different design to support your argument. 6.What influences from the United States can be identified in South Australian architecture 1890-1950? Illustrate using local buildings and describing the architectural climate and influences of the period in South Australia. 7.Moderne vs Modern: compare and contrast four South Australian pre-1950 examples, choosing two civic or commercial and two domestic buildings for discussion. What differences and similarities are apparent? 8.Adelaide had a number local architects who could be considered as ‘pioneers’ of modern architecture in this state. Select and compare two of these architects and explain how their work and careers reflected broader developments and critiques in the modern architectural movement over the course of the 20th century, and how these forms and ideas were received by the South Australian establishment.  9.Government architects, such as George Kingston and E.J. Woods, or government agencies such as the SA Housing Trust under the directorship of Chief Architect Newell Platten, have played significant roles in the design of public buildings and housing. Select a particular government architect or agency and describe and discuss their impact in shaping the character and standards of architectural design in this state.10.South Australia was opened-up and/or settled by migrants from many parts of the world other than Britain. Through a detailed description and critical analysis of the design and history of a particular building or artefact of landscape or urban design associated with one of those other migrant groups, discuss the ‘global’ dimensions of our local architectural and spatial history.11.How have the architectural and/or landscape-architectural histories of South Australia developed differently and distinctively relative to other Australian states and regions? How might this reflect relationships between built environments, cultural practices and social structure?12.”In the pursuit of sustainable development, communities have much to gain from adaptively reusing historic buildings. … Environmental benefits, combined with energy savings and the social advantage of recycling a valued heritage place make adaptive reuse of historic buildings an essential component of sustainable development”  (DEH, 2004). Select two South Australian examples of adaptive reuse of historic buildings, one that you consider to be very successful and the other less so.  Critically discuss and compare these two adaptive reuse projects, in the context of their heritage significance, original design, construction (and setting and with reference to established conservation principles (eg the Burra Charter). Historic and contemporary illustrations should be included.
Answer:

Introduction:
Australian architecture is considered to be consistent with architectural trends in the broader western world in combination of special adaptation to compensate for distinctive Australian climate and cultural factors. Australian’s early history consist ingenious Australian only for semi-permanent structures production available from readily available materials. During the early years of Australia, the collection of British colonies existing in Australia influenced the architectural styles by British designs. Although there was the influence from the colonial areas, Australia’s unique climate demanded adaption. The 20th century trends of Australia’s architecture reflected in the increasing influence of American urban designs. It also manifested cultural tastes and requirements of diverse and requirements of an Australian society that is highly multicultural. Through this essay the influences from the united states that are identified in the south Australian architecture is focused. The architecture that the essay focuses are between the ranges of 1890-1950. By the use of local building, describing the architectural climate the essay describes the influences are represented. The essay is an attempt to understand the differences and the influences of the colonial architecture that occurred during that period and in it way contributed or shaped in the Australia’s architecture.
Influences of United States:
The architecture was used as a means of public relation in the early decades in order to propose an impression of permanence and prosperity to likely immigrants and investors in Britain. The contribution to the architecture during the early decades is seen among the colony’s early building blocks. However, it was hardly outside the taste of English Victorian. In the 20th century, the British stylistic were influenced by American stylistic. The part had a significant influence on the latest commercial office towers of the city centre as well as private bungalows in the Californian and neo-Tudor styles that are seen in most modern suburbs alike to Colonel Light Gardens and Toorak Gardens. The formal registration began in 1939 for architectures. This period personalities such as Louis Laybourne Smith overshadowed the architectural teaching. Louis Laybourne Smith was the head of architecture at the University of South Australia for 40 years. The first appearance was of Modernism was in the late 1930s however the impact of modernism on full strength was only after 1950. Within next few decades a style name as Delaide Regional was identified Some of the exceptional building of this epoch are Jack McConnell’s Bank of New South Wales in King William Street and the former David Jones department store in Rundle Mall, Fitzgerald and Brogan’s Adelaide Boys’ High School in the West Parklands, Guy Maron’s Bicentennial Tropical Conservatory in Adelaide Botanic Garden and Rod Roach’s Metropolitan Fire Service headquarters in Wakefield Street. These building are standing tall for past 70 years. Compared to the previous years, the modern era has turned entirely internationalized. The period before is seen as the era influenced by the colonial stylistic that led emergence of historical buildings .
Australia began playing with ideas from 20th century, this is considered as the most significant architecture movements in Australia architecture called the Federation architecture. During this time, Australia began to play reject he historicism. An American architect name, Walter Burley Griffin played one of the key role in designing Australia’s capital, Canberra. The legacy of their unique architecture was confined within a smaller number of buildings in Melbourne as well as the Sydney suburb of Castlecrag. Castlecarg was mainly planned by the American architect, the Griffins and it featured various houses designed in the organic modernist style which was developed after the Prarie school architecture. It was also a mark of his early career in United States. The simple cottages with flat roof that was designed by the Griffins designed in Canberra patented techniques for concrete construction. To Australian architecture, one of the most important local introduction was the Verandah. Verandah have always been featured very prominently in Australian vernacular architecture. It became widely popular in the colonial buildings during the 1850s.
Local building: Adelaide High School
Considering both local level as well as state level the Adelaide High School is historically relevant. The reason this building is considered relevant is due to its link with the state’s first high school. It is set as an example of post- war development. The design of the building and its style reflects the influences of architectural modernism. Located in the Adelaide, the building was built in the year 1947. The Adelaide High School was designed by Edward B Fitzgerald, John K Brogan. Built in the 1947, the architectural style of the building is 4 post war period (c. 1940- 1960), 4.3 modern. The building has a high historical value as it was the first state high school.
The 70 years old building is a notable building in the architecture history for it was the result of a national architectural competition. Within the duration of 11 years, the building was completely constructed. The construction duration of the building includes period of interruption that occurred due to second world war, associated labor and material shortage.  The building notably stands one of the most notable large scale examples in Adelaide as in ‘functionlist’ style architecture. The openly expressed building is the structural system and in every way the external form that is the Adelaide High School, is a combination of the asymmetrically arranged rectilinear as well as curved forms which are expressing the functions inside of the building. The ornament of the building is expressed in the arrangement along with windows and entrance in details. The building has is a face brick building with strip glazing. The strip glazing is set forward of the brickwork. It is important to mention that the upper floor cantilevers that is placed over on the ground floor’s vertical glazing. The Adelaide High School is a building form that is a sweeping curve in the plan has been intersected with tower and cube forms placed at the entry. The palette of material used involves glazed tiles, brick and on the internal part rendered walls. Adelaide High School which is with flat roof is concealed behind a parapet. The parapet walls that were hiding the roofs, curved elements, continuous horizontal window lines and corners are the perfect examples of the “modern” aesthetic, which had as its elementary philosophy the formal recognition of every function.
Local building: Newman College
Newman collage is located in the Melbourne university’s grounds.  It is estimated to be one of the best-designed building by the American architect, Walter Burley Griffin. The building is recognized across the world as Griffin’s distinctive sculpture style. Griffin’s innovative and mind blowing usage of stone finish to a construction is demonstrated of Newman College. The building is unique and innovatively designed by the popular architect including all the fixtures, furniture and fittings. The building of the college is in great geometric design, which includes a dining hall as well as residential wings. It was created using an innovative blend. The combination was created by mix of rough stone base with concrete in smooth masses. The surrounding of the building that is looks like a park was designed by the American architect’s wife, Marion Mahony, it is considered as one of the examples of an Australian flora garden designed by a landscape architect. The most attractive and eye-catching feature of the Newman college is the domed refectory that was made from reinforced concrete. During the period when the building was constructed, it was one of the initial domes that were built in Australia as well as the most magnificent in structure. Also, there are no other dome in Australia that has been designed in the very same way. The tall standing building is still continuing to be used as a university college. It has been an essential part of the University of Melbourne since its beginning which was in the year 1918. In the year 1914, Walter Burley Griffin and his wife Marion Mahony came to Australia. It was immediately after winning the international design contest for Australia’s brand-new capital city, Canberra. They continue working in Australia designing the entire suburbs such as located in Sydney, the Castlecrag. They also worked building individual buildings before they left Australia in 1935.
From a larger scheme, the L-shaped element of the residential wings, as well as the doomed refectory, was realised. Two similar L-shaped components were visualised to be symmetrically inclined about a first standing free chapel building. The other doomed structures were designed to make it the college library. The free-standing chapel was decided to be the entire composition’s centre. However until the 1930s while raising funds, it was inadequate to construct Archbishop Carr Memorial Chapel. Although initially, the construction of the block at the western end of the l_shaped household had an indoor swimming pool and a billiard room, the study was constructed in the later years. A temporary chapel and a laboratory were in the upper level of the block at the southern end of the L housed. In 1936, a competition for the chapel was conducted. The resubmission of Griffin’s unique design, however, the college council chose a different design presented by the opponent.
Eventually, on the conclusion of the new chapel, the library was relocated from the eastern spur wing to the spaces of the temporary chapel and the laboratory.  The senior common room was the eastern spur wing, and the junior common room converted the billiards room in the western block.  The primary matron’s quarters and an infirmary in places around the dome at the upper level were vacated for rooms for Jesuit priests running the college.
Newman College is one of the outstanding example produced by Walter burley Griffin. He was trained in America and in the Chicago school of architecture he gained his initial professional experience. Since he was under the employment of Frank Lloyd Wright from 1902 to 1905 there are attached value to this sight. This particular college is significant for its relation with the architecture, aesthetic value that is interrelated with the architecture of Write and Chicago school. Griffin’s architectural style is beautifully projected in the project that involves usage of stone, concrete and ornaments that later became his hallmark.
The building is considered the largest single extant building in Australia. The dominant feature of the building is the extraordinary dining hall which is top lit and contracts with dark corridors and the long low cloisters. The build is a representation of Griffin’s excellence of building down to finest details including fittings, fixtures and furniture. The Newman College also has a chapel and Kenny Wing that form an essential element in the Griffin plan. The elements that are deeply thought and carefully designed are the master work of Griffin and his way of being sympathetic with the architecture of the original building. The grand chapel Square and the main entry were formed with the other main building by Griffin. The chapel’s worth was mainly based on the size, proportion and design details. The details of the designs include the window tracery and timber roof. The work done using plants are important to mention as it shows Griffin’s landscape designing skills. His passion for native vegetation and dedication was represented to an Australian style.
Conclusion:
During the initial years when the Europeans were settling in Australia, architecture was used as way of building relationships with the public. Architecture was utilized to project an impression of constancy, it projected wealth to the investors in Britain and the possible immigrants. In the colony’s initial buildings the legacy of that campaign can be perceived through various ways. Specifically it was through colony’s building built initially, a high proportion of which was well designed and worked in details. However, it rarely ventured outside the English Victorian taste. The taste’s formality, combined with the geometric association of urban portions and parkland were William Light’s legacy. It stretched extending much of Adelaide and North Adelaide that is considered as the character unlike other cities is in the state. Numerous distinctive public buildings as well as private buildings were produced by George Strickland Kingston. The factors mainly considered were the weather or Mediterranean climatic conditions however only little continuing influence was found, commercial and official buildings by architects such as Edmund Wright and Thomas English were almost always in one of the Victorian classical revival styles.
In the 20th century, ancient architectural limits were challenged and fresh ways of doing and carrying out things explored. Architecture particularly from this era, both in Australia as well as overseas, endures testament to this period of investigation. Although Australia is geographically isolated, Australian engineers and planners are considered as among the first do investigation and introduce innovative architectural ways of expressing community, society and corporate, in both government and private sector projects. Although there was the influence from the colonial areas, Australia’s unique climate demanded adaption. The 20th century trends of Australia’s architecture reflected in the increasing influence of American urban designs. It also manifested cultural tastes and requirements of diverse and requirements of an Australian society that is highly multicultural.
References:
Atlagi?, Siniša, and Milica Raškovi?. “British Public Diplomacy as a Means for Establishing Supremacy-Peaceful Aspect.” (2017).
Beynon, D. J., Brandon Gardiner, Ursula de Jong, Mirjana Lozanovska, and Flavia Marcello. “An issues paper: the roots/routes of Australian architecture: elements of an alternative architectural history.” In Proceedings of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand: 31, Translation, pp. 639-658. Unitec New Zealand, 2014.
Comber, Barbara. “Schools as meeting places: Critical and inclusive literacies in changing local environments.” Language Arts 90, no. 5 (2013): 361-371.
Darian-Smith, Kate, and James Waghorne. “Australian universities and the commemoration of the First World War.” History of Education Review 45, no. 2 (2016): 239-255.
Nasr, Joe, and June Komisar. “Displaying urban agriculture: from garden city to carrot city.” Exhibitions and the Development of Modern Planning Culture (2014): 277.
Othman, Zulkeplee. “Privacy, modesty, hospitality and the design of Muslim homes in Australia.” PhD diss., Queensland University of Technology, 2016.
Paull, John. “A history of the organic agriculture movement in Australia.” In Organics in the global food chain, pp. 37-61. Connor Court Publishing, 2013.
Vernon, Christopher. “Recovering Walter Burley Griffin’s final American city plan.” Planning Perspectives 30, no. 4 (2015): 625-637.
Way, Thaïsa. “American landscape architecture at mid-century: modernism, science, and art.” In Women, Modernity, and Landscape Architecture, pp. 171-190. Routledge, 2015.
Weiler, Betty, Brent Moyle, and Char-lee McLennan. “Disciplines that influence tourism doctoral research: the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.” Annals of Tourism Research 39, no. 3 (2012): 1425-1445.

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