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BUAD497 Strategic Management

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BUAD497 Strategic Management

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Course Code: BUAD497
University: University Of Southern California

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Country: United States

Question
1) – 20 pts. Without consulting any references or other people, define the following terms:

Accessibility-
Affordance-
Assurance-
Audit-
Binary decision-
Business case-
Business process-
Business process owner-
Business requirement-
Business value-
Case Study-
Cognition-
Conceptual model-
Constraints-
Control-
Data-based decision making-
Decision bias-
Ergonomics-
Feedback-
Governance-
Heuristics-
Human Capabilities-
Human-Centered Computing-
Human-Centered Evaluation-
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)-
Human Factors-
IT Capabilities-
Management-
Measurement-
Memory (Human)-
Metric-
Operations-
Perception-
Pillars of IT: Databases, HCI, Networking, Programming, and Web Systems-
Pivot point-
Planning-
Risk-
Tipping point-
Turning point-
Usability-
User Interface-
Value-

2) – 20 pts.  After consulting references or other people, define the following terms . :
Accessibility-
Affordance-
Assurance-
Audit-
Binary decision-
Business case-
Business process-
Business process owner-
Business requirement-
Business value-
Case Study-
Cognition-
Conceptual model-
Constraints-
Control-
Data-based decision making-
Decision bias-
Ergonomics-
Feedback-
Governance-
Heuristics-
Human Capabilities-
Human-Centered Computing-
Human-Centered Evaluation-
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)-
Human Factors-
IT Capabilities-
Management-
Measurement-
Memory (Human)-
Metric-
Operations-
Perception-
Pillars of IT: Databases, HCI, Networking, Programming, and Web Systems-
Pivot point-
Planning-
Risk-
Tipping point-
Turning point-
Usability-
User Interface-
Value-

 
3) – 15 pts.in a page or less, what is IT governance and why is it important to the IT manager?
 
4)- 15 pts.In one page, write a job description for an IT manager that incorporates all of the focus areas for IT governance covered in Figure 1, textbook page 4. Monster.com has an example template http://hiring.monster.com/hr/hr-best-practices/recruiting-hiring-advice/job-descriptions/information-technology-manager-job-description-sample.aspx [2].  The template can be edited to use the terms, definitions, principles, methodology, etc. of our textbook (pages 2-10), e.g., risk management, IT value delivery, IT strategic alignment, etc.
 
5)- 20 pts.Following on from Assignment 1, read through sections 3-5 of the textbook (through page 31).  Following your working definitions of the following terms, identify key concepts and methods that fall within the key three areas for our course (IT strategy, IT policy and IT governance). Use our book and your lists as a guide to do some web research and come up with definitions and descriptions for the key concepts and methods that you identify.  An example concept is “IT risk.” An example method is the “Balanced Scorecard.” Don’t forget to cite your references.
Answer
1) – Accessibility- The term accessibility defines something which can be used or appreciated.
Affordance- The concept of affordance comes from the hints about a product about how it should be provided to the concerned customers and how it should be used.
Assurance- Assurance is the term that is used to provide confidence or a positive declaration to someone for his or her abilities.
Audit- Audit is an inspection of the accounts of an organization in an official manner. Normally, the financial accounts are checked during this process.
Binary decision- Binary decision is the decision that is chosen between two alternatives and helps to confirm whether certain of action are legitimate or not.
Business case- A business case is referred to the proposition of the business that is developed for convincing the decision maker to start the project.
Business process- Business process refers to the set of goals and activities that helps the business in achieving its business goals.
Business process owner- Business process owner is referred to the person who is responsible for controlling all the critical business aspects such as control, improve, analyze, measure and design.
Business requirement- Business requirements are referred to the safety, security and performance aspects such as of a business that are necessary for running it.
Business value- Business value is also referred as the value measurement for evaluating the valuation of a business.
Case Study- In a case study, the research methods are used to create a detailed examination of the case along with a lot of contextual information.
Cognition- Cognition is the process of thinking where a lot of mental knowledge and thinking is required to gain knowledge about a particular subject.
Conceptual model- The conceptual model is a system of diagrams that helps to explain a particular concept with the simulation of the representative models that helps other people to understand and know the model.
Constraints- It is referred to a restriction or limitation that stops something or someone from occurring or doing something.
Control- The concept of control comes with the ability to change a course of events or someone’s behavior in a particular moment of time.
Data- Based decision making- The data based decision making entails the decisions in business or other sectors that are analyzed by hard drive instead of making intuitive decisions.
Decision bias- The decision bias is the amalgamation of behavioral, belief and decision making that is based on social and cognitive thinking.
Ergonomics- Ergonomics is the term that is referred to as the study of the efficiency of the people in a particular workplace.
Feedback- Feedback is the study of the react information of several people and is used as a tool to check the improvement and deadline for a particular subject.
Governance- It is the action or manner of governing a state, organization.
Heuristics- A heuristic can be defined as the step by step procedure by which analysis over an object or event is made through trial and error methods.
Human Capabilities- Human capabilities can be defined as the ability of a human being to perform any task according to the physical and mental resources it has acquired while utilizing these abilities to their full potential.
Human- Centered Computing- This is a study of deployment, development and design of human-computer systems with mixed initiatives.
Human- Centered Evaluation- Human-Centered Evaluation is a study that takes account of the feedback generated from the human as well as computer metric systems to evaluate the interactions between a human and a computer.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) – Human-Computer Interaction can be defined as the way by which the interaction between a computer system and a human being is generated.
Human Factors- Human Factors can be defined as the effect of the human behavior in any event or project based on the intellect of the human being and their physical and psychological abilities.
IT Capabilities- IT capability can be defined as the ability of an organization to utilize its IT assets to their full virtue to create effective business value.
Management- Management can be defined as the process by which the operations and people are controlled.
Measurement- Measurement is a value by which the specific amount of any object or event can be quantified with specific units. 
Memory (Human) – In human being, memory is a feature by which the human brain can store, process, restore and generate information obtained from day to day events.
Metric- The system or the standard by which a particular object or event can be measured might be termed as metric.
Operations- An active process that manages active or effective events or personnel can be termed as operations.
Perception- Perception is the way by which an incident is observed, interpreted or understood.
Pillars of IT: Databases, HCI, Networking, Programming, and Web Systems- Databases are structured data sets that are accessible through a computer application. HCI is a study of the interaction between a human and a computer. Networking is a process by which computers are connected to each other with the help of wired or wireless technologies. Programming is a process of developing sets of instructions to make a computer perform certain defined tasks. A web-based system is a provision to utilize a software system with the help of network system and connecting device, such as a computer.
Pivot point- Pivot point is a technology used to technically indicate and analyze different markets over varied timeframes.
Planning- Planning can be defined as making a strategic plan depending upon the situation, targeted goals and resources available.
Risk- Risk can be defined as a probability that a situation or a plan would deviate from expected outcomes damaging the resources utilized. 
Tipping point- Tipping point is usually a situation where a saturation point is reached beyond which a change in plan cannot be stopped. 
Turning point- Turning point is usually the point of time or a precise timeframe at which a specific change in the planning of a process usually takes place. 
Usability- Usability is the potential of a product to fulfill the needs of a user. 
User Interface- User Interface is the platform or the medium of a connecting device through which the interaction between a human and a computer is established. 
Value- Value is the degree of importance with the help of which an action is measured according to its utility in a plan.
2) – Accessibility- The term accessibility refers to the concept of access. It refers to the potential of a user to use and access something for his or her own benefit from the environment (Wu et al.).
Affordance-The term affordance refers to the properties or qualities of a product and mentions its usability and its possible uses (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Assurance-The assurance is the providence of proper information by the management in a corporate environment to the stakeholders about the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations and policies. The assurance can also be provided for the compliance status with the statutory and industrial regulations (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Audit- The term audit refers to the evaluation and examination of the financial issues of an institution so that they can be claimed as an accurate representation of the transaction (Wu et al.).
Binary decision-The term binary decision refers to two problems, a probable yes or no. Hence, in any business, a particular answer is necessary for making critical decisions (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Business case-The business case is referred to the reasoning or justification for a particular task or business that will help in its initiation for the commercial benefit it can provide (Wu et al.).
Business process- Business process is the term that points to a certain set of activities that are required for improving and enhancing the organizationalgoals of the concerned organization such as CRM, financial analysis and employee satisfaction (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Business process owner- The business process refers to the user who is responsible for overseeing and managing the performance and objectives of the business through the help of KPIs or Key performance indicators (Wu et al.).
Business requirement- Business requirement is referred to the list of activities that are critical for an organization for meeting its organizational goals. These are done while remaining solution dependent (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Business value-The definition of business value is that it is used to provide a standard measure for determining the worth of the business (Wu et al.).
Case Study- A case study is referred as the research record or process that is used to study the development of a situation, group or a particular person for a time period (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Cognition- Cognition is the process by which understanding about a subject and knowledge is acquired through senses, experiences and thought processes (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Conceptual model- Conceptual model is the system representation that is made up of a number of concepts that helps people to simulate, understand and know the model subject about what it represents to a particular number of people (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Constraints-Constraint is referred to as something that bounds someone within a particular limitation and hinders their unnatural behavior that is the result of forceful behavior (Wu et al.).
Control- Control is used to limit someone’s action or behavior with the help of limits and restraints (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Data-based decision making- The data based decision making involves the continuous evaluation of analyzing and collecting data which can include process as well as demographic data (Wu et al.).
Decision bias- The decision bias refers to the change of systematic patterns that is based on judgment and rationality (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Ergonomics- It refers to the effectiveness of a person in maintaining proper workplace productivity (Wu et al.).
Feedback- It refers to the data about product reactions which is used as an example to make the basis of improvement (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
Governance- It is the process by which the organizations and state governments reach their goals with the appropriate utility of their infrastructure (Wu et al.).
Heuristics- Heuristics are defined as the trial and error method of experimentation that aids to learning, problem solving or discovery technology (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham). 
Human Capabilities- Human capabilities can be defined as the ability of a human being to utilize his or her abilities to full potential for reaching a particular goal or target (Wu et al.). 
Human-Centered Computing- This is a study of deployment, development and design of human-computer systems with mixed initiatives (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and  Walsham). 
Human-Centered Evaluation- This means using both the feedback from people in the form of a metric to evaluate the human-computer systems with mixed initiatives (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) – This can be stated as the way by which computers and human beings interact with each other via an interface (Wu et al.). 
Human Factors- It is the study of the human behavior with regards to particular situation, services, products and environments (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
IT Capabilities- IT capabilities can be defined as the ability of an organization to create business values based on the IT infrastructure provided within the business organization (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Management- Management can be defined as the ability to control the operations within an organization or an event (Wu et al.) 
Memory (Human) – Human memory can be defined as the functionality of human brain to register incidents and generate, identify, and generate the acquired data at the required times (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Metric- Metric can be defined as the standardized form of evaluating the exact measurement of an object or event (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham). 
Operations- Operations can be defined as active processes that discharge a particular function within an organization or an event (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Perception- Perception can be defined as the ability by which a particular event or incident is viewed by an individual and which depends on the individual’s way of perceiving the particular incident (Wu et al.). 
Pillars of IT: Databases, HCI, Networking, Programming, and Web Systems- Databases are structured data sets that are accessible through a computer application. HCI is a study of the interaction between a human and a computer. Networking is a process by which computers are connected to each other with the help of wired or wireless technologies. Programming is a process of developing sets of instructions to make a computer perform certain defined tasks. A web-based system is a provision to utilize a software system with the help of network system and connecting device, such as a computer (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham). 
Pivot point- Pivot point can be defined as the technical analysis indicator which is used for determining a particular survey over market trends spanning over varied time frames (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Planning- Planning is a particular way of organizing a particular task taking it as a desired target on the basis of the available resources and the time frames (Wu et al.). 
Risk- Risk can be defined as the probability by which an event can be subjected to threat of loss, damage, liability, injury, or any other negative occurrence occurred due to an external or internal vulnerability, and which can be avoided through anticipatory accomplishments (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Tipping point- Tipping point can be defined as a critical point in circumstances after which change in that particular situation is inevitable (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham). 
Turning point- Turning point is identified as the point of time or period at which changes are implemented in a particular event or situation (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke). 
Usability- Usability is the potential of a product to fulfill the needs of a user (Wu et al.).
User Interface- User Interface is the platform or the medium of a connecting device through which the interaction between a human and a computer is established (Avgerou, Chrisanthi and Walsham).
Value- Value is the degree of importance with the help of which an action is measured according to its utility in a plan (Rosemann, Michael and Brocke).
3) – It is defined as the methods that is used for efficient and effective use of information technology for allowing the particular organization to meet its organizational goals. It is used to align the objectives in an organization towards the proper direction.  The process involves accountability framework which determines the people who are responsible for what actions and processing decision rights to check which person can decide what. These are important to encourage the desirable actions and behaviors in the use and deployment of information technology.
It is still considered a big risk by many business personalities to align IT strategies with the business strategies of the company. They are still of the opinion that this might not add the value to the company’s business needs. It has been found in a report by ComputerWorld that out of a survey done over a number of CFOs; only 44 per cent had positive thinking about aligning IT strategies with that of the business ones. However, IT implementation has severe positive impacts on the competitiveness and performance of a business organization. Not being able to implement the same has resulted in many organizations to have an effective impact on the market. This has resulted in further failing of effective management in favour of the capacity and growth of the company. Thus, it can be stated that IT implementation, governance and strategies are important in any organization in the recent time.
4)- With rapid changes in the technological world, the role of an IT manager changes with time. In general, by which a person becomes and IT manager, entails upon becoming a proper team leader, rather than a developed manager. To lead a team comprising of web developers are required which is also comfortable with the technical details while complying with the acquired management skills.
It is recommended that skill trainings acquired be flexible enough to juggle with that of the business or management courses as this helps gaining the necessary skills in management and communication.
In the long term, success of an IT manager rests on how well the team assigned to an IT manager performs. It is the duty of an IT manager to make them perform to the best of their abilities.
5)- IT strategy- IT strategy can be defined as the comprehensive plan that takes heed of all the resources of an organization to define the proper way to utilize the IT infrastructure to meet IT as well as business goals.
IT policy- These are a standardized set of policies that have been issued by an organization to make sure that the users of the information technology within the sphere of influence of the organization or networks act in accordance with the rules and guidelines related to the security of the information that are digitally stored.
IT governance- IT governance can be defined as the process by which IT can be used efficiently and effectively to particularly achieve a defined goal.
Sources and works used in completing this exercise:
Avgerou, Chrisanthi, and  Geoff  Walsham, eds. Information Technology in Context: Studies from the Perspective of Developing Countries: Studies from the Perspective of Developing Countries. Routledge, 2017.
Banks, Cristina G., et al. “Enhancing Business Effectiveness and Worker Sustainability Through HFE.” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Vol. 61. No. 1. Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2017.
Caselets: IT Governance Institute. IT Governance Using CobiT® and ValIT™, 3rd Edition. 2010.
Keyes, Jessica. Implementing the IT balanced scorecard: Aligning IT with corporate strategy. Auerbach Publications, 2016.
Laursen, Gert HN, and Jesper Thorlund. Business analytics for managers: Taking business intelligence beyond reporting. John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
Marchewka, Jack T. Information technology project management. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
Rao, R. Nageswara, H. Vani, and Appalayya Meesala. “The impact of best HR practices and employee engagement on career success: A discriminant analysis.” Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management 7.1 (2014): 5-14.
Rosemann, Michael, and  Janvom Brocke. “The six core elements of business process management.” Handbook on business process management 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015. 105-122.
Textbook: IT Governance Institute. IT Governance Using COBIT and ValIT: Student Book, 2nd Edition. 2007.
Wu, Shelly Ping-Ju, Detmar W. Straub, and Ting-Peng Liang. “How information technology governance mechanisms and strategic alignment influence organizational performance: Insights from a matched survey of business and IT managers.” Mis Quarterly 39.2 (2015): 497-518.

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