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BN106 Networking Fundamentals

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BN106 Networking Fundamentals

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Course Code: BN106
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Question:

The protocols working at OSI layers, their functionalities, and their standardising bodies
Identify at least one protocol working at each layer
Briefly discuss the functionality of the selected protocols
Identify the standardising bodies for the discussed protocols
A comparative analysis of appropriateness of different media types that may be used to enable network connectivity
Discuss different types of media suitable for the above scenario (with illustrations)
Carry out the comparative analysis of media types recommended in terms of speed, cost, and security (Use table for the comparison)
The school now requires a new LAN architecture for these floors. Further, the new LAN has also to connect with the LAN setup of other floors. Imagine you are the network manager of the school and you are required to write a report with the following sections:

An introduction section
To address the interoperability issue for seamless connectivity to each floor you must discuss the OSI layered architecture, its history, the functioning of each layer
Comparison of the OSI protocol suite with the TCP/IP protocol suite
Explain the protocols working at OSI layers, their functionalities, and their standardising bodies
This LAN network requires both wired and wireless connectivity. Provide a comparative analysis of appropriateness of different media types which may be used to enable network connectivity.

Answer:

Introduction:
The local area network or the LAN is a combination of computers which are connected to a same local network [1]. This group of computers shares a common communication line. The main aim of using the local area network is to limit this communication only between this groups of computers with a high speed communication. It means the local area network is commonly used in offices, organizations and businesses. In this paper, the LAN installing architecture in school will be discussed. To discuss this LAN architecture, the knowledge of an integral part of the LAN connection is also required. For meeting these requirements, in this paper the OSI layered architecture, TCP/IP protocol suite will be discussed. Also, a comparison between the OSI model and TCP/IP will be drawn, and a concluding part will summarise the whole discussed content of this paper.
OSI Model:
The open system interconnections or the OSI model is a typical conceptual model that describes the communication method of a computer system. This OSI model has seven layers of the protocol [2]. To describe the OSI model properly the interoperability, the structure of the OSI model and functionality of each model will be discussed.
Interoperability:
The interoperability property in the computer systems allows users to share the resources between different types of systems without any type of restrictions [10]. This process includes both the hardware and software to exchange the data flows using both the wide area network and the local area network. The two main types of interoperability are the syntactic interoperability and the semantic interoperability.
Structure of OSI model:
The OSI layer architecture has the total number of seven layers. These layers are the physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer and the application layer [2]. In this following diagram, the proper architecture of the OSI model is described.
(Figure 1: OSI model structure)
(Source: webopedia.com)
The OSI model was created by the International Organization for Standardization to use it as a framework which can define the connected computer standards. This OSI model has served the basic parts of the computer networks science its introduction in the year of 1984 [2].
Function of each layer of OSI model:
The function of each layer is described in the following section:

Application layer: Used for remotely access the files for resource sharing purpose.
Presentation layer: Data compression, encryption, decryption and character encoding is done in this layer [9].
Session layer:The main function of this layer is communication session management.
Transport layer:Used for data transmission between various points in the network.
Network layer:This layer manages and structures multi-node network.
Data link layer: Data frames transmission is done between two layers by using a physical layer.
Physical layer:Raw bit streams are transmitted using a physical layer.

Comparison between OSI model and TCP/IP:
The TCP/IP model and the OSI model has many similarities and dissimilarities between them. The main similarities between the OSI model and the TCP/IP are:

Both of the OSI model and the TCP/IP are having the same layered type of architecture.
The layers described in both of the models have the same type of functionality [7].
Both of the OSI model and the TCP/IP are the protocol stack.
Both of the OSI model and the TCP/IP are reference models.

Beside many similarities, the OSI model and the TCP/IP model has many dissimilarities. The main dissimilarities are the:

The OSI model is the protocol independent model while the TCP/IP model is based on standard protocols [7].
The transport layer of the OSI model guarantees the packer data deliveries while the transport layer of TCP/IP protocol does not guarantee it.
OSI model is having a dedicated session and presentation layer while the TCP/IP model does not have it.
The network layer of the OSI model is both connections less and connection oriented while the network layer of the TCP/IP model is only connectionless.

(Figure 2: Comparison of TCP/IP and OSI model)
(Source: Created by the author)
Protocols of OSI model:
The OSI model has various types of protocols working on each of the layers. These protocols are specified in a particular layer of a model. In the following section, the functionality of protocols will be discussed.

Layer

Protocol

Function

Application

FTP

The FTP is an application layer based protocol in the OSI model. The FTP is used for transferring and accessing files remotely [3].

Presentation

MIME

This MIME protocol allows the user to exchange various data over the internet including the images, audio and video.

Session

PPTP

The PPTP uses generic routing encapsulation tunnel which can encapsulate the PPP packets [8].

Transport

UDP

The UDP or the user datagram protocol is used for connection establishment by using the loss-tolerating and low-latency network. This connection is established between the applications available on the internet.

Network

IPv4

The IPv4 is a type of connectionless protocol which is used in the network layer for the data communication purposes. This protocol is widely used in the Ethernet [4].

Data link

ARP

The main function of ARP or the address resolution protocol is to find the MAC address of the hardware. The ARP preserve the cache which holds the MAC addresses. This MAC address records the mapped IP addresses.

Physical

OTN

In the physical layer, the OTN or the Optical Transport Network works as a set of elements of the optical network. This optical transport network uses optical fibre link which can provide the functions like multiplexing, transporting, managing and switching of optical channels. The client signals are also carried by this optical channels.

Comparative analysis of media types:
The local area network can run on various types of media types. In this paper most suitable media types to run the local area network will be discussed. These media types are the copper medium, fibre optic, infrared signals and radio signals [5]. In the case of copper mediums unshielded twisted pairs, coaxial cables, shielded twisted pairs and heliax are used. All of these media types can handle the local area network very well. For the wired cases the fibre optics are the best solution for the LAN connection. The fibre optics are two types which are single-mode and multi-mode. In the case of wireless LAN communication, infrared media types can be used. Infrared signals are transmitted directly into the air, and then the nearby capable devices can receive the signals. Also, for the wireless Ethernet connections, the radio signals are widely used [6]. In the following table, a comparison will be done in terms of speed, cost and security.

Parameters

Copper Mediums

Optical Fibre

Infrared

Radio Signals

Speed

Fast

Fastest among all

Comparatively Slow

Comparatively Slow

Cost

Lowest implementation cost

Very costly to implement

Moderate cost for implementation

Moderate cost for implementation

Security

Moderate security

Most secure connection

Less secure and vulnerable to attacks

Less secure and vulnerable to attacks

Conclusion:
Form the above discussion it can be concluded that the LAN connection has a major impact in the case of communications. The LAN connection can help an organization by providing a secure internetwork connection. Also, these types of connections tend to be as fast as the whole network is connected internally. In this paper a brief about the OSI model and the structure of the OSI model is described which is required for a proper LAN setup. From the description of the OSI model also the various protocols of each layer are discussed. Lastly, a comparative analysis of media types which is used by the LAN connections has been done, and from the analysis report, it has been found that the optical fibre is the most suitable media type for the LAN connection. It is also determined that the optical fibre is the most costly media types to implement. In the future cases may the optical fibre will be implemented in most of the cases for a local area connection.
References:

Chan, Min-Cheng, Chien Chen, Jun-Xian Huang, Ted Kuo, Li-Hsing Yen, and Chien-Chao Tseng. “OpenNet: A simulator for software-defined wireless local area network.” In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2014 IEEE, pp. 3332-3336. IEEE, 2014.
Bora, Gaurav, Saurabh Bora, Shivendra Singh, and Sheikh Mohamad Arsalan. “OSI reference model: An overview.” International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology(IJCTT) 7, no. 4 (2014): 214-218.
Huang, Wenliang, Zhen Chen, Wenyu Dong, Hang Li, Bin Cao, and Junwei Cao. “Mobile Internet big data platform in China Unicom.” Tsinghua Science and Technology19, no. 1 (2014): 95-101.
Deering, Steve, and Robert Hinden. Internet protocol, version 6 (IPv6) specification. No. RFC 8200. 2017.
Naqvi, Syed Hassan Raza, Andrea Matera, Lorenzo Combi, and Umberto Spagnolini. “On the transport capability of LAN cables in all-analog MIMO-RoC fronthaul.” In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2017.
Parikh, Palak P., Tarlochan S. Sidhu, and Abdallah Shami. “A comprehensive investigation of wireless LAN for IEC 61850–based smart distribution substation applications.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics9, no. 3 (2013): 1466-1476.
Edwards, James, and Richard Bramante. Networking self-teaching guide: OSI, TCP/IP, LANs, MANs, WANs, implementation, management, and maintenance.John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Eldewahi, Abeer, and Eihab Basheir. “Authenticated key agreement protocol for virtual private network based on certificateless cryptography.” In Computing, Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICCEEE), 2013 International Conference on, 269-273. IEEE, 2013.
García-Holgado, Alicia, and Francisco José García-Peñalvo. “Architectural pattern for the definition of eLearning ecosystems based on Open Source developments.” In Computers in Education (SIIE), 2014 International Symposium on, 93-98. IEEE, 2014.
Desai, Pratikkumar, Amit Sheth, and Pramod Anantharam. “Semantic gateway as a service architecture for iot interoperability.” In Mobile Services (MS), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 313-319. IEEE, 2015.

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