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BN104 Operating Systems For Simple Deadlock Situation

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BN104 Operating Systems For Simple Deadlock Situation

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BN104 Operating Systems For Simple Deadlock Situation

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Course Code: BN104
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Question:
Report on the basics,and provide examples,of operating systems structure and functionally,including memory allocation,virtual memory and device management.

Answer:
The resource-allocation graph depicts a simple deadlock situation that has been bred up in a system with 4 processes (P-A, P-B, P-C and P-D) and 5 different resources or devices by the identifier (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5). In this scenario, it is clear that a deadlock prominently exists.
Here, process P-A is waiting for device D1 whereas D1 is assigned to process P-B. P-B is holding onto D1 and in-turn waiting for device D3 to be released by P-C that is holding onto D2. P-B and P-D needs to two separate devices to complete their tasks. P-B is therefore holding onto a device D5 that is being requested by P-D. P-D has one resource held and hence it is requesting two other resources and hopes to get one of them. D3 is being requested by P-C but it is currently assigned to P-D which is also waiting for D4 and D5 that are allocated and held up by P-A and P-B respectively. P-B will not release D5 unless it is allowed access to D2.
Therefore, as it can be seen from the above scenario, none of the process will agree on leaving the devices or resources that they are holding onto unless they are assigned their wanted device. This will create a deadlock in the system.
File Management

I) The fmt command is used in LINUX as a formatter for the process of simplifying or optimizing the texts in a file. Files can be formatted in terms of their width or length. The fixed length technique is to implement the command fmt This will format the text in the file such that all one characters are out in the same line. The width option is used when the number of characters to be put per line is needed to be mentioned [6].

Syntax: fmt –w VALUE FILE_NAME
This will format the file such that the texts are broken to form new lines with VALUE number of characters per line.

II) Complete or absolute file naming is the process of providing the entire details of the path that leads to the file. Therefore, the naming starts at the root directory and travels into the sub-directories unless it reaches the file to be identified. The directories are traversed in the naming convention with the help of / symbols.

Relative file or path names are those that do not require the assistance of the complete path value to spot a directory or file. A relative path is generally characterized by naming convention that does not start with a /. This signifies that the file naming has been initiated from the current directory [1].
Example:
In this above path structure, considering that Home is the current working directory. The naming conventions for the file Work will be as follows.
Complete File name: /home/jono/work
Relative File name: jono/work 
chmod command
This UNIX command is used to change the system permissions on certain file system objects within a certain directory [2]. It may also be used in order to alter certain mod flags. It is an abbreviation used for the purpose that it server, “Change mode”.
Syntax:
chmod [Options]… Mode [,Mode]… file…
chmod [Options]… Numeric_Mode file…
4 = r (Read)
2 = w (Write)
1 = x (eXecute)
chmod [Options]… –reference=RFile file…
Eg 1: chmod 751 myFile.txt
This means User will have Read, Write and Executable permissions.
Group will have Read and Execute permissions.
Others will only have Executable permissions.
Eg 2: chmod u=rwx, g=rx, o=x tech
This option helps to sets the modes manually where r=read, w=write, x=exc
Screenshot: 
grep command
The grep command in UNIX is used to search for a particular pattern of text within the text of a specified file.
Syntax: grep [options] patternText [file or files]
Some major Options:
-c : This prints only a count of the lines that match a pattern
-w : Match whole word
 -i : Ignores, case for matching
Eg1: grep -i “BoY” myFile.txt
This will search for the String “boy” inside the file having ignored the alphabetical case.
Eg2: grep -w “Boy” myFile.txt
This will search for the String “Boy” inside the file and it must be present as an entire word.
Screenshots: 
ls command
This command helps to list out all the files and directories that exists within the particular working directory with required details.
Syntax: ls [option] [file]
Eg1: ls –l
This command will print out all the necessary information of the directory or files specified.
Eg2: ls
This command will display only the files and directories [5].
Screenshots:  
mkdir command
The mkdir command allows to create a new directory within the current working directory [8].
Syntax: mkdir directoryName
Screenshot:  
References
[1] Yerima, Suleiman Y., Sakir Sezer, and Igor Muttik. “High accuracy android malware detection using ensemble learning.” IET Information Security 9, no. 6 (2015): 313-320.
[2] Chirigati, Fernando, Rémi Rampin, Dennis Shasha, and Juliana Freire. “Reprozip: Computational reproducibility with ease.” In Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 2085-2088. ACM, 2016.
[3] Kim, Sangman, Michael Z. Lee, Alan M. Dunn, Owen S. Hofmann, Xuan Wang, Emmett Witchel, and Donald E. Porter. “Improving server applications with system transactions.” In Proceedings of the 7th ACM european conference on Computer Systems, pp. 15-28. ACM, 2012.
[4] Li, ZhiWu, NaiQi Wu, and MengChu Zhou. “Deadlock control of automated manufacturing systems based on Petri nets—A literature review.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and [5] Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews) 42, no. 4 (2012): 437-462.
Abradi, Sam, Ian Naval, and Fredric Silberberg. “Augmented Unix Userland.” Major Qualifying (2015).
[6] Shotts Jr, William E. The Linux command line: a complete introduction. No Starch Press, 2012.
[7] Silberschatz, Abraham, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg Gagne. Operating system concepts essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
[8] Gamma, Erich, Richard Helm, and John Vlissides. “Design patterns applied.”

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