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BIOL2131 Ecology

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BIOL2131 Ecology

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Course Code: BIOL2131
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1.Discuss the evidence provided by earthquakes for the internal structure of the Earth.
How do different water flow pathways affect the shape and timing of a storm hydrograph?
2.El Nino Southern Oscillation (enso) events are a recurring theme of the climatological literature
What changes occur to the atmospheric and oceanic circulation of the Pacific Basin during an El nino event?     
With reference to specific examples, discuss the impact of enso on local and global climates.     
3.Evaluate the ecological theories that lead to discrete spatial patterns in either: 1) plant or 2) animal populations.


1.Evidence provided by earthquakes for the internal structure of the Earth.
The earthquake involves travels of seismic waves which are produced. These waves include both Primary and Secondary waves denoted by P and S waves respectively. When produced during earthquake, these waves are able to spread and travel through the inner part of the earth interior parts. While travelling, the waves are able to interact with different materials which are able to forms the interior parts of the earth (Vita-Finzi, & Dominic, 2013). Seismic stations are placed at different increasing stations from the earthquake epicentres and they are used to record the seismic waves as they travel through an increasing distance or depth from the earth’s surface. The velocity of the seismic waves is able to depend on the materials which they interact with. Some of the key parameters which have been identified to affect the seismic waves include the temperature, minerals and packing structure of materials, composition of the materials as well as the pressure of the materials (Garrison, & Ellis, 2016). The different layers of the earth are able to have different and unique of these characteristics. This means that when an earthquake is able to travel from the crust of earth to the earth’s centre, different results will be recorded when the layer characteristics are abler to change (Garrison, 2013). Therefore, the earthquake can be simply to tell the different layers and characteristics of the earth’s internal structures. 
From analysis, it has been confirmed that the seismic waves are able to travel at a faster speed through a denser material and therefore travel much faster with depth. On the other hand, it has been identified that an increased temperature conditions is able to slow the movement of the seismic waves travelling (Hyndman, Spence, & Bustin, 2010). When considering the status of the materials, it has also been identified that the seismic waves travel with slow speed through liquid materials than in solid materials. This means that as the seismic layers are able to pass from one layer to another, they are able to record different characteristics which can be used to identify the kind of part of the internal earth is. As the waves moves, they experience changes in velocities, reflections, refractions as well as the production of new phases (Fletcher, 2011). These different characteristics of the seismic waves are used to identify the different layers of the earth internal structures. Therefore, it is therefore more easily to identify the internal structure of the earth since the layers will be able to record different characteristic of the waves as the materials keep on changing.
The seismic travels have been used and identified that earth consists of different concentric shells, which consist of thin outer crust, a mantle, a liquid outer core and also a solid inner core. Different characteristics of the earth’s inner parts have been identified through the use of seismic waves which are produced during the earthquakes (Gutie?rrez, 2013). In addition to the key layers identified, the seismic waves have also identified the presence of different discontinuities within the layers. At the crust level, the seismic waves have been identified to move at a velocity of around 6 km per hour. This speed changes when the weaves move around 200 kilometres. At this location, it is assumed that the Mohorovicic discontinuity exist. The change from the hard crust to a softer material is experienced at this location. In addition, the seismic waves speed can be used to identify the different characteristics of the layers they are able to pass through. The use of seismic waves from earthquakes have been able to result to the conclusion that the earth’s crust is able to consist of two different crusts which include the continental crust and oceanic crust (Lay, 2011). The properties of the continental crust have shown that the layer is thick, less dense and heterogeneous. The same characteristics are experienced in the oceanic crust although the layer at this point is homogeneous. From the seismic waves travel velocity, it has also been concluded that the Moho discontinuities at the continental crust is between 30 to 40 kilometres while at the oceanic crust is about 7 kilometres (Schubert, Schubert, & Elsevier, 2007). In addition, the earthquake seismic waves have also been used to identify the different characteristics of these layers. For instance, it has emerged that the oceanic crust is mafic igneous rock which has some sediments at the top. On the other hand, the continental crust one has been identified to be felsic, intermediate and composing of igneous, sedimentary as well as metamorphic rocks.
The velocity of the waves has been identified to change after the crest layer and supporting the evidence of existence of the mantle layer. The seismic velocities tend to increase with depth and is because of the increased density of the mantle due to the increase of pressure and depth. The results show that both the P and S waves travel slowly and are weakened due to the layers’ characteristics (In Stein, 2014). The velocity also has led to the belief that the mantle temperature is near the melting point. The major characteristics of the mantle has been identified to be partial molten, whereby the layer is about 1 percent molten and 99% solid. Seismic discontinuities have been identified below this layer and they are able to bear different results of seismic waves velocities (Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria, 2009). Between the upper and lower mantles and about 760 KM from the top of the mantle, a change of velocity is experienced showing existence of the discontinuity. The Gutenberg discontinuity exists between the core and the mantle.
From the seismic waves analysis, it has been found that the core of the earth is denser than the mantle and makes about a third of the earth’s mass. In addition, the waves have shown that the outer core is molten in state while the inner core is solid. Between the two parts of the core, Lehman discontinuity has as well be identified (Pang, 2014). At the core, the seismic waves have also been used to conclude that the magnetic nature of the earth is due to the magnetic characteristics of the core. The different characteristics of the seismic waves which are produced during the earthquakes have been used to identify the distances of the earth layers and their major characteristics.
2.How different water flow pathways affect the shape and timing of a storm hydrograph
Water flow pathways are critical factors which are able to affect the shape and timing of the storm hydrographs. First, the storm hydrographs are used to indicate and show the discharge flow in relation to other key factors. The storm hydrographs are used to shoe the variation of the storm discharge over a small periods of time (Li, & Sivapalan, 2014). This means the change of the water flow pathways will have a significant influence on the storm hydrographs. The different situations of the change of the water flow pathways will be able to result to either an increase of decrease of the storm discharge on a particular area within the time of investigation. This means that storm discharge will either be directed to the particular area where the investigation is being carried out in or be diverted away from the same area. In addition, whether an increase on the storm discharge is achieved or not, different implications will be achieved due to the change of the water flow paths changes (Burt, & McDonnell, 2015). The shape and the timing of the hydrographs are likely to change differently when a new water pathway is introduced. These will be able to affect the flow rates and discharges as well as the time at which the critical values for the storm hydrograph will be achieved. The sections below will be able to analyse the different scenarios which will be experienced in the shape and timing of the hydrographs when a new water pathways are introduced.
The change of the water flow paths will mean that the discharge will be directed to a new pathway. The infiltration rate is an important factor which affects the storm storage and flow within the river path. The infiltration rate of the storm depends on the kind of ground condition which will be experienced. Nevertheless, the infiltration will be experienced and this reduced the amount of discharge which is used in the storm hydrograph investigation (Kinsela, Morris, Daley, & Hanslow, 2016). The infiltration rate will be able to reduce the status of the drainage measured on the area and therefore reducing the peak at which the hydrograph can be able to reach. Therefore, changing the water flow paths is able to reduce the cumes flow in the pathway until the ground situation is saturated (Hale, 2012). And since the storm hydrograph is done for a short period, the incorrect flow will result to an incorrect hydrograph being plotted from the data. The capacity of the flow in the new pathway is reduced due to the infiltration at the area. With time, the saturation level for the ground will be experienced and this will result to an increase of the flow (Yoon, J& Shim, 2016). Generally, the peak area for the hygrograph will be reduced due to the change of the pathway to new water flow pathways. The reduction of the discharge will lower the shape of the hydrograph and reducing the peak area. This will reduce the gradient of the hydrograph due to reduction of the peak level of the hydrograph.
The timing of the hydrograph is another critical factor which is important for the storm hydrographs. The hydrographs are important to determine the peak flow of the new water pathways. To achieve the peak flow in the new water pathways, it will take long due to the different changes in volume which may be experienced (Sadeghi, Mostafazadeh, & Sadoddin, 2015). This will result to the movement of the peak point to the left due to the increased duration take to show the peak flow. The timing is likely to increase to get the correct value of the flow rate which will be experienced in the new water pathways. Extended timing is experienced since the new ground condition will have varied conditions which will affect the measure of the flow at different sections. In general, the time to measure the different factors for the storm hydrographs will be experienced. The losses which are experienced due to the infiltration and evaporation on the new pathways are likely to affect the time to achieve the peak flows for the new pathways. In this sense, the change in water pathways will lead to reduction of the flow rate (Lee, & Huang, 2016). As indicated earlier, the storm hydrographs are done for a small duration of time. This means that peak flow taken at the study period will be less than the actual peak flow of the water path when the conditions stabilize. Thus, increased timing will be experienced due to the change of water flow pathway for the hydrograph. The increased timing will be able to have general effects on the shape of the storm hydrograph as well.
In addition, a more flat shape of the hydrograph is likely to be achieved due to the involvement of a new pathway for the hydrograph. The condition available will be able to combine with increased time to measure the peak flow leading to a more flat shaped hydrograph. The peak point will be able to take longer to be achieved and comes at a lower area due to the reduction of the flow rate (Hallema, Moussa, Sun, & McNulty, 2016). With the changes in the peak flow value to a lower value and the increase in the time to measure the peak flow value will lead to a flatter bell shaped shape of the hygrograph. The changes in the ground conditions initiates a change in the time taken to measure the key values and therefore affecting the shape of the storm hydrograph. The storm hydrograph is achieved through a plot of the discharge against the time taken to achieve different discharges. The discharge in a section will keep on increasing in relation to the stabilization of the conditions (Rigon, Bancheri, Formetta, & de Lavenne, 2016). This means that high timeline will be taken to achieve the stable and correct measure of the flow value due to the losses. This will therefore change the shape since the peak flow value will take longer to be achieved and therefore leading to reduction of the slope of the hydrograph.
Atmospheric and oceanic circulation of the Pacific Basin during an El Nino event    
During the El-Niño event, the pacific basin is able to experience different changes in its oceanic and atmospheric conditions. In the ocean, the water is warmed and the temperatures in the Pacific Ocean waters is able to increase during this event. The warm water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean is able to shift to the east direction towards the equator. Generally, the central and eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean are able to become warmer than usual (Grove, & Adamson, 2018). The warming of the ocean is able to cause the atmospheric changes in the Pacific Ocean. The changes in temperatures lead to the flow of pacific wind to flow over the ocean due to the changes in pressures. These are the Easterly trade winds which blow over the pacific atmosphere at this time. In addition, the blowing of the winds on the pacific atmosphere leads to other implication on the currents on Pacific Ocean. Reversing currents along the equator in the ocean are experienced due to the upwelling cooling of the ocean atmosphere when the winds blow over the area (Bai, et al., 2010). In addition, the flow and circulation of the air above the Pacific Ocean due to the changes in temperature is able to lead to redistribution of ocean heat. The pressure gauge in the eastern part of ocean is weakened and therefore changing the balances of the atmospheric pressure in the eastern, central and western pacific parts. The pacific atmosphere is divided by the dry and steady easterly winds and warmer and moister westerly winds.
In addition, the Pacific Ocean is able to experience the polar jet streams. The changes in the winds and humidity levels over the oceans are attributed to the polar jet streams, which are indicator of the strong upper level winds flowing over the ocean (Glantz, 2011). Ocean currents are able to move at these regions and thus may be attributed as well to the jet stream movements at the different locations.  Generally, the atmosphere and oceanic conditions around the Pacific Ocean are largely able to change due to the El Niño event (Yuan, 2015). Temperatures in both the atmosphere and ocean are able to initiate the movement of the winds and able to cause the event. The differences in the conditions in different parts of the oceans are attributed to the event. The warmer parts initiate the wind flow due to the low pressure and density of air at those regions.
Impact of ENSO on local and global climates.     
Global warming is a rare case which has been lately linked with the occurrence of ENSO. The highest increase of the temperatures in 2015 marking it the hottest year ever has been connected with the occurrence of ENSO events. The year experience the highest temperature of above 0.90C above the normal yearly temperatures. This led to the reference of the ENSO circle as the “supper-El Niño” and the worst over the period of 15 years (In Rohli, & In Joyner, 2015). The high warming was concluded as a result of the increased heating in the Pacific Ocean region. The ENSO is a natural event which is related to natural changes of the temperature conditions. The warming in each season is able to change and thus changing the dynamics of temperatures. Even with the increased release of the greenhouse gases by human, the warming on this year could not be attributed to the greenhouse gases released. The major backup of this is because the temperatures were able to stabilize on the preceding year after the ENSO event. This provided a major backup that ENSO event is able to increase the warming (World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Walton, American Society of Civil Engineers., & Environmental and Water Resources Institute, 2005). Dry and hotter winds are able to increase the earth’s warming on some locations. On general conditions, the ENSO events are able to boost the global temperatures by 0.10C. coupling this will the increased release of greenhouse gases is able to lead to significant global warming effects (Wu, Kirtman, & Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, 2013). The global warming is able to change the climatic condition for the specific regions. Temperatures going beyond the expected are able to cause the snow falls and affecting the lives.
Changes in climate and weather are clear impacts which are felt due to the existence of ENSO. The western U.S. in particularly are able to experience dry winds which result to drought woes in the regions. The ENSO events are able to direct these dry winds with warmer temperatures. Regions such as North Rockies, the Great Plains and Great Lakes are able to experience dry conditions (In Singh, In Yadav, & In Yadava, 2017). On the other hand, the Southern parts of U.S are cool and wet. These climatically and weather changes are attributed to the air movement in the pacific regions causing the ENSO events. As some parts of the works are experiencing drought, other areas are experiencing flooding. California for instance will be able to experience flooding and excess runoff in the rivers due to the unusual warm winters. The increased temperatures in this location will melt the snow and make it fall like rain.
In addition, the presence of ENSO is able to have negative impacts due to the presence of hurricanes and strong winds. ENSO is able to weaken the shear pacific and on the other hand strengthening the Atlantic. This is able to result to a hurricane season. During the last ENSO event, the Pacific was able to record 24 tropical storms and 15 hurricanes. The strongest hurricane in the event occurred in Patricia and was measuring 200 mph in terms of wind speed. The hurricane was able to result to damages from Mexico all the way to Texas causing 12 deaths (Department of Energy United States., & Office of Scientific and Technical Information United States, 2015). Millions of dollar properties were destroyed and this is clear negative impact of ENSO to the economy. From flood, droughts and hurricanes, ENSO is able to cause negative impact on the economies. Damages are caused by all these events and unfavourable conditions for operations of different activities. These hampers the economic activities in the global sector due to the changes in climatic and weather conditions. Global temperatures increase in one region while on the other regions the temperatures are reducing and causing global climatic calamities.
3.Ecological theories that lead to discrete spatial patterns in plant
The ecological theories carry special information on the processes which were able to happen in the past and information on the future events which are likely to happen to affect the spatial distribution of the plants. Nevertheless, one of the greatest challenges of these theories is that they do not have any proof or unique footprint for the past spatial patterns. Ecologist hold that the different species are able to relate to their environment to form their own spatial patterns (Wilson, Peet, Dengler & Pärtel, 2012). The different ecological theories are able to provide reasons and proofs on why the spatial distribution patterns of plants are the way they are today. These are related to the past conditions and the spatial distribution is explained to be determined as well by the future conditions.
The r/K selection theory is one of the key theories which is used to explain the spatial distribution of evolution. The theory holds that the natural selection is based on pressure change which is related to the population density. This means that the spatial distribution of the plants will be depended on the population density of the type pf plants available in a spatial region (Chisholm, & Pacala, 2010). For example, when the population density is low, there is usually a room available for the same plant species to grow without the limitation of competition of the available resources for the growth. Rapid growth of the plants is able to take place at this time since the abundance of the resources and the conditions available are favouring the spatial growth. Density independent growth of the plants is experienced at the initial stages due to the unlimited forces for the natural selection. This is known as the r-selection. As the growth of the plants increases, the growing space becomes limited and this creates competition of the available resources for the growth. At this time, the growing population of plants is able to experience the density dependent natural selection forces (Hartig, Calabrese, Reineking, Wiegand, & Huth, 2011). These are known as the k-selection. The k-selections are the external conditions which are able to determine the plants which will survive over the area considering the competitiveness of the individual plants. The plants growth distance from the neighbours determine their survival and therefore spatial distribution. The traits of the plants are able to determine their survival and distribution in a certain space. Under this theory, similar plants will be likely to survive in the same environment when there is limited space for survival. The traits usually play an important role when the resources become limited and the plants competition is high (Kraft, Valencia & Ackerly, 2008). The traits which favour the increased competitiveness of the survival parameters make the plant survive over the others. For instance, in area with limited sunlight, the plants which are able to grow to the top will survive in the region and therefore determining the spatial pattern of the area.
Another important theory in the explanation of the spatial distribution of the plants is the null theory or hypothesis. This theory is able to test the factor in relation to the density and distance distributions between the other plants. The Nulls hypothesis is able to state that the survival and discrete spatial patterns of the plants will be determined by the density of the plants and their distances from the others (Chisholm, & Lichstein, 2009). This marks the competitiveness of the plants and their ability to survive depending on the available resources. The overall area of study is able to accommodate a specific number of plants. This means that the plants will keep on growing until the maximum number is reach. This number is directly related to the available conditions which favours their growth and determined the distances and final density of the plants (Wiegand, & Moloney, 2014). The distance to the neighbouring plant is able to distance the competitiveness of the resources. The discrete spatial patterns will be attained when the space has accommodated the maximum number of plants which can be supported by the available resources. The expected distance under this theory is assumed to be the twice the inverse of root of density. Increasing the density leads to increase competition and reduction of the distance between the specific plants (Bolker, 2008). For their survival, some plants will be eliminated to achieve the discrete spatial patterns for the area.
The neutral theory is another theory used in the evaluation of discrete spatial patterns. The theory holds that all species in an area share equal per capital fitness to survive (Hubbell, 2010). Nevertheless, initially the positions of this theory for the species are not specified and this is able to limit its application in spatial analysis. The current neutral theories have been able to specify each individual species by characterizing its location and position in space. This has been able to enhance the reproduction of realistic beta diversified patterns as species relation to the area (SARs) (May, Giladi, Ziv, & Jeltsch, 2012). The ability of the species of plant to be mixed in an area is able to explain why there are different plant species in an area. With available resources for their growth, all the species of the plants will be accommodated in the provided spaces. Due to the equal opportunity of the species to grow, the theory is able to offer an explanation of the mixed species which have been experienced in the past.
In conclusion, the neutral theory is able to explain more on the diversity which was experienced in the past for the plants distribution. The theory is able to show that equal opportunity is granted for all plants and thus leading to the past discrete spatial patterns for the forests. Similarly, this idea is help by many more theories but other go ahead to explain the current and future expectations of the discrete spatial patterns. The null and r/K selection theories are able to relate the limited resources to the current and future expectations of the discrete spatial patterns. These theories are able to show how same species of the plants are favoured by condition and competitiveness to occupy a certain area.
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MKT2031 Issues In Small Business And Entrepreneurship
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Course Code: MKT2031
University: University Of Northampton is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Entrepreneurial ventures
Entrepreneurship is the capacity and willingness to develop, manage, and put in order operations of any business venture with an intention to make profits despite the risks that may be involved in such venture. Small and large businesses have a vital role to play in the overall performance of the economy. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the difference between entrepreneurial ventures, individual, and c…
Turkey Istanbul Management University of Employee Masters in Business Administration 

MN506 System Management
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Course Code: MN506
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

An operating system (OS) is defined as a system software that is installed in the systems for the management of the hardware along with the other software resources. Every computer system and mobile device requires an operating system for functioning and execution of operations. There is a great use of mobile devices such as tablets and Smartphones that has increased. One of the widely used and implemented operating syste…
Australia Cheltenham Computer Science Litigation and Dispute Management University of New South Wales Information Technology 


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