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BI4301 Environmental Pollution

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BI4301 Environmental Pollution

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BI4301 Environmental Pollution

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Course Code: BI4301
University: University Of Aberdeen is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

1.Compare two or three countries (the best and the worse), discuss the factors contributed to the success and failures of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) control and regulations
a.Rules and regulation in POPs control at both national and global stages
b.Performance indicators or measurement of POPs control.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can be described as the chemical substances that have a particular combination of both the chemical properties and the physical properties like the long-range transport, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. POPs are produced and used in a range of activities including the agricultural areas, urban centres and the industrial centres and these serve as the primary source of chemicals in the environment. Due to global issues that are caused by the POPs, in the year 2001 Stockholm Convention was adopted and this entered into force in the year 2004. Till the present day, around 23 chemicals have been enlisted as POPs (Xu, Wang & Cai, 2013).
Comparison of two countries (the best and the worse), discuss the factors contributed to the success and failures of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) control and regulations-
China is considered as a developing country which is presently undergoing economic and the social growth in the past decade. As because the Chinese government is a signatory to the Stockholm convention and due to this reason, China is obliged to reduce as well as eliminate the emission and the production of the POPs. In response to this, the Chinese government has established the China National Coordination Group for Implementation of the Stockholm Convention in the year 2005. Similarly, in the year 2007, a national implementation plan was released which was dedicated towards the Stockholm convention implementation (Wang et al., 2012). Due to this in the past ten years, positive effects have been seen in the elimination and the reduction of the POPs along with the reduction of the ecosystem and human exposure to these persistent pollutants. Information based on the POPs in China encompass the monitoring and the inventory data that play a major role in the implementation of the Stockholm convention in China. This has been registered in the databases at the national scale. In the past decade, reviews have been conducted that highlight the environmental risk, temporal patterns, spatial and occurrence of the POPs (Yang et al., 2013). It has been seen that the levels of contamination, the ecological effect of POPs, environmental behaviours in the polluted areas are reviewed to make a complete analysis. At the national level, the environmental management of POPs, environmental policy, human exposure, environmental risk, pollution status was considered as the mitigation strategies (Liu et al., 2016). The factors that have caused China to take up the regulatory measure is the Stockholm convention and then it was an obligation for China to consider the several measures for the protection of the environment from the POPs (Bao et al., 2012).

Table 1: Environmental standards, laws and regulation in relation to the unintentional POPs in China [source: Lau et al., 2012]
USA- The Stockholm is one of the important conventions and it one of the vital milestones regarding the United States of America because it has a specific relevance regarding the advancement of US towards the direction of the environmental protection. Until the year 2004, 152 countries have ratified the convention while the US government has abstained from ratifying the convention. However, it is important to note that the ratification would have enhanced the credibility of the United States in the international matters related to environmental matters. While it is important to know that the along with the Stockholm convention, United States have failed in the implementation of the several other international treaties (US EPA, 2018). It was seen that the United States was one of the early leaders in managing and controlling the release of the POPs. Under the Stockholm convention, it has been seen that chemicals like DDT was produced and it was intentionally used domestically. While all the while, the DDT was regulated heavily by the Environmental Protection Agency. In the year 1969, USA was the first country to take regulatory action against the usage of DDT. EPA took active actions and banned the usage of the DDT as a pesticide (Fry & Power, 2017). At the beginning of the year 1990, international communities along with the US government took a series of steps to curb the usage of the POPs and this resulted into the adoption of several international and domestic laws. Thus, it is important to note, although USA did not ratify the Stockholm convention, the Establishment of EPA in the year 1970 led to the actions and regulation that were futuristic with respect to the abatement of the environmental pollution and control of POPs. The concern of saving the environment from the negative effects of POPs can be considered as the main factor in the implementation of the strategies and regulation by the US government (Magliano et al., 2014).

Table 2: laws and regulation regarding the control of the POPs in United States. [source: US EPA, 2018]
FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide ActTSCA: Toxic Substances Control ActCAA: Clean Air ActCWA: Clean Water Act
The various rules and regulations in POPs at the global stage- the Stockholm convention alone is one of the global treaties that vows to protect the environment and the human health from the POPs. It is important to mention that the Stockholm convention provided a regulatory framework for the signatory countries towards the POPs elimination. The nations that ratified the treaty is known made laws at both the national and the domestic level (, 2018). The Stockholm convention aims towards five major targets which include the following:

Countries must work together for a future that will be free from POPs
Clean-up of the equipment and the old stockpiles that contain the POPs.
Targeting the additional POPs for action.
Support the transition towards the alternatives that are safe.
Elimination of the dangerous POPs that are worst (, 2018).

Performance indicators or measurement of POPs control- the performance indicators can be of different types for the management of the different POP compounds (Herzke et al., 2016).


Performance indicator

POP compounds

Proclamation of regulation, volumes of the materials gathered and disposed.

PCB in the equipment

Proclamation of regulation, volumes of the materials gathered and disposed.

PCBs present in the fluorescent ballasts

Proclamation of regulation, volumes of the materials gathered and disposed.


Proclamation of regulation

DDT pesticides

System and regulation proclaimed

Ethylene oxide

Proclamation of permit system and regulations


Proclamation of regulation, volumes of the equipment disposed, and substitution of scope.

Bao, L. J., Maruya, K. A., Snyder, S. A., & Zeng, E. Y. (2012). China’s water pollution by persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Pollution, 163, 100-108. (2018). Home. Retrieved from
Fry, K., & Power, M. C. (2017). Persistent organic pollutants and mortality in the United States, NHANES 1999–2011. Environmental Health, 16(1), 105.
Herzke, D., Anker-Nilssen, T., Nøst, T. H., Go?tsch, A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Langset, M., … & Koelmans, A. A. (2016). Negligible impact of ingested microplastics on tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in northern fulmars off coastal Norway. Environmental science & technology, 50(4), 1924-1933.
Lau, M. H. Y., Leung, K. M. Y., Wong, S. W. Y., Wang, H., & Yan, Z. G. (2012). Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China. Environmental pollution, 165, 182-192.
Liu, L. Y., Ma, W. L., Jia, H. L., Zhang, Z. F., Song, W. W., & Li, Y. F. (2016). Research on persistent organic pollutants in China on a national scale: 10 years after the enforcement of the Stockholm Convention. Environmental Pollution, 217, 70-81.
Magliano, D. J., Loh, V. H. Y., Harding, J. L., Botton, J., & Shaw, J. E. (2014). Persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Diabetes & metabolism, 40(1), 1-14. (2018). Stockholm Convention | UNIDO. Retrieved from
US EPA. (2018). Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Global Issue, A Global Response | US EPA. Retrieved from
Wang, B., Huang, J., Deng, S., Yang, X., & Yu, G. (2012). Addressing the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants in China. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 6(1), 2-16.
Xu, W., Wang, X., & Cai, Z. (2013). Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 790, 1-13.
Yang, Q., Qiu, X., Li, R., Liu, S., Li, K., Wang, F., … & Zhu, T. (2013). Exposure to typical persistent organic pollutants from an electronic waste recycling site in Northern China. Chemosphere, 91(2), 205-211.

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