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BF091 Understanding Business Planning And Budgeting

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BF091 Understanding Business Planning And Budgeting

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Course Code: BF091
University: Institute Of Singapore Chartered Accountant

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Country: Singapore

Question:
Discuss about the BF091 Understanding Business Planning and Budgeting. Some of the emerging industries in the country are evident in terms of the focus on thee casinos, health care, education, info communication and media
Answer:

Industry Analysis
1. Industry Trends
The major industries in Singapore needs to be identified in terms of tourism, biomedical sciences, logistics, banking and finance. In addition to this, some of the other focus on the industry needs to be also depicted for the focus on the chemicals and construction. It is worth mentioning that under the construction industry the entrepreneurs have put an augmented focus on the casino resorts, shopping malls, residential projects, sports hub and business parks.  Some of the emerging industries in the country are evident in terms of the focus on thee casinos, health care, education, info communication and media (Gnvconsultancy.com 2018).  
Th physical activity trends in the country shows that there has been major focus on the being active among the individuals in the age group of 13-15 years and 16-24 years. There has been 38% participant consumption and 62% of workforce contribution. The Singaporeans and obesity data have further shown that there is an increasing awareness among the individuals for fitness consciousness from 1998 to 2010 (Ministry of Culture 2018).
2. Sports Industry
The most popular trends in the sports industry in Singapore is depicted in terms of Swimming, football, cycling, cricket, Basketball, Rugby and badminton. The sports industry focus is also evident in terms of the adventure sports. This includes adequate provision in terms of the wake boarding, rock climbing and cable skiing. The focus on the indoor sports is also depicted in terms of the activities such as tennis, table tennis, badminton and gymnastics. The emphasis on the various types of the outdoor sports activities needs to be depicted in terms of the focus on the different types of the sports activities which are based on the football, volleyball and cricket. The activities pertaining to the water sports are seen in terms of the construction of unique features pertaining to the recreation centres (Briefing 2014).
In top list of sports of Singapore Basketball, Bodybuilding and Sailing are considered to be most evident in compare to the availability of the other sports activities. It is worth mentioning some of the various type other sports under this list with the inclusion of Badminton, netball and table tennis (Agarwal et al. 2017).
3. Porter’s Five Force Model
Supplier Power – Low
The availability of the similar websites where the clients will be able to find Athletes and Coaches needs to be depicted in terms of Sport Singapore. This is a government hosted website where the individuals have a number of choices to search for their desired coaching service. Some of the payers in the market needs to be identified in terms of the websites such as the Active SG. There are also customised service providers for providing services associated to sports coach. Such a website has been identified with sport4kids. This website has focused only on the coaching advisory for the kids. Moreover singaporeathletics.org is also seen to be based on providing a similar service across Singapore. There the supplier power is depicted to be low with the existence of large number of players dealing with a similar trade (Zomer et al. 2016).
Buyer Power -Moderate
The buyers also seek for being active in terms enthusiasm in fitness and a large proportion of such individuals are depicted to be in terms of age group 13-15 years and 16-24 years. It has been also seen that the overall contribution of the workforce of the employees are seen in terms of the 62% workforce contribution. The buyer power in the industry needs to be focused in terms of more demand for differentiated sports service such as jogging, swimming, badminton and tennis. Hence, they are not in a good position to bargain for less price for the specialised service (Agarwal et al. 2016).
Barriers to entry- Low
The main barrier to entry in the sports industry needs to be inferred with the uncertainty in the future and the big trend to capture onions of the clients. The challenges as per the gameday experience is also seen to be leading challenge as availability of the sponsors who will be willing to make a significant contribution towards the sports activities.
Threat of substitutes- Moderate
The service provided by the company in website is depicted to be online in nature. However, there may be several types of the offline modes in building such a community of the fitness professionals. This needs to be identified with the several types of the initiatives taken by the local fitness trainers who has a network of the clients visiting a gymnasium (Lim 2017). In addition to the fitness professionals may be also available on the social media to build the network of clients seeking for advice in a particular discipline of sports.  Therefore, there is a moderate pressure from the other sources of the information sharing platforms (both online and offline).
Rivalry among the competitors -High
The high amount of rivalry among the existing companies needs to be identified in terms of the Sport Singapore, Active SG, sport4kids. and singaporeathletics.org. However, due to the increasing number of more players in the industry associated to the such service, the rivalry among the competitors is depicted to be high in nature. In addition to this, the main rival of the company needs to be also determined with https://lessonsgowhere.com.sg. This website is responsible for offering of number of services ranging from choosing appropriate sports and the area selected (Wai 2015).
Customer Analysis
The customers of the company will vary between casual fitness enthusiasts and individuals seeking for sports as their full-time profession. The customer analysis related to the industry is seen in terms of the all age groups as there will be experts available to provide a differentiated service. The customers are also seen with such individuals who are seeking for expert advice on their diet and regulatory eating regime. This is mostly applicable to those customers are working professionals and has a limited time to contribute towards fitness.
Competitor Analysis
1. Direct Competitors
The direct competitors of the company need to be represented in terms of the inline websites providing such a service. These are seen with websites such as Sport Singapore, Active SG, sport4kids. and singaporeathletics.org. The director competitor of the company need to be identified with https://lessonsgowhere.com.sg.
2. Indirect Competitors
The indirect competitors of the company need to be identified with the availability of the offline modes in building such a community of the fitness professionals. This may include fitness trainers who has a network of their own for the clients visiting a gym. In addition to the fitness professionals may be also available on the social media to build the network of clients seeking for advice in a particular discipline of sports. This is also depicted as an indirect competition to the business (Halevy et al. 2016).
3. Competitive objective analysis
The main objective of the competitive analysis needs to be focused with the providing of the different types of the service offered by the company in terms of seeking out for the other initiatives taken by the competitors. This analysis phase into to be translated in to the innovation strategy which will able to bring in new insights for the clients for focusing on a greater focus in defining the USPs. Some of the main form of the innovation pertaining to the nature of the business which will be considered with the several types of the focus as per the discount strategy, advertising strategy, product pricing strategy. The important nature of the other focus for the study needs to be identified in terms of the initiatives pertaining to the future options business mergers (Petrovi?, Milovanovi? and Desbordes 2015).
Company Summary
1. Start-up description
The start-up analysis of the company has been identified with the selection of the appropriate location for building the headquarter. The main location for the selection of the office premise is depicted in the Junction off Jalan Boon Lay area. This area is seen to be focusing more on the existence of the IT parks which will be conducive for the business in taking support of IT solutions if needed in the future.  The company needs to further consider the initial registration fees of S$315 as the ACRA registration fees. The total registration time in the website will vary between 14 days to 2 months (Acra.gov.sg. 2018). The Singapore Government is seen to provide subsidies to the new start-ups. This needs to be directly considered with the various types of the effort given by the Singapore government which are related to the provide various range of the services associated to programs such as EntrePass, T-UP and SME Talent Programme (STP) which are aimed at the start-ups. The subsidy under the STP provided by the Singapore Government is seen to be ranging upto 70% as per the secondment cost pertaining to the research.
The company will further rely on the SG Loan services which is considered as a load backed up by the Singapore Government. This loan will be conducive for the company as the initial business will start by less than 10 employees. Therefore, the company will be able to draw more amount subsidy from the Singapore Government (Rikvin 2016).
2. Service description
The main service provide by the company needs to be depicted in terms of providing appropriate service related to a convenient platform for the fitness enthusiast who are seeking for a professional advice in major sports disciplines in Singapore. The company aims to provide easy options for the clients to contact with the personal fitness/sports coach at the best price along with ensured results. Some of the important objective of the service needs of the company is identified with maintaining a database for the best fitness coach related to jogging, swimming, badminton and tennis. The service will also suggest the best referral program for a coach who will provide the desired fitness plan by the clients. The important source of revenue for the company will be also based on the 15% commission from the sports coach for the first two years, which will increase to 20% in the later years.
Market analysis summary
1. Market Segmentation
The market segmentation for the companies are listed with the following services:

Casual sports advisory services- Focused on the individuals who are seeking for basic sports advice in the discipline of jogging and swimming.
Professional sports advisory services- Focused on the individuals who are seeking for advanced advice in the discipline of jogging and swimming.
Premium sports advisory services- Focused on the individuals who are seeking to participate in the championship in the discipline of jogging and swimming.
Dietary advisory services: Focused on the working professionals who are seeking for an advice on how to maintain balanced and healthy food habits.

2. Target market segment strategy
Market Needs
The market needs are considered as per individuals seeking for fulfilling various types of the sports advisory services. The market needs are seen in terms of the all age groups. The requirement of the services is also evident among the individuals who are seeking for expert advice on their diet and regulatory eating regime. This is mostly applicable to those customers, working professionals and regular people who wants to be fit (Lee et al. 2017).
Market trends
The important trend in the market needs to be depicted as per the most popular trends in the sports industry in Singapore with Swimming, football, cycling, cricket, Basketball, Rugby and badminton. The sports industry focus is also evident in terms of the adventure sports. This includes adequate provision in terms of the wake boarding, rock climbing and cable skiing. The focus on the indoor sports is also depicted in terms of the activities such as tennis, table tennis, badminton and gymnastics. The emphasis on the various types of the outdoor sports activities needs to be depicted in terms of the focus on the different types of the sports activities which are based on the football, volleyball and cricket.
Market growth
The projected growth of the company needs to be taken into account with increasing awareness of the calorie intake. In addition to this, the development in the new sports infrastructure led by Sports Facilities Master Plan (SFMP) is identified as the key to the emergence of such an online business to facilitate advisory activities.
Management Summary
1. Personnel Plan
The personal plan has been formulated with  the inclusion of the initial service providers. The names of the coaches along with their work experience are shown below as follows:

Name

Educational Qualification

Experience

Fees

Dr. Saiful Nizam

MBBS, Diploma in Occupational General Physician

17 Years

$ 22

Dr. Moti Hassaram Vaswani

MBBS, MCFP (Family Med), FCFP, General Physician

48 Years

$ 50

Table 1: Personnel Plan
(Source: As created by the author)
Property board
1. Place of operation and location
The place and operation of the facility needs to be considered as per the depicted in the Junction off Jalan Boon Lay area. As the location has several companies for IT related services it will be conducive for the business in taking support of IT solutions.
Financial plan
The important consideration for the financial aspects has been duly considered with the present interest on loan at 3.7% which will be taken from the HSBC Personal Loan. In addition to this, the business in Singapore needs to consider a Corporate Tax rate of 17% (Cen et al. 2017). The outlining of the important financial aspects is enumerated below as follows:
1. Important assumption

Start-up Requirements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Start-up Expenses

 

 

 

 

Particulars

Amount ($)

 

Fixed Costs

 

 

 

 

Premises (RENT & RATES)

$35,000

 

 

Salaries

$125,000

 

 

Interest on loan @ 3.7%

$2,960

 

 

Accountant Fees

$180,000

 

 

Rewards and incentives

$35,000

 

 

Commission paid to merchants

$15,000

 

 

Sales and Marketing

$25,000

 

 

Total Fixed Costs

417960

 

Variable Expenses

 

 

 

 

Communication and cellular service expenses

$12,000

 

 

Promotion Expenses

$8,000

 

 

Adding new features to the Website

$35,000

 

 

Logo Designs

$5,200

 

 

Market survey

$7,500

 

 

Website Maintenance

$3,200

 

 

Lease payments

$42,000

 

 

Total Variable Costs

$112,900

 

 

Total Costs

$530,860

 

Average Monthly Costs

 

 

 

 

Premises (RENT & RATES)

$2,917

 

 

Lease payments

$3,500

 

 

Interest on loan @ 3.7%

$247

 

 

Communication and cellular service expenses

$1,000

 

 

Promotion Expenses

$667

 

 

Salaries

$10,417

 

 

Total Average Monthly Costs

$18,747

 

 

x Number of Months:

12

 

 

Total Monthly Costs

$224,960

 

Total Startup Expenses

 

$755,820

 

Start-up Assets

 

 

 

Owner Funding

 

 

 

 

Owners Fund

$100,000

 

 

Total Owner Funding

$100,000

 

Loans

 

 

 

 

Bank Loan

$80,000

 

 

Other

 

 

 

Total Loans

$80,000

 

 

Total Startup Funds

$180,000

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

Land & Building

$800,000

 

 

Softwares

$80,000

 

 

Computer

$35,000

 

 

Total Fixed Assets

$915,000

 

Total Start-up Assets

 

$1,095,000

Table 2: Important Assumptions for Start-up Requirement
(Source: As created by the author)
2. Sales Forecast

(1) SALES FORECAST

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Projected Sales

 

574,000

607,840

682,558

762,982

875,510

(b) COST OF E-Commerce Website

 

12,000

12,480

13,042

13,694

14,515

Table 3: Annual Sales Forecast of Sports Coach Website for five years
(Source: As created by the author)
3. Break even analysis

Breakeven Analysis

 

 

 

 

Breakeven Sales Value =

Average fixed cost/% contribution

 

Average fixed cost

35000

 

 

 

Contribution %

50%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

Revenue

Contribution

Fixed Cost

Profit

1

574000

287000

35000

252000

2

607840

303920

35000

268920

3

682558

341279

35000

306279

4

762982.39

381491.2

35000

346491

5

875510.2105

437755.11

35000

402755

Table 4: Breakeven analysis of Sports Coach Website
(Source: As created by the author)
4. Project Profit and loss

(4) PROFIT AND LOSS FORECAST

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preop

 

 

 

 

 

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Revenue

0

574,000

607,840

682,558

762,982

875,510

Cost of sales

0

12,000

12,480

13,042

13,694

14,515

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross profit

0

562,000

595,360

669,516

749,289

860,995

Gross Margin

 

545,697

520,470

547,016

576,806

614,106

Expenses/overheads

 

 

 

 

 

 

Premises (rent, rates)

 

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,000

Salaries

 

125,000

127,500

132,600

139,230

146,192

Logo Designs

 

5,200

3,200

1,300

0

0

Accountant Fees

 

180,000

184,500

189,113

193,840

198,686

Rewards and incentives

 

35,000

35,700

36,414

37,142

37,885

Software Renewals

 

15,000

17,500

20,000

22,500

25,000

Sales and Marketing

 

25,000

28,000

31,360

35,123

39,338

Communication and cellular service expenses

 

12,000

12,360

12,731

13,113

13,506

Promotion Expenses

 

8,000

8,160

8,323

8,490

8,659

Adding new features to the Website

 

35,000

35,875

36,772

37,691

38,633

Website Maintenance

 

3,200

2,300

2,600

2,850

3,150

Market Survey

 

7,500

8,400

9,408

10,537

11,801

Lease Payments

 

42,000

40,000

43,000

30,000

20,000

Total expenses/overheads

 

527,900

490,095

506,212

524,979

546,050

Profit before tax

 

34,100

105,265

163,304

224,309

314,945

Tax @ 17%

 

5,797

17,895

27,762

38,133

53,541

Profit after tax

 

28,303

87,370

135,542

186,177

261,404

Transfer to reserves

 

34,100

105,265

163,304

224,309

314,945

ROC

 

5%

87%

132%

175%

239%

Table 5: Profit and Loss Forecast for Sports Coach Website
(Source: As created by the author)

X-Axis Label

Sales

Gross Margin

Net Profit

Year 1

$921,000

$694,327

$226,673

Year 2

$975,540

$676,205

$299,335

Year 3

$1,096,111

$714,740

$381,371

Year 4

$1,225,865

$757,788

$468,078

Year 5

$1,407,442

$812,964

$594,478

Table 6: Sales , Gross Margin and Net Profit for 5 Years
(Source: As created by the author)

(2) CASHFLOW FORECAST

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preop

 

 

 

 

 

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH INFLOWS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash from Sales

 

574,000

607,840

682,558

762,982

875,510

Directors loans

 

80,000

80,000

80,000

80,000

80,000

Capital Employed

600,000

100,000

103,000

106,090

109,273

112,551

Other cash inflows

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL CASH INFLOW

600,000

754,000

790,840

868,648

952,255

1,068,061

CASH OUTFLOWS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments for materials

 

12,000

12,480

13,042

13,694

14,515

operating expenses (         )

0

 

 

 

 

 

Premises (rent, rates)

0

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,000

Salaries

0

125,000

127,500

132,600

139,230

146,192

Logo Designs

0

5,200

3,200

1,300

0

0

Interest and bank charges payable

0

2,960

2,960

2,960

2,960

2,960

Lease payments

0

42,000

40,000

43,000

30,000

5000

Corporation Tax

 

5,797

17,895

27,762

38,133

53,541

Market survey costs

0

7,500

8,400

9,408

10,537

11,801

Other preliminary expenses

0

3,200

2,300

2,600

2,850

3,150

capital expenditure

 

 

 

 

 

 

Computers

0

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,000

50,000

financing repayments

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loan repayments

 

 

20,000

20,000

20,000

20,000

TOTAL CASH OUTFLOWS

0

273,657

304,735

322,671

327,403

342,159

Cash flow summary

 

 

 

 

 

 

NET CASHFLOW FOR PERIOD

600,000

480,343

486,105

545,977

624,852

725,902

OPENING CASH BALANCE

0

600,000

1,080,343

1,566,448

2,112,425

2,737,277

CLOSING CASH BALANCE

600,000

1,080,343

1,566,448

2,112,425

2,737,277

3,463,179

(3) DEPRECIATION SCHEDULE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Fixed Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Land & Building

800000

720,000

640,000

560,000

480,000

400,000

Softwares

80000

0

-64,000

-115,200

-156,160

-188,928

Computers

35000

28,000

22,400

17,920

14,336

11,469

Total book values (i.e. net fixed assets)

0

748,000

598,400

462,720

338,176

222,541

Annual Depreciation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Land & Building -10% straight line

 

80,000

80,000

80,000

80,000

80,000

Softwares- NA

 

80,000

64,000

51,200

40,960

32,768

Computers-20% reducing balance

 

7,000

5,600

4,480

3,584

2,867

Total annual depreciation

 

167,000

149,600

135,680

124,544

115,635

Table 7: Cash flow forecast for 5 Years
(Source: As created by the author)
6. Project balance sheet

Assets

FY-1

FY-2

FY-3

FY-4

FY-5

Current Assets

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

$71,081

$35,746

$14,781

$1,900

$1,700

Accounts receivable

$574,000

$607,840

$682,558

$762,982

$875,510

Total current assets

$645,081

$643,586

$697,339

$764,882

$877,210

Fixed (Long-Term) Assets

 

 

 

 

 

Softwares

$80,000

$80,000

$80,000

$120,000

$120,000

Land & Buildings

$800,000

$832,000

$869,440

$912,912

$963,122

Computer

$35,000

$35,000

$35,000

$35,000

$50,000

(Less accumulated depreciation)

$167,000

$149,600

$135,680

$124,544

$115,635

Intangible assets

$50,700

 

 

 

 

Total fixed assets

$798,700

$797,400

$848,760

$943,368

$1,017,487

Total Assets

$1,443,781

$1,440,986

$1,546,099

$1,708,250

$1,894,697

Liabilities and Owner’s Equity

 

 

 

 

 

Current Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$24,000

$25,000

$27,000

$25,000

$27,000

Accrued Rent

$35,000

$35,000

$35,000

$35,000

$35,000

Bank Charges Payable

$3,000

$3,000

$3,000

$3,000

$3,000

Short-term loans

$10,000

$10,000

$10,000

$10,000

$10,000

Income taxes payable

$5,797

$17,895

$27,762

$38,133

$53,541

Accrued salaries

$125,000

$127,500

$132,600

$139,230

$146,192

Logo Designs

$5,200

$3,200

$1,300

$0

$0

Lease Payment

$42,000

$40,000

$43,000

$30,000

$20,000

Current portion of long-term debt

$2,960

$2,960

$2,960

$2,960

$2,960

Total current liabilities

$252,957

$264,555

$282,622

$283,323

$297,692

Long-Term Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term debt

$80,000

$0

$0

$0

$0

Less: Loan Repayment

 

$20,000

$20,000

$20,000

$20,000

Deferred income tax

$1,110,824

$1,196,431

$1,283,477

$1,444,928

$1,617,005

Total long-term liabilities

$1,190,824

$1,176,431

$1,263,477

$1,424,928

$1,597,005

Total Liabilities

$1,443,781

$1,440,986

$1,546,099

$1,708,251

$1,894,697

Owner’s Equity

 

 

 

 

 

Owner’s investment

$100,000

$103,000

$106,090

$109,273

$112,551

Net Profits

$28,303

$87,370

$135,542

$186,177

$261,404

Reserve and Surplus

$34,100

$105,265

$163,304

$224,309

$314,945

Total owner’s equity

$162,403

$295,635

$404,936

$519,759

$688,900

Total Liabilities and Owner’s Equity

$1,606,184

$1,736,621

$1,951,035

$2,228,009

$2,583,597

Table 8: Projected balance sheet for 5 Years
(Source: As created by the author)
7. Capital Budgeting Investing Decision

Capital Budgeting of Sports Coach Website

Cost of Capital

17%

 

Year

 

Now

1

2

3

4

5

Cost of E-Commerce Website

-12000

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Profit/Loss

 

28,303

87,370

135542

186177

261404

Total Cash Flows

-12000

28,303

87,370

135,542

186,177

261,404

Discounting Factor

0

0.85

0.73

0.62

0.53

0.46

Present Value of Cashflows

-12000

24191

63825

84628

99353

119229

Cumulative Cash Flow

 

24191

88016

172644

271997

391227

Net Present Value

379226.8

Payback Period

-12000

16303

103673

239215.0

-53038

314442

IRR

362%

 

 

 

 

 

Payback Period

Cost of investment/annual net cash flow

 

 

 

 

 

Payback Period

1

Year

 

 

 

 

Profitability Index

PV of future cash flows/Initial Investment

 

 

 

 

 

Profitability Index

22.67

 

 

 

 

 

 Table 9: Capital Budgeting of Sports Coach Website
(Source: As created by the author)
8. Business ratios

Common Financial Ratios

Debt Ratio (Total Liabilities / Total Assets)

1.00

1.00

Current Ratio (Current Assets / Current Liabilities)

2.55

2.43

Working Capital (Current Assets – Current Liabilities)

    392,124

    379,031

Assets-to-Equity Ratio (Total Assets / Owner’s Equity)

8.89

4.87

Table 10: Common Financial Ratios of Sports Coach Website for five years
(Source: As created by the author)
9. Operation Plan
The company will have dedicated teams who will be having the expertise on website designing and search engine optimisation. They will be having the significant scope of contributing to the overall operational efficiency and making better network. The operational plan has been segregated with the fixed cost and the variable costs. The inclusion of the fixed costs is depicted in terms of Premises (Rent & Rates), Salaries, Interest on loan, Accountant Fees, Rewards and incentives, Commission paid to merchants, Sales and Marketing (Abeysinghe and Gu 2016).
References
Abeysinghe, T. and Gu, J., 2016. Estimating fundamental and affordable housing price trends: a study based on Singapore. Applied Economics, 48(49), pp.4783-4798.
Acra.gov.sg. 2018. Registering a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) : Chapters – ACRA. [online] Available at: https://www.acra.gov.sg/components/wireframes/howToGuidesChapters.aspx?pageid=1063 [Accessed 8 Sep. 2018].
Agarwal, S., Choi, H., He, J. And Sing, T.F., 2017. Ethnic social network in public housing market in Singapore.(2017). Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business.
Agarwal, S., Qian, W., Reeb, D.M. and Sing, T.F., 2016. Playing the boys game: golf buddies and board diversity. American Economic Review, 106(5), pp.272-76.
Briefing, A. (2014). Asia’s Sports Industry: Singapore’s Next Major Growth Market? – Asia Business News. [online] Asia Business News. Available at: https://www.asiabriefing.com/news/2014/09/asias-sports-industry-singapores-next-major-growth-market/ [Accessed 31 Aug. 2018].
Cen, L., Maydew, E.L., Zhang, L. and Zuo, L., 2017. Customer–supplier relationships and corporate tax avoidance. Journal of Financial Economics, 123(2), pp.377-394.
Gnvconsultancy.com. (2018). Major Industries in Singapore | Industrial Parks in Singapore | One stop Solution to all your business needs. [online] Available at: https://www.gnvconsultancy.com/incorporation/major_indusries.html [Accessed 31 Aug. 2018].
Lee, K.M., Guo, S., Manning, V., Thane, K. and Wong, K.E., 2017. Are the demographic and clinical features of pathological gamblers seeking treatment in Singapore changing?.
Lim, S., 2017. Marketization and corporation of early childhood care and education in Singapore. In Contemporary Issues and Challenge in Early Childhood Education in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 17-32). Springer, Singapore.
Ministry of Culture, C. (2018). MCCY – Sports Facilities Master Plan. [online] Mccy.gov.sg. Available at: https://www.mccy.gov.sg/Topics/Sports/Articles/Sports_Facilities_Master_Plan.aspx [Accessed 31 Aug. 2018].
Petrovi?, L.T., Milovanovi?, D. and Desbordes, M., 2015. Emerging technologies and sports events: innovative information and communication solutions. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 5(2), pp.175-190.
Rikvin. 2016. 16 Singapore Start-Up Grants and Schemes | Rikvin. [online] Available at: https://www.rikvin.com/blog/16-singapore-start-up-grants-and-schemes/ [Accessed 8 Sep. 2018].
Wai, L.L.M., 2015. Views on Sports Sponsorship in Singapore. In Emerging Trends and Innovation in Sports Marketing and Management in Asia (pp. 22-43). IGI Global.
Zomer, C., Nobre, A., Reindl, T. and Rüther, R., 2016. Shading analysis for rooftop BIPV embedded in a high-density environment: A case study in Singapore. Energy and Buildings, 121, pp.159-164.

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