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BAO3309 Advanced Financial Accounting

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BAO3309 Advanced Financial Accounting

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Course Code: BAO3309
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia

Question:

With reference to the IFRS (IASB) website and associated resources, as well as the relevant accounting literature, explain the objectives and purpose of the conceptual framework
With reference to the IASB Conceptual Framework Project website and associated resources, as well as the relevant accounting literature, explain why the IASB decided to revise the conceptual framework with specific reference to:

Measurement, presentation and disclosure;
Definitions of an asset and liability and recognition criteria; and  
The roles of stewardship and prudence in financial reporting

Identify and explain, according to the IASB, the following main improvements which have been made to the conceptual framework:

Factors to be considered when selecting a measurement basis;
The classification of income and expenses in other comprehensive income; and  
Guidance on when assets and liabilities are to be removed from financial statements; 4.How does the revised conceptual framework update:
The definitions of an asset and a liability; and
The criteria for including assets and liabilities in financial statements

Explain how and why, with reference to the IASB Conceptual Framework Project website and associated resources, information used in assessing stewardship is needed to achieve the objective of financial reporting.
With reference to the references below, identify and explain arguments as to whether the conceptual framework needed to be revised in order to provide the IASB with a better basis for standard setting

Answer:

Conceptual framework
Conceptual framework, according to the international accounting board (IAB), is defined as a system of logistics purposefully interrelated with fundamental guides and various dependable standards that are prescribed to through character, purpose and restrictions of financial statements together with financial accounting (Macve, 1981). Additionally, it deals with crucial financial reporting issues like objectives and users of various financial statements,  not only characteristics that make accounting information that is useful to users, various basic elements of financial statements e.g. assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses but also concepts recognizing and analysis financial statements in financial accounting. This theory provides clear direction in selecting various transactions, events and situations that are to be accounted for, the measuring, recognizing, summarizing and reporting. In addition to that, conceptual framework is not a standard measure and does not take priority over any other requirements in a standard or standards. Likewise, the calculated system is definitely not a standard and do not take need over any prerequisite in a standard or benchmarks. As indicated by the IFRS’s theoretical structure rundown of 2018 clarifies extremely well on the reason of the calculated system, and where it is for the most part helpful.
Purposes of the conceptual framework
The IAB revisions helps give the financial information needed by all stakeholders. The framework assists the IAB by improving and creating the IFRS standards. Additionally, it helps accountants and other financial experts prepare the financial reports, which are reliable to the accounting policies for various transactions and situations where no standard applies to choose appropriate accounting policies. Moreover, the conceptual framework provides all the users the reports as well as information in interpreting standards of accounting (Brouwer, Hoogendoorn & Naarding, 2015).
The IAB revised the conceptual framework primarily because there were gaps found in the previous frameworks and there was a need for an update so the practices and policies are the improved in areas where they lacked.
Measurement
Measurement in the conceptual framework can be defined as the method of qualifying in monetary conditions, information concerning an entity’s income, assets, expenses and liabilities (Brouwer, et al, 2005). There are two measurement basis these are current value and historical cost measurement basis. According to the IASB, an improvement was realized when choosing a measurement basis, the entities need also to think about nature of information if it will be represented in the financial statements. Costs will also limit the selection of measurement basis. The board will acknowledge that premonition of all these factors are possible to respond in the choice of exact measurement basis for different expenses, liabilities, income and assets. Financial assets are measured and reported at either fair value or amortized cost. IFRS has defined a fair value as the amount which an asset could be exchanged for or a liability settled in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgable parties. Amortized cost is defined as the historical cost of an asset after making adjustments.
Assets and their Measurement Bases
Current assets are usually held for trading and are expected to be sold, used up or otherwise converted to cash within the greater part of a business cycle, after the reporting period. This includes cash and  other cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, and inventories (Brouwer, et al, 2005).
Cash and cash equivalents: These include demand deposits with banks and highly liquid investments with original maturities of less than or equal to three months. Measuring cash and cash equivalents at a normal Marketable securities: These include investments in debt or equity securities that are traded in a public market, and whose value can be determined from prices that are obtained in a public market. Further details on these financial assets tend to be provided in notes to the financial statements (Brouwer, et al, 2005).
Non-current Assets
Non-current assets are assets which are not expected to be sold or used up within the greater of a year or one business operating cycle. They include property, plant, and equipment, investment property, intangible assets, and goodwill.
Property, plant, and equipment (PPE): These are tangible assets, including land, buildings, and machinery, that are used in an entity’s operations and expected to provide economic benefits over more than one financial year. Under IFRS, PPE may be reported using either the cost model or the revaluation model. Under US GAAP, however, only the cost model may be used (Brouwer, et al, 2005).
When a cost model is used, PPE is carried at a normal cost i.e. its historical cost less accumulated depreciation or depletion, and less impairment losses.
When a revaluation model is used, the reported and carrying value of PPE is the fair value at the date of revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation.
Liabilities and Their Measurement Bases
Current liabilities are liabilities which are expected to be settled during an entity’s normal operating cycle, are held primarily for trading, or are due to be settled within one year after the reporting period end. These include trade payables, notes payable, accrued expenses, and deferred income.
Trade payables or accounts payable: These are amounts which a business owes its suppliers for goods and services that have been purchased.
Notes payable: These are financial liabilities that are owed by a business to its creditors through a formal loan agreement.
Accrued expenses: These are expenses that have been recognized on a business profit and loss statement but which have not yet been paid as of the reporting date.
Deferred income: This occurs whenever a business receives payment prior to delivering goods and services that it was paid to provide for (Brouwer, et al, 2005) .
Non-current liabilities refer to all liabilities not classified as current.
Long-term financial liabilities: These include loans and notes or bonds payable, and are usually reported at amortized cost on the balance sheet. Upon maturity, the bond’s amortized cost or carrying amount will be equal to its face value.
Deferred tax liabilities: They arise from temporary timing differences between a business reported income and its taxable income. Specifically, deferred tax liabilities occur whenever an entity’s taxable income, and the actual income tax payable derived from it, is less than the reported financial statement income before taxes, and the income tax derived from it.
Presentation and disclosure
The Board revised the conceptual framework because of the introduction of concepts unfolding how information is presented and disclosed in financial statements. Also to provide direction on classifying of expenses and income. In addition to this, the information will be used to determine whether it should be integrated in the income financial statement. IASB Board has not yet found the way forward on how the financial items be treated. When it comes to the matters of whether they should be in other comprehensive income or may be later returned to the income statement. The Board will cover this situation when creating individual standards.
Meaning of an asset and liability and recognition criterion
According to the International Accounting Standards Board revised Framework for Financial Reporting 2018 the new meaning clarify that an asset is an economic resource, and that the probable economic reimbursement no longer required to flow to the entity. If this is the case the measurement of the asset may be affected in the process (Brouwer, et al, 2005).
Also according to IASB revised Conceptual Framework 2018 new meaning clarifies that a liability stand for an obligation that transfers economic resource to an entity and not involved with the economic outflow of the entity’s benefits. So the outflow no longer predictable like in the assets definition (Brouwer, et al, 2005).
The 2010 Conceptual Framework never described derecognition, or clarify at what time it happen. Moreover the Board also declares that recognition is only suitable if it results in both significant information about the feature being recognized, and truthful illustration of that feature. This differs from the 2010 Framework, which declared that an entity ought to recognize an item if it was likely that economic benefit would flow to the entity, with a cost/value that might be determined consistently (Brouwer, et al, 2005). The Board’s endeavor is to refer clearly to the qualitative characteristics of useful information, in order to give a more logical set of concepts to the revised Conceptual Framework.
According to the revised framework of 2018 recognition is partial or complete removal of an asset and an obligation in the financial statement. The direction on recognition is another way of the Board’s outlook that both the control approach and the risk and rewards approach to recognition are appropriate. For that reason, it does not identify the use of one or the other. The Board has taken an approach that aims to faithfully represent both the amendment in the entity’s assets and liabilities as an outcome of recognition transaction or situation, and the assets and liabilities that are retained.
Stewardship and prudence in financial reporting.
The Board in the previous conceptual framework seems not to sight that stewardship was significant except in the new conceptual framework that gap is covered. So now, mutually stewardship and prudence are included in the conceptual framework. The Board has nevertheless brought up the idea of prudence, and in that, idea the Board clarified the meaning uncertainty measurement (Lennard, 2007).
According to the IASB, prudence was excluded in the conceptual framework of 2010 whereby it brought lots of confusion in dealing with uncertain matters.The IASB included prudence in the revised framework as it brings impartiality when it comes to the matters of having uncertainty.
The board also brought about the measurement uncertainty theory, which was not in the 2010 framework, whereby the inclusion of the concept will help in the improvement of the good representation of the information and promote the provision of relevant information. (Craig, Smieliauskas, & Amernic, 2017).
Factors considered when selecting measuring basis.
The following factors should be considered when selecting a measuring basis: Measurement basis for liabilities, assets, income and expenses be determined by the factors like costs and the nature of information. As a result, the presentation of the information whether they be presented in the balance sheet of the income statement will differ from the type of measurement basis chosen.
The classification of income and expenses in comprehensive income
 IASB also revised the income and expense classification in comprehensive income that was introduced. According to the IASB revised conceptual framework 2018, the board has changed the income and expenses meaning that the asset and liability brings the uniformity in representing the information. Income is a form of gain and revenue where by all of these appear in the entity’s normal activities and both revenues and gains are the same because the increase the entity earnings. It does also gain represents the items which do not appear in the usual track of activities of the entity.
The meaning of expenses comprises of losses at the same time as the expenses that come about in a way of normal activities of the company. Expenses that come about in track of normal issues of the entity, for instance, wages and depreciation also cost of sales. The expenses generally take the form of a reduction of assets such as, equipment and plant, property, inventory, cash and cash equivalents.  The Losses stand for more things that are found in the definition of expenses and might or might never occur in the way of the normal activities of the entity. In addition, losses stand for diminishing in the entity’s yield and so do not differ with expenses.
According to the IASB revised conceptual framework 2018 on the guidance on when assets and liabilities are to be removed from financial statements is as follows recognition is simply dealing with the asset and liability of the entity by removing all or part of any of them from the financial statements. The worldwide bookkeeping norms board modifications gives the money related data required by the partners. The structure gives assistance to the board in enhancing and making the IFRS benchmarks. Likewise, encourage bookkeepers and other budgetary specialists to set up the monetary reports that are solid to the bookkeeping arrangements for exchanges and circumstance where no standard applies or standard endorses to decide on bookkeeping strategies. Besides the reasonable structure gives every one of the clients of the reports and data in comprehension and deciphering principles The Board also states that recognition occur when control is lost over a whole or part of an asset and the obligation for a liability are no longer present in an entity.
As per the IASB amended calculated structure 2018 the refreshed resource definition express that it is an element controlled financial asset which is available because of past occasion. Also, something that can create financial advantage can be alluded to as a monetary asset.
Risk
As per the Board the changed system’s risk definition expresses that it’s a substance’s present commitment that exchanges financial asset respects to past occasions. An avoidable duty that can’t be evaded by an element can be alluded to as a commitment.
Additionally basis utilized for incorporating resources and liabilities in the money related articulation is as per the following: acknowledgment is just proper in the event that it results in both noteworthy data about the factor being recognized, and loyal portrayal of that component. The distinction can be appear from the 2010 Conceptual Framework, which expressed that an element should perceive a thing on the off chance that it was conceivable that financial repayment would stream to the element, with a cost/esteem that could be resolved reliably.
Why stewardship is required to accomplish the motivation behind monetary revealing.
As per the IASB stewardship was dismissed from the 2010 calculated structure and this issue made the clients of the money related proclamations see like the evaluation of the chiefs was not give a need. Likewise, the IASB thus utilized the modification of the Framework in 2018 as a chance to bring back the idea of stewardship and to clear up its hugeness. The Board sets out the data required to audit administration’s stewardship, and split this from the data that clients need to survey the gauge of the element’s future net money streams. The two kinds of data are required to give data that is valuable for settling on choices about giving assets to the element, and subsequently accomplishes the motivation behind money related revealing.
Distinguishing proof and clarification why the calculated structure should have been reconsidered
The reconsidered structure by the IASB 2018 was essential and was required because of the accompanying: The definitions realized the illuminations of the numerous terms that were not utilized in the 2010 reasonable system. Like the term monetary asset which we have characterized it and the significance of financial advantages which are achieved by the monetary assets. Additionally the Board cleared up that the financial advantages from the benefit and the commitment a substance holds are not really should have been normal.
Another region on the calculated structure that ends up being overhauled is the presentation of recognition and direction on estimation. Whereby beginning with recognition this arrangement to loyally speak to those advantages and liabilities held after the exchange, assuming any and whichever alteration in resources and liabilities because of the exchange that prompted the evacuation.
Then again, estimation should have been amended so as per the Board it looked at whether as a solitary estimation premise ought to be ordered. Nevertheless, it inferred that diverse estimation bases could convey a great deal of noteworthy data to the partners.
Authentic cost estimation premise
This give data about components that is coming about because of the authentic estimation of the exchange or event that offered ascend to the thing being considered for estimation; along these lines, for an advantage, this would be the expense brought about in procuring/making the benefit. For a risk, this would be the estimation of the thought got to acquire/go up against the obligation. The recorded expense of both an advantage and a risk will be refreshed after some time to portray, for instance, any utilization of the benefit or satisfaction of the obligation, or the effect of any occasions that reason the resource for end up impeded or the risk difficult.
Current esteem estimation premise
These give money related data about components, utilizing data refreshed to reflect conditions at the estimation date. Estimation premise may incorporate all valuation. All so all valuation including reasonable esteem current cost, satisfaction esteem, esteem being used are altogether reexamined in the 2018 structure where every one of the holes have been filled to give applicable money related data.
Ultimately, the calculated system required an amendment on the introduction and exposure so the accompanying ends up being reconsidered around there. The theme of introduction and divulgence was not tended to in the 2010 Theoretical System. The effort done by the Board showed that proficient correspondence of data in budgetary proclamations makes that data critical and adds to the unwavering portrayal of an element’s money related position. The overhauled reasonable system presents the accompanying on the region of introduction and revelation: Bearing which are given by the Board concerning the arrangement on wage and costs on what ought to be utilize with regards to the treatment of the things and on the off chance that they ought to be a piece of the pay articulation or outside the announcement. Additionally the heading by the Board with respect to the salary and costs where there is a need of consideration of the things in the other exhaustive wage or later be pushed off pushed off to the wage articulation.
Reference
Macve, R., 1981. A Conceptual Framework for Financial Accounting and Reporting: The Possibilities for an Agreed Structure: a Report Prepared at the Request of the Accounting Standards Committee. Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales.
Barker, R., 2015. Conservatism, prudence and the IASB’s conceptual framework. Accounting and Business Research, 45(4), pp.514-538.
Brouwer, A., Hoogendoorn, M. and Naarding, E., 2015. Will the changes proposed to the conceptual framework’s definitions and recognition criteria provide a better basis for IASB standard setting?. Accounting and Business Research, 45(5), pp.547-571.
Craig, R., Smieliauskas, W. and Amernic, J., 2017. Estimation uncertainty and the IASB’s proposed conceptual framework. Australian Accounting Review, 27(1), pp.112-114.
Lennard, A., 2007. Stewardship and the objectives of financial statements: a comment on IASB’s preliminary views on an improved conceptual framework for financial reporting: the objective of financial reporting and qualitative characteristics of decision-useful financial reporting information. Accounting in Europe, 4(1), pp.51-66.
Sutton, D.B., Cordery, C.J. and van Zijl, T., 2015. The purpose of financial reporting: The case for coherence in the conceptual framework and standards. Abacus, 51(1), pp.116-141.
Whittington, G., 2008. Fair value and the IASB/FASB conceptual framework project: an alternative view. Abacus, 44(2), pp.139-168.

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