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AGRIC2505RW Crop And Pasture Production II

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AGRIC2505RW Crop And Pasture Production II

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Course Code: AGRIC2505RW
University: The University Of Adelaide

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Country: Australia

Question:

A farm paddock has been selected near Cunderdin and you are given the site history (soil type, soil analysis, previous rotations, stubble loads, weeds, diseases and climate) – see below. We will also visit the site on the field days.
 
The objective is to describe how you would grow a profitable crop of wheat at the Cunderdin site. To do this you will need to gather the necessary information from the site history, lectures, field days, published literature and the internet. In addition, you will need to use the Yield Prophet (crop) model to decide on optimal nitrogen recommendations and to predict the wheat yield that you will get. You will also need to produce a gross margin for your wheat crop to assess its profitability. If you are not sure about something you should use the lectures and field days to find the missing information/gaps.
 
You should aim for a clear, concise report that describes how you would grow a profitable wheat crop and also explains the rationale behind your approach/recommendations. References should be used where appropriate (for example: if you recommend “X” herbicide because it is the best for controlling “Y” weed, then you should provide a reference for the statement) and these can include both published (scientific) and unpublished material (See marking guide below for further information).

Answer:
Introduction:

This report aims at offering insights into how a profitable crop of wheat would be grown at the Cunderdin site and thereafter come up with the gross margin for the grown wheat that would be used in the assessment of profitability of undertaking. The site of the activity will be at the Cunderdin Site that is located at the Cunderdin College of Agriculture. The report is divided into various sections including the

Site which explores the climate, type of soil and soil analysis as well as crop rotation and the accompanying implications
Wheat crop management that explores on the land preparation, pest control as well as variety selection alongside seeding and basal fertilizer as well as nitrogen applications and prediction of yields
The gross margin for the wheat crop in a tabular form that would be inclusive of the discussion of the costs of production as well as the income; and
The summary of the main recommendations

The field is at the Cunderdin College of Agriculture (117°14′ 56.78′′ E, 31°38′ 28.46′′ S). Relatively long term climate records are available from the Bureau of Meteorology website for Cunderdin Airfield. The site had canola in 2017, Albus lupin in 2016 and then wheat in 2015. The current amount of stubble is 2 t ha-1. The main weeds are annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), brome grass (Bromus diandrus), barley grass (Hordeum leporinum), wild oats (Avena fatua) as well as wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). The main wheat leaf diseases present are yellow leaf spot (tan spot) (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) as well as septoria nodorum blotch (Stagonospora nodorum). The prevalent root diseases at the site are crown rot (Fusarium pseudograminearum) as well as Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctonia solani). The main nematode is root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus neglectus).
Soil Type and Soil Analysis
The Cunderdin soil is an alkaline red duplex that has a sandy clay loam texture with about 22% clay. The soil pH (measured in 0.01M CaCl2) increases with depth as well as calcium carbonate concretions are visible below about 40 cm. A detailed soil analysis from 2007 is given in Table 1 and a more recent one from 2017 in Table 2.
Series 1-Soil chemical analysis at depth of 10 cm
Series 2- Soil chemical analysis at depth of 20 cm
Series 3- Soil chemical analysis at depth of 30 cm
Series 1-Soil chemical analysis at depth of 10 cm
Series 2- Soil chemical analysis at depth of 20 cm
Series 3- Soil chemical analysis at depth of 30 cm
 From the data represented on the two figures, within the decade, there have been significant changes in the amount of various nutrients in the soil. The amount of nitrate increased, ammonium decreased, phosphorus increased, potassium increased, sulphur decreased, conductivity reduced by half over the decade. These changes in the amount of nutrients among others have resulted in making the soil more viable and ideal for the growth of the crop (Wallace et al., 2016).
Land Preparation
The accuracy land levelling is one of essential agronomic practices to expel high points and low points of soil as well as to accomplish better seed bed conditions for the uniform conveyance of water system water as well as better supply of different contributions to the developing wheat edit. Wheat requires rich topsoil to earth soil soils with great waste for better yields. The yield developing territories ought to be isolated into little plots of a large portion of a section of land alongside directs in the center to isolate each plot and to make appropriate utilization of water system water as indicated by product needs (Piggin et al., 2015).
The most idea soil for wheat is unified with:

A decent compelling profundity with a fine tilth to guarantee seed-soil contact. Great seed-soil contact guarantees great product development and stand which are the reason for good yields
Ideal physical properties: great interior waste, an ideal dampness administration,
Chemical features: adequate and adjusted amounts of supplements (NPK as well asother smaller scale supplements/follow supplements)
Biological features: great level of natural issue, and with gainful miniaturized scale life forms (Jat et al., 2014)

The goal of soil tillage is to keep up the current structure of soil or to enhance the structure of inadequately organized soils and tending to the three properties as made reference to above (physical, synthetic and natural).
Conditioning of soil: Lime can be connected whenever required to ‘improve’ acidic soils to the pH ideal range. Lime application ought to be founded on soil examination remedies (Zheng et al., 2017).
Gypsum enhances soil physical structure i.e. expels hard setting clodiness, evacuates surface crusting and poor functionality and providing the soil with complimentary Calcium as well as Sulfur for good yield standing and development.
Tillage processes: There are a few choices of culturing that fall under two general classifications: conservational and ordinary culturing that can be received in wheat generation. The ordinary culturing strategy pursues the accompanying advances (Nawaz et al., 2016):
Deep ploughing, liming and basal compost application, discing and after that pursued by rolling. A roller can be hauled simultaneously behind a circle harrow. Conservational culturing otherwise called zero/least culturing is another less expensive as well as more supportable alternative that ranchers can receive.
When a reasonable zone for building up the estate is chosen and the arranging task is finalised, the genuine readiness can be actuated. These exercises are isolated to structure and pace the execution procedure with the end goal to be prepared for planting at the most reasonable time, as indicated by the specific territorial climatic conditions. Physical land preparation would be conducted that would the following activities:
Mechanical field readiness: The mechanical or beginning soil arrangement concerns for the most part the planning of a field for further definite readiness, for example, water system framework establishment, gap readiness, and so on (Das et al., 2018). Activities, if relevant to the zone, include:

debushing/hedge clearing;
Evacuation of stones as well asshakes;
Tearing; as well as
Soil levelling

Irrigation framework establishment: The sort of water system framework to be utilized will be dictated by the accessibility of water, geographical and soil conditions. At the point when the underlying soil arrangement is finished, the establishment of the required water system framework will be actualized by the endorsed plan.
Soil enhancement: The booking of soil enhancement program will rely upon the date cultivator, as specific applications could be joined with the underlying activities of soil readiness. Because of long holding up period, planting to first generation, it is a pattern to set up date ranches on new soils, except for regions where date palm is utilized for intercropping (Sepat et al., 2017).
Time of Planting
The ideal time for planting Chief CL wheat is between mid-April and the most recent seven day stretch of May and significantly prior in the Lowvelds. At times planting time can be stretched out to mid-June yet not typically suggested. Postponed planting results in loss of approximately 50kg/ha/day after May (Angus et al., 2015). The initial two weeks of May tend to give the best yields in the Highveld zones. Holding fast to the ideal planting time has some agronomic clarifications as well as reasons:

Late-spring precipitation escape-Downpours that come after the wheat has achieved physiological development causes growing (grain germination in the ear) and result in downsizing of wheat because of a decrease in preparing characteristics
Sickness escape – ailment weight particularly for rust maladies, ordinarily rises when temperatures begin to warm up around August and an early planted harvest would have gotten a decent head begin without infection weight (Maaz et al., 2017).
Bug escape – moreover bother weight, for example, aphids begin to rise when temperatures begin to rise. An early planted harvest will have a decent head begin in front of vermin weight.
Early planting will result in early collecting around September. One of key contemplations for the reception of twofold editing is early planting and early reaping for both summer and winter crops. The agriculturist will come in with his mid-year trim on time when wheat is planted and gathered early. By and large, wheat takes around 125-140 days to physiological development relying upon assortment, height and climate conditions. The higher the height, the more drawn out the time from planting to development (Matthews, McCaffery and Jenkins, 2015).
Wheat basic stages, for example, trim foundation, tillering, blooming and grain filling will coincide with the ideal development conditions when the yield is early planted. For example, for vigorous tillering i.e. for the plant to deliver auxiliary stems (4 – 5 weeks after product rise) requires extremely cool conditions that typically happens in May and June while Flowering (60 – 90 days) and Grain filling (> 90 days) must not concur with cold conditions to keep away from harvest sterility.

Irrigation Requirements and Scheduling
Since there is next to no or no precipitation amid winter in the region, water system is required to accomplish high yielding wheat edit. The aggregate gross measure of water required is somewhere in the range of 450 and 600 mm for each ha (i.e. 4.5 – 6 super litters for each ha) contingent upon technique for water system (Overhead water system with sprinkler or utilization of Center Pivots) and should be connected as the yield requires it. The key focuses are:

the soil must be conveyed to handle ability to the maximum capacity establishing profundity (around 1,2 m) at planting to develop the product;
a light water system must be connected at the fourth or fifth day in the wake of sowing, to break the outside layer to guarantee great yield rise a light water system must be connected at 14 to 17 days after rise to invigorate crown root improvement and tillering, and;
Water system from that point must be connected to coordinate yield water utilize. On sandy soils with low water holding limits, flood as often as possible (7 to multi day cycles with 30-35mm net) (Barton, Thamo, Engelbrecht and Biswas, 2014). On muds and sandy muds, with great water holding limits, water system might be less successive with bigger sums (10 to multi day cycles with 40-45 mm net). This is a general water system booking guide. For an educated water system booking, the utilization of a soil twist drill to assess the soil water content ahead and behind the water system line is a decent guide to water system administration. Water system is ended when the neck of ears/spikes/head (peduncle) turn yellow i.e. physiological development.
Crop hardening: After the yield has raised, the solidifying stage starts. This prompts crown root improvement and in addition tillering. The suggested solidifying time frame (water system is incidentally ended amid this stage) is 10 and 14 days in light and substantial soils separately.
Top dressing manure as well as herbicide application is done after a light water system that pursues the solidifying time frame, typically around 21 days after development

The most common pests and diseases in wheat are as shown:
Viral diseases
Viruses are the littlest pathogens introduced in these data sheets about bugs and ailments. The irresistible viral molecule is known as a virion that is a stable, non-increasing stage by which the infection is exchanged starting with one plant then onto the next. Infections increase in the host plant, and transmission may happen by means of a few means: by creepy crawlies and parasites (particularly sucking bugs, for example, aphids), by nematodes, by seed, by dust, by organisms, by soil and mechanically.
Viral maladies are regularly hard to distinguish in light of fact that contaminated hosts may not show obvious indications, or side effects may nearly take after those of different physiological clutters or hereditary irregularities (Gathala et al., 2015). Distinguishing proof can be encouraged by figuring out which vectors are available and the host run; as a rule, positive recognizable proof requires the utilization of an electron magnifying lens and serological strategies. Among the viruses would include:

Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus
Barley Yellow Dwarf virus
Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus
Brome Mosaic Virus

Bacterial Diseases
Bacterial plant pathogens are little unicellular bars from 1 to 3 p m long. They don’t have a very much characterized core, or an atomic layer. Microbes are spread by creepy crawlies, air flows, sprinkling precipitation, and by mechanical means. Free dampness as a rule is important for disease, and entrance of host tissue happens through injuries or stomata openings (Naresh et al., 2014). These pathogens attack the vascular framework or intercellular spaces in host tissue, and putrefaction results from poisons created or enzymatic action of microscopic organisms. They include:

Bacterial spike blight
Bacterial stripe
Basal glume rot

Fungal Diseases of Roots or Crown
Take-All: Symptoms: A field tainted by the organism may have ineffectively characterized patches where plants are hindered, have few tillers, and show dry spell indications. White heads are created in the wake of blooming where plants deliver no seed. Entire plants are influenced, not normal for crown decay where whiteheads influence single tillers, on plants (picture at left). The growth causes spoiling of roots and lower stems. Basal stem and leaf sheath tissues, and additionally roots, may turn a glossy dark shading (picture at right). At the point when inspected with a hand focal point (10×1), dull contagious hyphae may regularly be found on the sub-crown internode between the old leaf sheaths (Nielsen, Lyon and Miceli-Garcia, 2017). Coarse, dark sprinter hyphae are prominent on the roots, and roots normally have dark focuses when broken and saw end on.
Common Root Rot: Such fungi deliver an obscuring or sautéing of sub crown internode, coleoptile and leaf sheaths (picture at left). Dark colored streaks may likewise show up on the basal internode of tillers. The organisms regularly will cause lessened tillering, and slight root decaying has been known to happen. Singular plants or gatherings of plants may stop. Dissimilar to crown spoil, be that as it may, basic root decay won’t cause “whiteheads,” or rashly white spikes to happen. Contamination from the get-go in the product improvement can cause pre-or post-development “damping off” of seedlings (picture at right). Since every organism can assault an alternate plant part at an alternate development organize, positive field distinguishing proof of causal specialist is troublesome (Christiansen et al., 2015).
Scleretium Wilt: Should disease happen from the get-go in the harvest cycle, pre-or post-development “damping off” of seedlings can result. Unhealthy tissues will much of time have white, feathery contagious mycelia at first glance (picture at right) that frequently penetrate the soil encompassing the plant. Consequent infection improvement results in spoiled culms, crowns, and roots, and the possible demise of plant; this prompts the presence of “white heads” or spikes in the green product (picture at left). Sclerotia are regularly found on the crown tissues, culms, or close to the soil surface (picture at base left). Youthful sclerotia are whitish and swing darker to dull darker with age.
Fungal Diseases of Stem or Sheath
Stem Rust: Pustules (composed of urediospores masses) are dim ruddy darker, and may happen on the two sides of leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes (see picture). With light contaminations the pustules are typically isolated and scattered, yet with overwhelming diseases they may blend. Preceding pustule development, “bits” may show up. Before the spore masses get through the epidermis, the contamination locales feel harsh to the touch; as the spore masses get through, the surface tissues go up against a worn out and torn appearance.
Eyespot: The clearest indications of this sickness are the eye-formed, curved injuries created on the internodes of lower stem (picture at left). The injuries are circumscribed by dim darker to greenish dark colored rings, have straw-shaded focuses, and as often as possible create on the leaf sheath at soil level (Barlow et al., 2015). These sores may mix and lose their unmistakable “eye-spot” appearance. At the point when sickness advancement is extreme, the stem or culm may break close to the ground or through the injury where the stem is debilitated (picture at right). Manifestations don’t show up on the roots.
Sharp Eyespot: The key manifestations of sharp eyespot are the oval-molded sores that create on basal leaf sheaths; these sores are like those caused by eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and T. acuformis), anyway sharp eyespot injuries are more shallow and more forcefully plot than those ordinary of eyespot. The edges are dull dark colored with pale, straw-shaded focuses (pictureat left). The mycelia frequently present in the focuses of sores are effectively evacuated by rubbing. Roots can likewise be influenced, normally getting to be darker in shading and lessened in number. The illness can cause hindering and a decrease in the quantity of tillers. Sharp eyespot likewise will create whiteheads and wilted pieces, and in addition lodging.
Common Root Rot: These organisms create an obscuring or caramelizing of subcrown internode, coleoptile and leaf sheaths (picture at left). Darker streaks may likewise show up on the basal internode of tillers. The growths usually will cause lessened tillering, and slight root decaying has been known to happen. Singular plants or gatherings of plants may stop. Not at all like crown decay, be that as it may, basic root spoil won’t cause “whiteheads,” or rashly white spikes to happen. Disease from the get-go in the product improvement can cause pre-or post-development “damping off” of seedlings (picture at right). Since every parasite can assault an alternate plant part at an alternate development organize, positive field ID of causal specialist is troublesome.
Scleretium Wilt (sheath or stem): On the off chance that contamination happens right off the bat in the yield cycle, pre-or post-development “damping off” of seedlings can result. Unhealthy tissues will every now and again have white, fleecy parasitic mycelia at first glance (picture at right that regularly pervade the soil encompassing the plant (Bell, Harrison and Kirkegaard, 2015). Ensuing sickness advancement results in decayed culms, crowns, and roots, and the inevitable passing of plant; this prompts the presence of “white heads” or spikes in the green harvest (picture at left). Sclerotia are normally found on the crown tissues, culms, or close to the soil surface (picture underneath). Youthful sclerotia are whitish and swing darker to dim darker with age.
Pest and Disease Management Practices
Green Bridge Management: Self-sown volunteer plants of wheat that develop amid the mid-year and harvest time can extend inoculum of some imperative ailments, especially rusts. It is, along these lines, vital to evacuate these host plants before sowing. Volunteer wheat can be evacuated by development, overwhelming brushing or with herbicides. In seasons when wheat volunteers are far reaching amid the mid-year and fall, expanded accentuation ought to be put on the administration of rusts utilizing safe assortments, seed or compost medicines, and in addition on observing products for sickness to guarantee the opportune utilization of foliar fungicides.
Resistance Varieties: A large number of vital infections of oats can be adequately controlled by developing safe assortments, while for some different ailments dodging powerless and exceptionally vulnerable assortments might be adequate (Bhatt et al., 2016). Table 1 gives recommended least obstruction levels to wheat assortments to be developed. On the off chance that a picked assortment does not meet the base suggested level, at that point expanded accentuation must be put on extra administration methodologies.
Treatment of Seeds and Fertilizers: Fungicide seed medicines (pickles) ought to be connected to wheat seed each year to shield the yield from hit and muck flare-ups. Hit and muck illnesses are financially extreme as a result of their nil resistance at receive destinations. Great inclusion of seed is fundamental for the best impact of these synthetic substances (Hunt et al., 2016).
Compost and some seed medications can smother critical foliar and root infections of wheat. The most reasonable treatment for every circumstance ought to be chosen. It ought to be noticed that when utilizing manure medicines that don’t give control of hits and mucks, a fungicide should likewise be connected to seed.
Crop Rotation: Numerous critical foliar and root sicknesses can extend starting with one season then onto the next, on either edit build-ups or in the soil. Product pivot is imperative to guarantee wheat isn’t sown into enclosures with elevated amounts of either soil or stubble-borne inoculum. It is additionally imperative to control grass weeds amid break products to lessen ailment persist on host plants (Kirkegaard et al., 2015).
Monitoring of Crop: Dynamic observing of wheat crops amid the developing season is fitting to identify any critical foliar ailments that might be controlled utilizing a foliar fungicide
For most foliar ailments proper planning of fungicide application is basic. The best outcomes are for the most part gotten from fungicide applications made right off the bat in the malady improvement. Cultivators, in any case, need to think about the expenses of use, yield capability of harvest, and furthermore recall that frequently low levels of ailment late in the season (i.e. grain fill) affects affect yield (Kirkegaard et al., 2015).
Variety Selection
Chief CL wheat variety was chosen for this site since the variety is able to survive under the site conditions including the prevailing temperatures and moisture content. The variety was as well established to be have a shorter maturity period that would see the crop evade most of the diseases that come up in the pre-harvest stages of plant.
Seeding Rate: The ideal plant populace for wheat is 220-250 plants for every m2. Seed rate relies upon the seed measure, germination rate, planting conditions and planting strategy. To accomplish ideal populace thickness, a seeding rate of around 110-125 kg/ha when penetrating and 125-135 kg/ha when broadcasting with a vicon spreader is prescribed. To guarantee great harvest stand ability and yield, agriculturists should hold fast to these ideal populace densities. Infections, for example, Powdery build-up are likewise limited with great agronomic practices (Kirkegaard et al., 2015).
The application of fertilizer in wheat, similar to some other product must be custom fitted to the soil ripeness status, the yield potential and the grain quality prerequisites. As a general guide, wheat requires a basal use of 300 to 500 kg/ha of a compound manure, (for example, 7-14-7) and a best dressing of 350 to 500 kg of Urea or Ammonium Nitrate per ha. Both compost dressings are communicated by a vicon.
In general terms, 160 – 190kg/ha of Nitrogen Units (N), 50 – 70 units of Phosphorous (P) and 30 – 50 units of Potassium (K) are sufficient for ideal plant development. Basal fertilizer needs joining into the soil by disking and ought to be connected after essential culturing. The best dressing is normally connected in one application between 14 – 21 days after development on overwhelming soils, and in two uses of equivalent sums at 14 and 35 days after rise on sandy soils (Kirkegaard et al., 2015). Top dressing ought to be connected after the solidifying stage. Top dressing is basic for good leaf and general plant development and at last the yield yet in addition critically to accomplish great protein levels (Bhatt et al., 2016). The base protein level prerequisite for “Premium” (Good quality) wheat is 11%. It is one of contemplations for evaluating and estimating of wheat. Accomplishment of good protein levels is additionally dictated by varietal decision and general administration. Utilization of Nitrogen in the wake of blossoming can likewise support the Grain Protein Content of wheat.
Nitrogen Application and Yield Prediction
Three primary variables are to be viewed as while applying composts to wheat. These are (I) use of right dosages of various supplements subsequent to considering the necessities of harvest and soils hold supply,
(ii) Utilization of these supplements at the opportune time; and  
(iii) Receiving legitimate strategy for application.
Application of nitrogen in split portions has turned into an entrenched practice as urea is profoundly draining manure. Two third or half of amount ought to be I connected at the season of sowing and staying 33% or half amount should be top dressed at first water system in medium or overwhelming soils. On sandy soils, top dressing ought to be made in a few portions if substantial portion of nitrogen is to be connected. Under rained conditions full portion of N ought to be put into the soil before sowing (Bhatt et al., 2016).
Every single nitrogenous fertilizer by and by accessible in the market is similarly viable for wheat under typical soil conditions. In calcareous soils (containing free lime) and in emphatically basic soils, 10-30 % of connected nitrogen might be lost through alkali volatilization, if urea or other ammoniacal composts are utilized for best dressing (Bhatt et al., 2016). In such cases CAN (Calcium ammonium nitrate or Kisan Khad) ought to be wanted to urea.

Item

Amount

Total grain yield (based on the average of 2.7t/ha)

4050t

Predicted price on-farm

$250/t

Gross income

$1 197 155

Gross income/ha

$956/ha

Variable Costs

Item

Detail

Cost

Total ($)

Seed

Seed

100kg/ha at $250/t

25000

Seed

Seed cleaning & treatment

100kg/ha at $190/t

19000

Fertilizer

NPS+Cu, Zn & Mn

110kg/ha at $1000/t

10000

Fertilizer

Urea

200kg/ha at $550/t

55000

Fertilizer

Fertilizer cartage

330kg/ha at $15/t

15000

Sprays

Summer

0.8L/ha at $30/L

3000

Sprays

Summer

0.7L/ha at $15/L

15000

Sprays

Knockdown

1L/ha at $5/L

5000

Sprays

Knockdown

1L/ha at $15/L

15000

Sprays

Broadleaf

0.8L/ha at $25/500g

25000

Sprays

Fungicide

0.15L/ha at $75/L

75000

Sprays

Post emergence

0.35kg/ha at $80/kg

80000

Machinery operation

Fuels & Oils

 

 

Machinery operation

Repairs and Maintenance

 

 

Contractors

Spraying

 

 

Contractors

Harvesting

 

 

Labour

Casual labor

8 weeks at $1500/week

150000

Insurance

Fire and hail

2t/ha at $250/t×1%

250000

Variable costs

 

 

742000

Variable costs/ha

 

 

742

Gross margin (gross income-variable costs)

Item

Amount

Gross margin

$455 155

Gross margin/ha

$455.155

Average Cost of Production of Wheat in Chakwal
Average Yield, Producer & Gross Income of Wheat in Chakwal
Average Gross Margins & Net Returns of Wheat in Chakwal
The comparative analysis of the two projects indicates that the project is more profitable as compared to the growth of wheat in Chakwal. The mean cost of production of one hectare of wheat in Chakwal is about 1.2 times for the one in this project. The main share in the total cost is land rent for the case of wheat growing in Chakwal and labor for the case of Cunderdin. The mean gross income of wheat in Chakwal is 44735 per acre which is about half of Cunderdin. The gross margin of wheat in Chakwal is Rs. 182210 per ha twice that of the Cunderdin site. The net return of wheat in the Cunderdin site is significantly higher than that at Chakwal. Keeping in mind the major findings of the study as well as the comparison survey, it can be established that the high prices in Chakwal may be attributed to the high variable costs.
Policy should thus be devised for stable supply of most of the inputs that are needed in order to enhance higher product to ensure they are timely delivered. Research as well as extension should as well be reinvigorated to create awareness or train farmers on the available production technology that can be used for the maximum yield of wheat at the lowest prices attainable. The project is thus profitable and hence can be undertaken at the prevailing market costs of the inputs and other services which at the end of the project would ensure a profit is realized. 
References
Angus, J.F., Kirkegaard, J.A., Hunt, J.R., Ryan, M.H., Ohlander, L. and Peoples, M.B., 2015. Break crops and rotations for wheat. Crop and Pasture Science, 66(6), pp.523-552
Barlow, K.M., Christy, B.P., O’leary, G.J., Riffkin, P.A. and Nuttall, J.G., 2015. Simulating the impact of extreme heat and frost events on wheat crop production: a review. Field Crops Research, 171, pp.109-119
Barton, L., Thamo, T., Engelbrecht, D. and Biswas, W.K., 2014. Does growing grain legumes or applying lime cost effectively lower greenhouse gas emissions from wheat production in a semi-arid climate?. Journal of Cleaner Production, 83, pp.194-203
Bell, L.W., Harrison, M.T. and Kirkegaard, J.A., 2015. Dual-purpose cropping–capitalising on potential grain crop grazing to enhance mixed-farming profitability. Crop and Pasture Science, 66(4), pp.i-iv
Bhatt, R., Kukal, S.S., Busari, M.A., Arora, S. and Yadav, M., 2016. Sustainability issues on rice–wheat cropping system. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 4(1), pp.64-74
Christiansen, S., Ryan, J., Singh, M., Ates, S., Bahhady, F., Mohamed, K., Youssef, O. and Loss, S., 2015. Potential legume alternatives to fallow and wheat monoculture for Mediterranean environments. Crop and Pasture Science, 66(2), pp.113-121
Das, T.K., Saharawat, Y.S., Bhattacharyya, R., Sudhishri, S., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Sharma, A.R. and Jat, M.L., 2018. Conservation agriculture effects on crop and water productivity, profitability and soil organic carbon accumulation under a maize-wheat cropping system in the North-western Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field Crops Research, 215, pp.222-231
Gathala, M.K., Timsina, J., Islam, M.S., Rahman, M.M., Hossain, M.I., Harun-Ar-Rashid, M., Ghosh, A.K., Krupnik, T.J., Tiwari, T.P. and McDonald, A., 2015. Conservation agriculture based tillage and crop establishment options can maintain farmers’ yields and increase profits in South Asia’s rice–maize systems: Evidence from Bangladesh. Field Crops Research, 172, pp.85-98
Hunt, J.R., Swan, A.D., Breust, P.D., Peoples, M.B. and Kirkegaard, J.A., 2016, December. Sheep grazing on crop residues increase soil mineral N and grain N uptake in subsequent wheat crops. In Proceedings of the International Nitrogen Initiative Conference, Melbourne, Australia’.()
Jat, R.K., Sapkota, T.B., Singh, R.G., Jat, M.L., Kumar, M. and Gupta, R.K., 2014. Seven years of conservation agriculture in a rice–wheat rotation of Eastern Gangetic Plains of South Asia: yield trends and economic profitability. Field Crops Research, 164, pp.199-210
Maaz, T., Wulfhorst, J.D., McCracken, V., Kirkegaard, J., Huggins, D.R., Roth, I., Kaur, H. and Pan, W., 2018. Economic, policy, and social trends and challenges of introducing oilseed and pulse crops into dryland wheat cropping systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 253, pp.177-194
Matthews, P., McCaffery, D. and Jenkins, L., 2015. Winter crop variety sowing guide 2015. NSW Department of Primary Industries: Orange, NSW
Naresh, R.K., Tomar, S.S., Kumar, D., Singh, S.P., DWIVEDI, A. and KUMAR, V., 2014. Experiences with rice grown on permanent raised beds: effect of crop establishment techniques on water use, productivity, profitability and soil physical properties. Rice Science, 21(3), pp.170-180
Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Ahmad, R., Basra, S.M.A. and Lal, R., 2016. Seed priming improves stand establishment and productivity of no till wheat grown after direct seeded aerobic and transplanted flooded rice. European journal of agronomy, 76, pp.130-137
Nielsen, D.C., Lyon, D.J. and Miceli-Garcia, J.J., 2017. Replacing fallow with forage triticale in a dryland wheat-corn-fallow rotation may increase profitability. Field crops research, 203, pp.227-237
Piggin, C., Haddad, A., Khalil, Y., Loss, S. and Pala, M., 2015. Effects of tillage and time of sowing on bread wheat, chickpea, barley and lentil grown in rotation in rainfed systems in Syria. Field Crops Research, 173, pp.57-67
Sepat, S., Thierfelder, C., Sharma, A.R., Pavuluri, K., Kumar, D., Iquebal, M.A. and Verma, A., 2017. Effects of weed control strategy on weed dynamics, soybean productivity and profitability under conservation agriculture in India. Field crops research, 210, pp.61-70
Wallace, A., Armstrong, R., Harris, R., Bellyaeva, O., Grace, P. and Scheer, C., 2016. Nitrous oxide emissions from wheat grown in a medium rainfall environment in Se Australia are low compared to overall nitrogen losses
Zheng, W., Liu, Z., Zhang, M., Shi, Y., Zhu, Q., Sun, Y., Zhou, H., Li, C., Yang, Y. and Geng, J., 2017. Improving crop yields, nitrogen use efficiencies, and profits by using mixtures of coated controlled-released and uncoated urea in a wheat-maize system. Field Crops Research, 205, pp.106-115
Kirkegaard, J.A., Lilley, J.M., Hunt, J.R., Sprague, S.J., Ytting, N.K., Rasmussen, I.S. and Graham, J.M., 2015. Effect of defoliation by grazing or shoot removal on the root growth of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop and Pasture Science, 66(4), pp.249-259.

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