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AF101 Introduction To Accounting And Financial Management

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AF101 Introduction To Accounting And Financial Management

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Course Code: AF101
University: University Of The South Pacific is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Fiji


Review and evaluate the company’s Property, Plant & Equipment in the Balance Sheet.
What is the company’s total carrying amount for property, plant and equipment at the end of the reporting period?
How have these assets been valued? Is it in line with the relevant accounting standard? Provide details of acquisitions, derecognitions or revaluations made by the company during the current financial period.
Provide a conclusion supported by your analysis above whether the company is a good investment opportunity.
1.Students may either paraphrase or quote from appropriate sources, please use proper ‘in-text’ referencing i.e. Author Date e.g. (Jones, 2009).

Bibliography must be generated using APA referencing style listing ALL your reference sources.
Students need to pick out only 4 appropriate sources (e.g. book chapter, journal article, official publication, etc.) that you will use in compiling this research report.
Check your assignment for possible plagiarism. Upload your draft assignment (body of report only) using AF101 Assignment Dropbox – located under the assignment block of the AF101 Moodle Page. Use the plagiarism report provided by TurnItIn to make necessary changes to your assignment. The final version of your assignment must have a Similarity Index of less than or equal to 30%. When checking your assignment for plagiarism, you can exclude the following: quotes, bibliography and common word matches of 100.


The company, which has been selected for analysis, is Vision Investments limited. It is one of the companies situated out of Fiji and is listed on the South Pacific Stock Exchange. The company has had a presence of many years in Fiji and the Pacific and is one of the most reputed companies and the market leader in electrical, consumer electronic, furniture and other durable home goods and the company is into consumer finance sector. It is also into Tier 1 motor business and produces many industrial products (Bizfluent, 2017). The company has four major divisions and brands namely courts, vision motors, MIF Mahogany Industries and Vision Finance.
The company’s vision includes being best in the business and doing the business in the right way and investing in great opportunities. Its values include focusing on the customer needs and acceptances, creativity and innovation to the core, leadership and superior performance through personal excellence, encouraging teamwork and maintaining integrity and reputation of the shareholders or the owners of business.
Discussion and Analysis
In this section of the report, the financial analysis for the given company has been done using the most recent financial statements and the ration analysis, wherever the same is reqd.
Evaluation of the cash flow position
The cash flow position of the company can be assessed from the changes in the cash and cash equivalents over the years, which is evident from the balance sheet of the company and the cash flow statement (Dichev, 2017). Both of these have been enclosed below:

Vision Investments Limited

Consolidated statement of financial position












Non-current assets



Trade receivables



Amounts owing by related parties



Plant and equipment



Intangible assets



Deferred income tax asset






Current assets



Cash on hand and at bank



Trade receivables



Other receivables and prepayments



Amounts owing by related parties



Current income tax asset












Total assets









Issued capital



Foreign currency translation reserve



Retained earnings









Non-current liabilities






Amounts owing to related parties






Current liabilities



Trade payables



Other payables and accruals



Bank overdraft



Current income tax liability






Leave entitlements






Total liabilities



Total equity and liabilities







Vision Investments Limited

Cash Flow Statement






Cash flows from operating activities



Receipts from customers



Payments to suppliers and employees



Cash generated from operations



Income tax paid



Tax on undistributed profits paid



Interest paid



Net cash generated from operating activities






Cash flows from investing activities



Purchase of plant and equipment and



intangible assets



Proceeds from sale of plant and equipment



Net cash used in investing activities






Cash flows from financing activities



Redraw of term loan



Repayment of borrowings



Dividends paid



Net cash used in financing activities






Net decrease in cash held



Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning



Effect of exchange rate movement on cash



Cash and cash equivalents at the end






From the above analysis, we can see that the balance of the cash and cash equivalents has remained almost the same at the beginning as well as at the end of the year. At $ 2.76 Mn. The cash inflow in terms of customer receipts has declined as compared to the last year from $173.6 Mn to $ 172.1 Mn (Choy, 2018). On the other hand, the cash payment to the suppliers has decreased drastically by more than 14 Mn and this is the main reason why the cash flow from operating activities has increased from $3.1 Mn in 2017 to $ 15.5 Mn in 2018. The income tax expenses have remained more or less constant but the interest paid has increased from $1.7 Mn to $2.3 Mn. In terms of cash flows from investing activity, the procurement of property, plant and equipment has decreased as compared to last year from $ 5.5 Mn to $ 3.9 Mn and there is a minor increase in the proceeds from the sales of PPE, this again has helped in improving the cash outflow from investing activity from $5.2 MN in 2017 to $3.3 Mn in 2018. Finally, in terms of investing activity, the company had drawn a loan of $ 4 Mn in 2017, which was not the case in 2018, furthermore, the repayments of borrowing increased marginally and the payment of dividend was almost the same. All this has resulted in decrease in cash outflow as compared to the last year (2018: $ 10 Mn, 2017: $1.1 Mn). Thus, it can be said that the cash position of the company has improved marginally.
Evaluation of the receivables and payables of the company
As can be seen from the balance sheet above, the receivables of the company has increased both in terms of current assets (from $8.3 Mn in 2016 to $ 9.95 Mn in 2018) as well as non-current assets (from $48.76 Mn in 2017 to $54.29 Mn in 2018 (Félix, 2017)).

Receivables and Payables Ratios


Receivables Turnover Ratio = Sales/Accounts Receivable










Accounts Receivable















Days Receivable = 365/Receivable turnover





No. of days





Receivable turnover















Payable Turnover =  COGS/Payable

























Days’ Payable = 365/Payables Turnover





No. of days





Payables turnover









This goes to show that the company has been under performing in terms of receivables collection has there has not been a major increase or improvement in overall business the same is indicated from the above ratio analysis where the receivable turnover ratio has dropped to 2.81 times from 3.16 times last year. This is well below the industry trend as the receivable days is 130 days and therefore improvement in the same is required (Knechel & Salterio, 2016).
For payables, the trade payables of the company has increased from $ 5 Mn in 2017 to $ 5.89 Mn in 2018. The other payables has also increased from $7.6 Mn to $ 11.4 Mn. This will definitely improve the cash cycle but will deteriorate the liquidity and current ratio of the company. As can be seen above from ratio analysis, the payable days has increased from 43 days in 2017 to 57 days in 2018. This may have an impact on the company in terms of penal interest in case the vendors charge the same. The possible factors from the same may be the cash crunch with the company and the ineffective internal control management of receivables and the payables (Linden & Freeman, 2017).
Evaluation of the Plant, Property and equipment of the company
Below shown is the extract of the annual report with respect to the property, plant and equipment and changes in them throughout the year. It shows that the company’s total carrying value at the end is $ 12,343,798 at the end of 2018 (2017: $ 14,534,639).
As per the policy of the company, the property and plant are being valued at historical cost less accumulated depreciation until date (Das, 2017). The costs do include all the costs attributable to the acquisition of the assets and the same is being depreciated over the useful life. Furthermore, the assets are being reviewed for useful life and the impairment year on year and the same is in line with the relevant accounting standards. The different classes of the asset and the rates of depreciation has been shown below for the company in discussion:

Class of asset

Rate of depreciation

Plant and equipment

5% to 20% (Straight-line method)

Furniture, fixtures and fittings

10% to 50% (Straight-line method)

Motor vehicles

18% to 50% (Straight-line method)

Computer equipment

25% to 50% (Straight-line method)

Leased vehicles

Term of lease

Furthermore as per the policy of the company, any gain or loss on the disposal of the assets is being recognised in the profit and loss account under the heads “other income” (Visinescu, et al., 2017).
In terms of changes during the year, additions of $ 6,038,052 (2017:  $ 8,318,330) were made out of which the major acquisitions were in leased vehicles and some of it was in work in progress, the disposal during the year was 3,967,182 (2017: $ 3,037,003) out of which $ 3,238,551 was attributable to the leased vehicles. The depreciation charge during the year was $ 4,205,161 in 2018 as against $ 4,424,160 in 2017. Thus, it shows that there is a decrease in depreciation expenses as well (Jefferson, 2017).
From the in depth analysis above on the various sections of the annual report of the company, it can be concluded that though the company has improved both in terms of revenue as well as profitability, also the assets position and the cash and liquidity position of the company looks promising but the internal control of the company has been an issue and it is indicated from the fact that the receivables as well as payables turnover ratio has declined for the company. The property, plant and equipment status of the company has improved and the company has also been compliant of the accounting laws and standards while reporting and giving disclosures in the books of accounts. Thus, considering all these factors and the market leadership of the company, it can be mentioned as a good investment avenue and opportunity.
Bizfluent, 2017. Advantages & Disadvantages of Internal Control. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 07 december 2017].
Choy, Y. K., 2018. Cost-benefit Analysis, Values, Wellbeing and Ethics: An Indigenous Worldview Analysis. Ecological Economics, p. 145.
Das, P., 2017. Financing Pattern and Utilization of Fixed Assets – A Study. Asian Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(2), pp. 10-17.
Dichev, I., 2017. On the conceptual foundations of financial reporting. Accounting and Business Research, 47(6), pp. 617-632.
Félix, M., 2017. A study on the expected impact of IFRS 17 on the transparency of financial statements of insurance companies. MASTER THESIS, pp. 1-69.
Jefferson, M., 2017. Energy, Complexity and Wealth Maximization, R. Ayres. Springer, Switzerland. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, pp. 353-354.
Knechel, W. & Salterio, S., 2016. Auditing:Assurance and Risk. fourth ed. New York: Routledge.
Linden, B. & Freeman, R., 2017. Profit and Other Values: Thick Evaluation in Decision Making. Business Ethics Quarterly, 27(3), pp. 353-379.
Visinescu, L., Jones, M. & Sidorova, A., 2017. Improving Decision Quality: The Role of Business Intelligence. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(1), pp. 58-66.

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