Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
1. A 61-year-old female patient is seen for a complaint of
severe heartburn, lightheadedness, skin reddening, and
shortness of breath. The physician renders a diagnosis of
GERD, sickle cell anemia, lymphangitis, and diaphragmatic
paralysis. What code(s) should be assigned?
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2. A 37-year-old patient comes in complaining of swollen
joints and headaches. The physician’s diagnosis is SLE.
The patient also has rheumatoid arthritis and asthma
with status asthmaticus. What code(s) are assigned?
ICD-10: Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper__________________________________________
3. A 52-year-old patient is seen for mouth pain, knee pain,
and fluid buildup in the chest. The physician renders a
diagnosis of pulp degeneration, old disruption of the posterior
cruciate ligament, and pleural effusion. The
physician also performed a chest tube insertion (draining
the right pleural cavity with a drainage device using a
percutaneous approach) prior to diagnosing the patient’s
pleural effusion. What diagnosis and procedure code(s)
4. A 30-year-old male is admitted to the hospital with
lymphadenitis, acute lymphoid leukemia in relapse, and
von Willebrand disease. What code(s) are reported?
5. A 47-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident.
He was driving on the highway when his car
collided with another vehicle. He was brought to the hospital
with a lower arm injury. The physician obtained an
x-ray of the arm and, after careful review and interpretation
of the x-ray, rendered a diagnosis of lower arm
fracture. The physician repaired the arm fracture using
open reduction and internal fixation (reposition of the
right radius with internal fixation using a percutaneous
endoscopic approach). What diagnosis and procedure
code(s) are reported? Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Review each of the following medical coding scenarios. Assign
the CPT code for the services and procedures indicated in
1. A 48-year-old male patient comes to the emergency room
with complaints of GERD. The physician performs a
laparoscopic fundoplasty with a Collis gastroplasty. What
CPT code(s) should be assigned?
2. A 40-year-old female patient is diagnosed with cervical
cancer. She also complains about difficulty breathing.
She is admitted to the hospital, where the physician
begins to perform a bronchoscopy after anesthesia
administration. However, the procedure is discontinued
due to unforeseen complications. Later the same day, a
bilateral cervical lymphadenectomy is performed to
address the patient’s cervical cancer. What CPT code(s)
are assigned? Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
3. A 50-year-old patient is admitted for a repair of a laceration
to the diaphragm resulting from an accident
involving a bus that ran into a ditch. She also received
eight trigger point injections into the transverse abdominus
muscle due to pain resulting from the accident.
What CPT code(s) are assigned?
4. A 23-year-old patient comes to the emergency room after
being physically assaulted by her boyfriend. She complains
of nasal pain and bleeding from the left nostril.
The physician obtains an x-ray of the nasal cavity, and
the x-ray confirms a nasal septum fracture. The physician
performs an open treatment of the nasal fracture
with a concomitant open treatment of the fractured septum.
What CPT code(s) should be assigned?
5. A 33-year-old patient is seen in the emergency room due
to complaints of headaches and congestion. The final
diagnosis is maxillary sinus infection. The physician performs
a nasal endoscopy with a maxillary antrostomy.
She also removes some tissue from the maxillary sinus.
What CPT code(s) should be assigned?
Review each of the following medical coding scenarios. Assign
the HCPCS code(s) required for each coding scenario.
1. A 49-year-old patient is admitted to the hospital for
repair of an ankle fracture. On the day of discharge, the
physician prescribes a dynamic ankle extension and flexion
device with a soft interface material. The ankle device
is adjustable. What HCPCS code(s) are assigned? Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
2. A 26-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with
acute exacerbation of allergic asthma. During the course
of the hospitalization, the patient received 5 mg of omalizumab
administered subcutaneously. What HCPCS
code(s) are assigned?
3. A 58-year-old patient is admitted to the hospital due to
severe anemia. He receives six units of fresh frozen
plasma on the first day of admission. What HCPCS
code(s) should be assigned?
4. A 26-year-old patient comes to the emergency room complaining
of watery diarrhea for five days. She receives 25
mcg of octreotide acetate administered
intravenously. What HCPCS code(s) are assigned?
5. A patient is brought to the emergency room after ingesting
a bottle of verapamil as a suicide attempt. The
physician ordered 10mg of glucagon HCL to be administered
as an antidote mixed in 100 ml of D5W in an IV
over 2 minutes. What HCPCS code(s) should be
Review the following medical coding scenario. Assign all of
the ICD-10 and CPT codes for the diagnoses and procedures
indicated in the scenario.
After being evaluated by his gastroenterologist, Mr. Jackson
was sent to the hospital for a diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
He is having several symptoms that indicate a
potential gastrointestinal condition. As a result, he was admitted
in observation. His symptoms include vomiting, weight
loss, and dysphagia. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy reveals
that the patient has low-grade Barrett’s esophagus, GERD
with reflux esophagitis and a non-obstructing hiatal hernia.
Patient was also incidentally diagnosed with Crest Syndrome
(CRST), which correlates with his complaint of dysphagia.
After the procedure, the patient was noted to have several
PVC’s on his EKG. These resolved shortly after the patient
arrived in the recovery room. Based on the results of the
detailed history, detailed, exam, and straight forward medical
decision making, it was decided that the patient could be discharged
home on the same day with instructions for a follow
up office appointment in 2 days. Code this scenario.
With the increased internet usage, the medical professionals are establishing what can be referred to as virtual hospitals. These are internet based hospitals where patient’s needs are attended to online. The patient or the person taking care of the patient e-mail the doctor via internet and the doctor, after reviewing the case advises the patient accordingly. This technology has produced a new crop of doctors referred to as internet doctors. An example of such is the World Clinic at Lahey Clinic Center near Boston started by Dr. Daniel Carlin. The Clinic serves clients from around the globe among them sailors, business executives and tourists. The clinic has been able to employ nine doctors within a period of three years of existence, a testimony to the popularity of the idea (Gorman 2001). Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Advancement of technology has also brought about Intensification of technology convergence which involves sharing of medical information, between medical practitioners, medical devices and information networks has been the modern trend affecting healthcare (Zieliński 2005). Usually technology convergence includes the sharing of patients present and past medical information, vital signs, clinical laboratory results, patient alarms, prescribed and implemented treatments, and possibly the patient body response. This is adopted by medical professionals to access information about the patient. The systems can be used in hospital billing departments, researches, and for assessing the clinical effectiveness of recommended treatments. The potential benefits are workflow streaming, seamless recording and sharing of information, and an overall patient care improvement. A uniformly presented patient data have resulted to improved clinical decision making and identification of clinical ailments while they are still manageable.
Use of tissue stem cells is another technological breakthrough that has had a tremendous effect on the medical field. Tissue stem cells also known as adult stem cells are regenerative cells of the human body that possess the ability to specialize and develop into other tissues of the body. Beginning in an unspecialized and undeveloped state, these cells can be coaxed to become heart tissue, skin cells and many other tissues (Shi & Singh 2008). The cells are found in human body organs and tissues such fat, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta, neuronal sources and olfactory tissues. Stem cell technology has made a great change in the medical field in that diseased or damaged tissues can now become healthy and robust through the infusion of such cells. Physicians have utilized stem cells in treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease (Shi &Singh 2008). Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Technology has also brought changes in surgery in form of the less invasive surgery which is now preferred as the surgical approach for many diseases, including cancer and heart disease. It is mainly done on outpatients and only on an overnight stay in hospital (Scuderi 2009). Less invasive procedures are performed through one or more short incisions unlike open surgery that requires long incisions. The process is less painful with less postoperative pain on the patient. Through the less invasive surgery there is an overall better outcome with faster recovery and a shorter hospital stay. Even though laparoscopic techniques vary, surgeons insert long thin tube with a lighted camera at its tip, through the incision. Two dimension images are sent from the camera at the surgical site, to a high definition monitor throughout the operation, and are watched by the surgeon.
Screening is the investigation of asymptomatic individuals to detect those with a high probability of developing or having a given complication. Diseases that pose a significant health problem are identified by screening and offset the cost of inconvenience and further complications as well as potential harms. The aim of screening is to eliminate or delay death from diseases. With prevalence of breast cancer remaining high it is estimated that mortality from breast cancer in United States is 40 000 women. Breast cancer screening using screen-film mammography is used (Bassett 2005). The mammography screening involves exposure to radiations. Its value is in helping save lives by early detection. Symptomatic free women are exposed to x-ray. In such operations high technical quality images are produced and competent image interpretations is done for successful outcomes. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Computerized Tomography scanner uses x-rays and a computer to make pictures of organs inside the body. It takes pictures of cross section of the body organs. At times the patient is asked to drink a special liquid or injected with a special x-ray dye. A CT scanner has a round centre opening and a flat bed to lie on. While lying on the bed, it slowly moves to the opening where pictures are taken under the CT staff control. The benefits are that details of parts inside the body such as lungs and blood vessels are obtained without using surgery. The CT scans uses radiations that are accurate, fast, and painless and leave no radiations after the scan is finished.
Positron Emission Tomography a body scanning method that detects radioactive substances injected into the body. It is used to provide information on function and help differentiate normal tissue from cancer, rather that information on structure.
The Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique has been used primarily to produce high quality images of the inside human body structures in medical settings. It produces detailed images of organs and tissues throughout the body without the need of x-rays. Images of visual equivalent of an anatomy slice using radio frequencies, a computer and a large magnet that surrounds the patient. An MRI is painless and the magnetic fields produce no known kinds of tissue damage
Nuclear medicine diagnosing technique is a technique that uses minimal amounts of radioactive materials that are introduced into the body. When these arterials are introduced into the body hey are taken up by specific organs, tissues or bones, the emissions generated provide crucial information on a particular disease of cancer. Since the information given describes organ function and not only structure many diseases including cancer are detected early. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
The other medical technique is the use of Ultra sound. This incorporates the use of high -frequency sound waves and their echoes. The technique has a close comparison with the echolocation used by whales, dolphin and bats. These machines are portable and they display the intensities and distances of the echoes produced on the screen, forming a two dimension image. Some images can even be formed without using radiations especially in obstetrics and gynecology also in cardiology and urology.
The technological innovation of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator is an amazing experience that literally brings patients back from the brink of death. It’s a device that is of the size of a pager that monitors the heart rate (Liem 2001). It utilizes batteries to send electric signals to a heart that’s beating too slow or restore abnormal heartbeat to a heart that is beating much to fast or chaotically. The cardiac defibrillation is a preventive treatment in selected patients at high cardiac death risk caused by Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias. Basically, for people with a bad heart rhythm problem, a defibrillator is implanted near the collar bone, under the skin at the chest and wires run to the heart. When the heart rate is not normal, it tries to return the heartbeat back to normal. Abnormality occurs either when the heartbeat is too slow, and it works as a pacemaker and sends tiny electrical signals to the heart, or when the heartbeat is chaotic or too fast, it generates defibrillation shocks to arrest the abnormal rhythm.
In the year 2000 doctors from England reported the use of Capsule Endoscopy to determine the causes of small bowel bleeding ( Classen 2010). The capsule has a battery with 6 hour lifespan, a strong light source, a camera and a transmitter. After swallowing of the capsule, it transmits images of the inside of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine to a receiver worn as a belt by the patient. The receiver is returned to the doctor after 6 hours, who loads the information into computer and reviews it, to detect gastrointestinal abnormalities. The capsule is passed out through the colon and eliminated in the stool. However if the capsule get stuck in the small intestine, surgical removal is undertaken (Collins 2008). So far the capsule is considered safe and easy to take since only rare cases of side effects have been reported. The advancement has been used to explore the tight twisted areas of the small intestine, which traditional invasive tube-and-lens endoscopes cannot reach. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
While congestive heart failure remains a leading cause of cardiac disability and death, advancement of pharmacologic therapies is ensuring that patients are living longer and more productive lives. Circulatory assist devices have been used for the management of patients with heart ailments where the interventions have failed. In 1982 an artificial heart was implanted into Barney Clark (Bankston 2002). Although he only survived for 112days, later a number of experimental devices were implanted throughout the world. It has led to treatment solutions for terminal heart diseases; cardiologists have overcome organ rejections and enhanced prolonged survival rates of transplant patients. The artificial heart consists of a hydraulic pump, an internal battery, an external battery and an internal controller unit.
In the military medical assistance, the Robotic Surgical System has been used to treat a wounded soldier in the battlefield using advanced diagnostic and operated machines from remote location. The robot carries out commands of a surgeon that controls the processes; otherwise the robot cannot perform the surgery by itself. The doctor receives a video feeding from the robot and utilizes a system of surgical manipulators to perform the operations. His actions and voice commands are communicated wirelessly to the automated system as he moves his hands in manipulators; the robot then replicates his actions. Also due to troops in battlefields that loose their hands and arms there is a program that is underway to revolutionize upper body prosthetics. This is being researched on to develop improved artificial arms that would perform like real arms controlled by the central nervous system. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
On the converse what was initially an art of caring and compassion, has clearly become a science of medicine and views disease as defeat. More interest is made on the technological advancement and disease but not the individual being treated .The life sustaining machines has lead to the modern phenomenon of dying when machines are shut off. Dehumanization by technology is well exhibited during the death of a patient; he is surrounded by machines and impersonal systems in intensive care units rather than their kinfolks at home. Professionalism in the medical care has been characterized by a growing detachment from the unique concerns of individual patients and a loss personal relationship to the patients. Health workers no longer relate fully to patients as other individuals but as representatives of professions and healthcare organizations. The medics have become more bureaucratic and impersonal. As a result of this there has arisen the inequality between those in need of medical assistance and those with the capability of responding to the need. Although great advances in the medical field have added value to the human life, this impersonal quality of care coupled with the inequality has led to growing mistrust and a feeling of dehumanization by the patients.
The electronics industry has incorporated the biomedical engineering in research development of instruments; design and modification of appliances to alleviate pain extend life and restore health. Biomedical engineers spend lots of time designing electrical circuits and computer software for medical instruments. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Advances in medical technology have large benefits in healthcare. These technological advances also raise healthcare expenditure significantly ( Moody 2006). To run the machines, great professionalism and years of expertise is required making the cost of such services raise by a great margin. The research and experimentation before the technology is authenticated, requires monetary investment that eventually must be recovered and the much required manpower compensated. Especially for the innovations that their usage does not spread to the entire population, in the long run services become almost beyond reach. Globally the cost of treatment has risen with technological development. The benefits gained have outweighed the additional cost of healthcare services. The desire to find better ways to treat patients as they compete with other providers have motivated the interest to create new products and for a clearer understanding of human body anatomy and physiology.
The availability of high technology diagnosis and technology has led to a better quality of life. In the medical field there has been a more detailed understanding of disease pathogenesis and body physiology. By such learning, diseases that previously were termed as untreatable and accounted for high mortalities in human populations, have been favorably been combated. Ailments that are asymptomatic can be detected early enough before the depressed the body functionality, and its defense mechanisms. Although the cost of treatment gave gone up, more resources are saved due to reducing the destruction on body organs and tissues, and also human resources lost while patient are in weak conditions for a long time. Many patients view new medical inventions as the answers to their healthcare problems. There is always room for medical inventions, as every day dawns diseases and especially cancer cells require more understanding and more effective treatments. There are much more medical technological advancement that have been made including, birth controls, fertility assistance using test tube babies, that have relieved couples of their psychological and physiological stresses. The step that remains is to devote more effort to making the current technology accessible. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Grafting, transplanting or transferring, all are terms that mean replacing a failing vital organ with a healthy functioning one. Human body build up with multi of organs, some of them are vital organs as Brain, Heart, Lungs, Liver, Pancreas and Kidneys with no any of them human cannot live at all. On the other hand, tissues include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts), cornea, skin, heart valves, and veins.
Transplantation and organ donation are inseparably intertwined; this dream has inspired scientists during the history to obtain a successful organ transplant between humans and beat the immune system army from fighting the gift of life and improve the quality of the recipient life.
Ancient Transplants and Myths
In fact, organ replacement was a dream in ancient times. The Hindu deity Ganesha had his head replaced by an elephant’s head soon after birth (Rig-Veda, 1500 B.C.). In the Christian tradition, Saints Cosmas and Damian (fl. 3rd century A.D.) are famous for replacing the diseased leg of a true believer with the leg of a dark-skinned Moor, thereby becoming the patron saints of physicians and surgeons. [i]
Many Roman and Chinese myths cite transplants of legs and hearts by saints and medicine men, but the first account of an actual transplant took place in the second century B.C. The Indian surgeon Sushruta transplanted skin from one man to help rebuild the nose of another man. Another recorded account of transplantation took place in the late 16th century, again with skin. Italian surgeon Gasparo Tagliacozzi also did a skin graft, but his is also the first recorded account of rejection of the transplant by the patient. [ii] He recognized it to the “force and power of individuality” in his 1596 work De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
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This shows that the idea of using human body as treatment in end stage diseases was flying in the scientific horizon. The failed experiments verses the successful ones have established a solid database for their followers to reach the first successful organ transplantation in the early 1900s.
Keratoplastic operation or corneal allograft transplant was performed successfully by Eduard Zirm in Olomouc, Czech Republic, in 1905. [iii] .
The most important experimenter of transplantation in the early 20th century was the French surgeon Alexis Carrel. He began to experiment with the transplantation of arteries and veins, one of his few successful human procedures. This work would earn him the Nobel Prize in 1912. Carrel also was the first to identify the problem of rejection, a dilemma that would stymie many scientists and doctors. Experimenting on dogs, Carrel learned the recipient body most often rejects donor organ material [iv]
Nevertheless, who crooked the history on its head was the collaboration between all of Dr. Joseph Murray, Dr. J. Hartwell Harrison and Dr. John Merrill, they have registered the first successful golden standard therapy in the end stage renal disease when they performed the first kidney transplant in 23 Dec 1954 in Brigham Hospital at Boston, The procedure was done between identical twins to eliminate any problems of an immune reaction. For this and later work, Dr. Murray received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1990. [v]
In the late 1940s, Peter Medawar, working for the National Institute for Medical Research, improved the understanding of rejection. He has identified the immune reactions in 1951. Medawar suggested that immunosuppressive drugs could be used. Cortisone had been recently discovered and the more effective azathioprine was identified in 1959, but it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine in 1970 that transplant surgery found a sufficiently powerful immunosuppressive. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
Other organ transplantation attempts were not stopped. The journey has continued by James Hardy, when he performed the first successful deceased-donor lung transplant into a lung cancer sufferer in June 1963 in Jackson, Mississippi.
Thomas Starzl of Denver attempted a liver transplant during the same year, but was not successful until 1967.
The heart was a most important prize for transplant surgeons. However, as well as rejection issues the heart deteriorates within minutes of death so any operation would have to be performed at great speed. The development of the heart-lung machine was also needed. Lung pioneer James Hardy attempted a human heart transplant in 1964, but a premature failure of the recipient’s heart caught Hardy with no human donor, he used a chimpanzee heart that failed very quickly.
In December 3, 1967, the media has published the first successful achievement by Christian Barnard in Cape Town, South Africa. Louis Washkansky, the recipient, survived for eighteen days amid what many saw as a distasteful publicity circus.
The media interest prompted a spate of heart transplants. Over a hundred were performed in 1968-69, but almost all the patients died within sixty days. Barnard’s second patient, Philip Blaiberg, lived for 19 months.
It was the advent of cyclosporine that altered transplants from research surgery to life-saving treatment. In 1968 surgical pioneer Denton Cooley performed seventeen transplants including the first heart-lung transplant. Fourteen of his patients were dead within six months.
By 1984 two-thirds of all heart transplant patients survived for five years or more. With organ transplants becoming commonplace, limited only by donors, surgeons moved onto more risky fields, multiple organ transplants on humans and whole-body transplant research on animals. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
On March 9, 1981, the first successful heart-lung transplant took place at Stanford University Hospital. The head surgeon, Bruce Reitz, credited the patient’s recovery to cyclosporine-A [vi] .
Recently, the rate of successful organ transplants has increased rapidly and it has become the standard therapy in all over the world for end stage organ failure diseases. Combining to it the modern immunosuppression, which make transplants more common. However, types of donation have enlarged the pool of organs to cover the critical shortage of organs such as:
Living unrelated donors.
Peter K. Linden (January 2009) simply described this technology explosion as ” This field has progressed initially from what can accurately be termed a “clinical experiment” to routine and reliable practice, which has proven to be clinically effective, life-saving and cost-effective” [vii] .
To summaries the Organ Transplantation History, we can list the significant events in this timeline frame:
1954: On December 23, the first successful living-related kidney transplant led by Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume at Brigham Hospital in Boston: A kidney was transplanted from Ronald Herrick into his identical twin, Richard.
1962: First successful kidney transplant from a deceased donor, led by Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume at Brigham Hospital in Boston. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
1963: First successful lung transplant led by Dr. James Hardy at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, MS.
1966: First successful pancreas/kidney transplant led by Drs. Richard Lillehei and William Kelly at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN.
1967: First successful liver transplant led by Dr. Thomas Starzl at the University of Colorado in Denver, CO.
1967: First successful heart transplant led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
1968: First successful heart transplant in the United States led by Dr. Norman Shumway at Stanford University Hospital in Stanford, CA.
1968: Uniform Anatomical Gift Act establishes the Uniform Donor Card as a legal document for anyone 18 years of age or older to legally donate his or her organs upon death.
1972: End Stage Renal Disease Act (ESRD) paves way for Medicare Coverage of Renal Dialysis and Kidney Transplants.
1981: First Successful heart/lung transplant led by Dr. Brice Reitz at Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA.
1983: FDA approves Cyclosporine, the most successful anti-rejection medication developed to date; by 1984, two-thirds of all heart transplant patients survived for five years or more. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
1983: First successful single lung transplant led by Dr. Joel Cooper from the Toronto Lung Transplant Group, at Toronto General Hospital in Canada.
1984: National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) establishes a nationwide computer registry operated by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS); authorizes financial support for Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs); prohibits buying or selling of organs in the United States.
1986: Dr. Michael DeBakey performs the world’s first heart transplant in 14 years. (USA)
1986: First successful double-lung transplant led by Dr. Joel Cooper from the Toronto Lung Transplant Group, at Toronto General Hospital in Canada.
1986: Required Request Laws require hospitals to develop policies to identify patients as potential donors and approach families about organ donation.
1988: FDA approves Viaspan, which greatly extends the preservation of donated livers.
1989: First successful small intestine transplant (a near-total small bowel from a deceased donor) into a child, led by Dr. Olivier Goulet in Paris, France.
1989: First successful living-related liver transplant led by Dr. Christoph Broelsch from Hamburg, Germany, at the University of Chicago Medical Center.
1990: First successful living-related lung transplant led by Dr. Vaughn Starnes at Stanford University Medical Center in Palo Alto, California. He transplants the lobe of one lung from an adult female into the woman’s 12-year-old daughter. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper
1992: First baboon to human liver transplant performed by Drs. Satoru Todo, Andreas Tzakis and John Fung, under the direction of pioneer transplant surgeon Thomas Starzl, at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
1998: National Conditions of Participation legislation enacted; required hospitals to refer all deaths, and imminent deaths, to the local Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs)
1998: First successful hand transplant led by Australian Dr. Earl Owen and Frenchman Dr. Jean-Michel Dubernard in a 13-hour long operation in Lyon, France.
2005: First successful partial face transplant led by Dr. Bernard Devauchelle and Dr. Jean-Michel Dubernard in Amiens, France.
2008: Dr. Michael DeBakey, the world-famous cardiovascular surgeon who pioneered such now-common procedures as bypass surgery and invented a host of devices to help heart patients, died on July 11, at the age of 99. Advanced Medical Coding Assignment Essay Paper