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400863 Foundations Of Research And Evidence Based Practice

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400863 Foundations Of Research And Evidence Based Practice

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400863 Foundations Of Research And Evidence Based Practice

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Course Code: 400863
University: Western Sydney University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Describe the Foundations of Research and Evidence Based Practice.

Evidence selection

The study by Hutchinson, Ball, Andrews, and Jones (2012) is the most appropriate for the clinical question because it is a comprehensive systematic review explicitly conducted for randomized control trials (RCT) on the effectiveness of acupuncture as an intervention in cases of low back pain (LBP). The topic of this article is thus relevant to my clinical question. The study was also published in October 2012 meaning that it is relatively current and will, therefore, address current matters in relation to the study topic.
The article by Cherkin et al. (2008) is appropriate for the clinical question because it is a quantitative RCT conducted on 640 patients diagnosed with low back pain within the previous three months. This article will, therefore, provide real-time evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture treatment, which is also its title. Besides testing the efficacy of acupuncture, this article aims at addressing the weaknesses of previous methodologies used in assessing acupuncture for low back pain. Therefore, the article is appropriate because it will incorporate shortcomings in previous studies and thus provide a protocol for RCT.
The review by Liu, Skinner, McDonough, Mabire, and Baxter (2015) has been chosen because it is the most current systematic review of acupuncture for low back pain. Thus it will provide the most current research on the efficacy of the intervention. Additionally, the study extends its broad review by searching seven databases. This implies that most of the relevant studies to the study topic will be captured. Furthermore, the external and internal validity of the reviews was examined, meaning the findings can be reliable. The literature review by Hutchinson et al. (2012) considered seven studies published in the last ten years while that of Liu et al. (2015) appraised sixteen reviews from their inception until 2014. Thus all the articles combined covered an extensive period.

Evidence summary

Chronic low back pain is a public health issue and a common musculoskeletal disorder that incapacitates individuals and leads to high health costs thus becoming an economic and social burden to the society (Hoy et al., 2104). There seems to exist indecision on the most effective intervention for low back pain between acupuncture and other usual therapies (Madsen, Gøtzsche, & Hróbjartsson, 2009). This review seeks to ascertain the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
Hutchinson and others conducted a systematic literature review on the efficacy of acupuncture in LBP and found out that out of the seven studies reviewed, three of them found no substantial difference in pain relief between acupuncture and other conventional therapies, but existing evidence showed that acupuncture was much effective than no intervention at all. However, the study couldn’t conclude on its effectiveness than other treatments due to conflicting evidence.  
The study by Cherkin et al. clarified on the worth of acupuncture as an effective treatment of chronic LBP. Liu and his colleagues found out that the independent or joint use of acupuncture with other conventional therapies resulted in improved short-term pain relief and was effective in treating low back pain. The findings by Hutchison only show that acupuncture intervention is useful in the treatment of LBP but doesn’t compare its effectiveness with others existing therapies. Relatively similar outcomes were found by Liu and others who showed that acupuncture was much more effective either when independently applied or when utilized as an adjunct to the other interventions. Cherkin also clarifies the worth of acupuncture needling by exploring the weakness of previous studies that assessed the value of acupuncture for chronic low back pain.
These results show that acupuncture is valuable in the treatment of LBP compared to other therapies. Furthermore, most of the previous studies that found acupuncture to be ineffective have been disapproved by Cherkin et al. who shows that most of them had shortcomings in their methodologies. Therefore, these findings provide a solution to the clinical question on the effectiveness of acupuncture. Furthermore, the outcomes of the three articles provide strong evidence in favor of the value of acupuncture in treating LBP. This is because the reviews cover several articles from different databases ranging from those published a long time ago to the current studies. Meaning that relative uniformity in the conclusions across the articles can be relied on. Furthermore, the evidence from the quantitative RCT by Cherkin et al. provides data based on actual data which is vital for determining the effectiveness of treatment methods (Hoe & Hoare, 2012).
Acupuncture is the most appropriate intervention for LBP despite the existing evidence that is conflicting. Several studies conducted at different times by different authors in different settings confirm this hypothesis.


Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Hogeboom, C. J., Erro, J. H., Barlow, W. E., Deyo, R. A., & Avins, A. L. (2008). Efficacy of acupuncture for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 9(1), 10.
Hoe, J., & Hoare, Z. (2012). Understanding quantitative research: Part 1. Nursing Standard (through 2013), 27(15-17), 52.
Hoy, D., March, L., Brooks, P., Blyth, F., Woolf, A., Bain, C., … & Murray, C. (2014). The global burden of low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 73(6), 968-974.
Hutchinson, A. J., Ball, S., Andrews, J. C., & Jones, G. G. (2012). The effectiveness of acupuncture in treating chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research, 7(1), 36.
Liu, L., Skinner, M., McDonough, S., Mabire, L., & Baxter, G. D. (2015). Acupuncture for low back pain: an overview of systematic reviews. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015.
Madsen, M. V., Gøtzsche, P. C., & Hróbjartsson, A. (2009). Acupuncture treatment for pain: systematic review of randomised clinical trials with acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, and no acupuncture groups. Bmj, 338, a3115.


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