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21926 Managing Organisational Culture And Change

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21926 Managing Organisational Culture And Change

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Course Code: 21926
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

Question:
LO1: Demonstrate an understanding of what Organisational Culture and its key components are. LO3: Critically compare and contrast psychological theories and models of Organisational Culture LO5: Demonstrate the ability to apply psychological concepts, models and techniques to issues concerning organisational culture and change management
LO6: Present advanced level, reasoned, critical and evidence-based arguments in written form .

Answer:

The subject of psychology has emerged as one of the most important ones of the present times and is widely being to not only analyze the behavior of the human beings but at the same time to explain them in the best possible manner (Elsmore, 2017). In addition to this, it is also seen that the cannon of psychology is also is being used at a much larger scale in the present times for the analysis of the overall culture and the identity of the diverse kinds of organizations and also the manner in which they could be used in the most effective manner so that they helped in the growth of the concerned organization (Elsmore, 2017). The world of business is a very dynamic one and it is seen that the factors which were important in the past decade and at the same were widely used by various organizations in the earlier decades is not no longer important in context of the present times (Pinho, Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). This is generally being attributed to the fact that the changing needs of the business world and also the dynamic nature of the customers whom they serve has necessitated this change. Thus, it becomes very important for the various organizations to identity the factors that could be utilized by them in the most so that they are being not only being able to serve the customers in the best possible manner but at the same time are being able to utilize the resources that they have at their disposal in the most effective manner (Al Saifi, 2015). It is in this particular context the psychological analysis of the concepts of organizational identity and also organizational culture has gained prominence. This essay will undertake an analysis of the concepts of organizational culture and identity from a psychological perspective.
The term organizational identity is generally used to refer to the customs or the beliefs of a particular organization and also the written mission, vision and similar kinds of statements that distinguishes the concerned organization from the other ones (Balmer & Burghausen, 2015). It is significant to note that just like the identity of a particular individual represents the core values and also the entities which are an integral part of the concerned individual in the same manner the identity of a particular organization represents the core values and also the entities that are representative of that particular individual (Wickert, Vaccaro & Cornelissen, 2017). Many experts are even of the viewpoint that the concept of organizational identity can also be perceived as the conglomeration of all the statements which the individuals who are a part of it consider to be the central or the guiding mechanisms of the organization itself (Wickert, Vaccaro & Cornelissen, 2017). Furthermore, it is significant to note that the concept of organizational identity plays a significant role in not only determining the kind of strategies that the organization is likely to follow for the process of their business in the domestic as well as the international market but at the same time they go a long way in determining the style of management and also leadership that the organization is likely to follow (Seidl, 2016). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the strategies or the style followed by the various business enterprises of the present times are completely based on the core values that were formulated by the founding members of the concerned organization hundreds of years ago. Furthermore, it is also seen that the concept of organizational identity is often used by the various business enterprises as a cohesive factor which is being used by the different organizations of the world to unite the diverse workplace that they have at their disposal (Stachová, Stacho & Bartáková, 2015). It is in the light of these benefits that they render to the various organizations that not only a thorough knowledge about this particular concept has become imperative for the various organizations so that they can utilize it in the most effective manner but at the same time has encouraged various scholars to undertake a study of the same from a psychological perspective (Stachová, Stacho & Bartáková, 2015).
In the recent times it is seen that various kinds of organizational identity models have gained prominence which are increasingly being used by the various organizations for the process of development to the organizational identity (Rashid & Ghose, 2015). One of the most commonly used models of organizational identity is “Hatch and Schultz’s (2002) Organizational Identity Dynamics Model” (Rashid & Ghose, 2015).  This particular model takes into effective consideration three important factors, namely, culture, image and the identity of the concerned organization (Kokt & Ramarumo, 2015). The model at the same time states that the effective integration of all these factors helps a particular organization to develop an effective identity. Furthermore, one of the most important facts about the model under discussion here is the fact that the organizational identity of any organization is directly related to the culture of that particular organization and this in turn decides the image of the concerned organization (Kokt & Ramarumo, 2015). Thus, it can be said that the concept of organizational culture is one of the deciding factors that not only determines to a large extent the identity of the concerned organization but also the image of the concerned organization which is being portrayed to the outside world as well.  
The term organizational culture, on the other hand, is generally used to refer to the cumulative or the overall culture of a particular business enterprise (Kuo & Tsai, 2017). In other words, the concept of organizational culture represents the cumulative beliefs, assumptions, values, the principles and the other factors that form the core of the concerned organization and also the individuals who are a part of the concerned organization (Kuo & Tsai, 2017). The concept of organizational culture has a considerable amount of significance within the domain of the contemporary business world because of the fact that evidences that individual as well as the organizational performance is directly correlated with the concept of organizational culture (Mohelska & Sokolova, 2015). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the primary focus of the various business enterprises of the modern era is to formulate an effective organizational culture within the domain of their organization wherein the different individuals who are a part of the concerned organization are being able to perform as per their utmost potential. Thus, it is seen that a congenial work culture or organizational culture within the domain of a particular organization is likely to boost not only the individual performances of the employees but at the same time that of the organization itself whereas the implementation of an uncongenial culture is likely to impede the performance of the individuals and also the organization in a significant manner (Fu et al., 2015). Furthermore, the diversification of the present day workplace wherein individuals from diverse cultural as well as social backgrounds work together has also necessitated it for the organizations to take the help of the kind of organizational cultures wherein the individuals will be able to maximize their potential and at the same time give their best to the concerned organization (Fu et al., 2015). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the various organizations of the present times are investing a significant amount of their economic and other resources in trying to find out the right combination of culture that is likely to help the concerned organization in a significant manner and in this regard the framework of “Three Bell Curves: Business Culture Decoded” has gained widespread prominence.
The “Three Bell Curves: Business Culture Decoded” framework is widely being used by the various organizations to decipher the important components of the culture of not only their current culture that is being followed within the domain of their organization but at the same time to get the right mix of culture that is likely to help them to gain better results (Corfield & Paton, 2016). According to this particular model there are three important components of the organizational culture, namely, the employees of the concerned organization, the customers of the organization and the finally the kind of work that the employees who are a part of the organization are required to do (Corfield & Paton, 2016). Recent psychological researches also suggest that these are the most important entities of the culture of any organization and the effectiveness as well as the efficiency of any organization depends on the extent to which the various organizations are being able to utilize these factors (Laforet, 2016). Thus the creation of an effective organization would require the concerned organization to create the kind of culture within the domain of their organization wherein the employees from the different culture as well as social backgrounds would be able to not only interact with the other members of the organization but at the same time would be able to work together. It is here that the concept of employee engagement comes into prominence. The concept of employee engagement can be defined as the one which is being used by the various organizations of the world to effective enhance the engagement level among the different employees who are a part of the concerned organization through the help of various kinds of engagement activities and practices (Laforet, 2016). This can be achieved through the effective use of diverse kinds of engagement activities like recreational events, the creation of social media groups, social events and others. The primary idea behind the use of these engagement activities is to provide the employees the opportunity wherein they would be able to engage in meaningful activities and thereby form a social bond (Anitha, 2016). This is important since in the present times it is seen that the organizations wherein the employees are able to intermingle with each in the most effective manner are the ones which have higher organizational performance level (Anitha, 2016). This is related to the simple psychological fact that the human beings are more likely to feel free as well as work in a much better manner wherein they are surrounded by familiar faces or by the ones whom they know well. Thus, the process of employee engagement provides the window to the organization through the effective use of which they can not only improve the organizational culture but at the same the organizational performance as well.
The kind of work that the individual who form a part of an organization are required to perform also contributes in a significant manner towards the organizational culture of any organization (Al Saifi, 2015). For example, if the individuals related to a particular organization are made to do difficult kind of tasks or the kind of tasks that are outside the domain of their work then it is more likely that there will grow a feeling of dissent as well as frustration among that is likely to affect the culture of the concerned organization in a significant manner and vice versa. The customers also contribute in a significant manner towards the culture of a particular organization. For example, if the customers that the employees of an organization are likely to encounter are vituperative then it is likely to have an adverse impact on the concerned organization (Al Saifi, 2015). The precepts of “Handy’s Model of Organisational Culture” also points towards the same since the model clearly states that the organization is directly related to the employees, tasks, job roles and the power structure of the concerned organization.  
The different cultural models followed by the diverse kinds of organizations of the contemporary times have given rise to diverse kinds of organizational cultures like Adhocracy, Clan culture, Holacracy, Meritocracy, Denison and others. However, it is pertinent to note in this particular context that the effective implementation as well as the use of these models of organizational cultures is dependent to a large extent on the psychology of the people who are a part of the concerned organization (Pinho, Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). For example, if the individuals who are a part of an organization have the mental psychological setup which enables to follow the different guidelines as well as the strictures of the organization in an ardent manner then they are more likely to follow the adhocracy model of organizational culture and so on (Pinho, Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). Thus, it can be said that the kind of organizational that an organization is likely to follow depends to a large extent on the psychology of the individuals who are a part of the concerned organization. It is a reflection of this particular fact that the organizations need to take into the psychological requirements of the employees into effective consideration during the process of organizational change or more appropriately during change management (Kuo & Tsai, 2017).
To conclude, the concepts of organizational culture is one of the most significant factor that determines to a large extent the identity as well as the image that is being portrayed of the concerned organization to the outside world. Furthermore, it is significant to note that the concept of organizational culture or the kind of cultural model which is being followed within a particular organization depends to a large extent on the psychology of the individuals who are associated with the concerned organization. This is important since the culture which is being followed within a particular is generally seen to be the cumulative effect of the collective cultural beliefs as well as the values held by the different members of the concerned organization. Moreover, the concept of organizational culture is directly related to the performance of the individuals who are a part of the concerned organization and also the overall organization as well. Thus the focus of the majority of the organizations of the present times is on the creation of the kind of culture within the organization that will help them to provide the kind of workplace environment wherein they would be able to perform better.
References     
Al Saifi, S. A. (2015). Positioning organisational culture in knowledge management research. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 164-189.
Anitha, J. (2016). Role of Organisational Culture and Employee Commitment in Employee Retention. ASBM Journal of Management, 9(1).
Balmer, J. M. T., & Burghausen, M. (2015). Corporate heritage, corporate heritage brands and organisational heritage. Journal of Brand Management, 22(5), 361-364.
Balmer, J. M., & Burghausen, M. (2015). Introducing organisational heritage: Linking corporate heritage, organisational identity and organisational memory. Journal of Brand Management, 22(5), 385-411.
Carlos Pinho, J., Paula Rodrigues, A., & Dibb, S. (2014). The role of corporate culture, market orientation and organisational commitment in organisational performance: the case of non-profit organisations. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), 374-398.
Corfield, A., & Paton, R. (2016). Investigating knowledge management: can KM really change organisational culture?. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(1), 88-103.
Elsmore, P. (2017). Organisational Culture: Organisational Change?: Organisational Change?. Routledge.
Fu, S. L., Chou, S. Y., Chen, C. K., & Wang, C. W. (2015). Assessment and cultivation of total quality management organisational culture–an empirical investigation. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 26(1-2), 123-139.
Kokt, D., & Ramarumo, R. (2015). Impact of organisational culture on job stress and burnout in graded accommodation establishments in the Free State province, South Africa. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1198-1213.
Kujala, J., Lehtimäki, H., & Pu??tait?, R. (2016). Trust and distrust constructing unity and fragmentation of organisational culture. Journal of business ethics, 139(4), 701-716.
Kuo, T., & Tsai, G. Y. (2017). The effects of employee perceived organisational culture on performance: the moderating effects of management maturity. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 1-17.
Laforet, S. (2016). Effects of organisational culture on organisational innovation performance in family firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(2), 379-407.
Laforet, S. (2017). Effects of organisational culture on brand portfolio performance. Journal of Marketing Communications, 23(1), 92-110.
Mohelska, H., & Sokolova, M. (2015). Organisational culture and leadership–joint vessels?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 1011-1016.
Rashid, S., & Ghose, K. (2015). Organisational culture and the creation of brand identity: retail food branding in new markets. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(1), 2-19.
Seidl, D. (2016). Organisational identity and self-transformation: An autopoietic perspective. Routledge.
Stachová, K., Stacho, Z., & Bartáková, G. P. (2015). Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration. Business: Theory and Practice/Verslas: Teorija ir Praktika, 16(3), 264-270.
Wickert, C., Vaccaro, A., & Cornelissen, J. (2017). “Buying” corporate social responsibility: organisational identity orientation as a determinant of practice adoption. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(3), 497-514.

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